Animal Disease Emergencies Diseases of Concer - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Animal Disease Emergencies Diseases of Concer PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3e1e93-NTk0Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Animal Disease Emergencies Diseases of Concer

Description:

Animal Disease Emergencies Diseases of Concern – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:226
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 105
Provided by: cfsphIast7
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Animal Disease Emergencies Diseases of Concer


1
Animal Disease Emergencies Diseases of Concern
2
African Horse Sickness
  • Viral infection
  • Horses, mules, donkeys
  • Death rate up to 95
  • Spread by insects
  • Biting midges (Culicoides)
  • Occurs in Africa
  • Outbreaks in other countries
  • Not found in U.S.
  • Late summer early autumn
  • Droughts followed by heavy rains
  • Does not affect humans

3
AHS The Disease
  • Incubation period
  • 214 days
  • Clinical signs in 57 days
  • Respiratory and cardiac disease
  • Fever
  • Difficulty breathing, foaming from nostrils,
    swelling of head and neck

4
AHS Impact Response
  • Impact
  • 1989 Portugal outbreak
  • Eradication cost 1.9 million
  • U.S. Horse Industry (1998)
  • 5.25 million horses
  • Sales 1.75 billion
  • Prevention and Response
  • Import restrictions and quarantines
  • Vector control
  • Stabling in insect-proof housing
  • Monitor animals for fever
  • Vaccine available in endemic areas

5
African Swine Fever
  • Viral infection
  • Highly contagious
  • Direct and indirect contact, ingestion (meat
    products), ticks, biting flies
  • Persists in environment and swine products
  • Distribution
  • Africa outbreaks in other countries
  • Eradicated from Western Hemisphere

6
ASF The Disease
  • Incubation period 5-19 days
  • Asymptomatic (carriers)
  • Sudden or chronic
  • Fever, reddened skin, pneumonia, swollen joints
  • Recumbency, death
  • Abortion
  • Illness rate up to 100
  • Death rate varies up to 100

7
ASF Impact and Response
  • Huge economic impact
  • Import/export ban
  • Movement restrictions
  • Depopulation
  • Disinfection
  • No treatment or vaccine
  • Virus killed by high temperatures
  • Many disinfectants ineffective
  • Humans not affected

8
ASF Prevention
  • Do not feed uncooked garbage
  • Biosecurity
  • Isolate animals before introduction into herd
  • Restrict and monitor visitors
  • Cleaning and disinfection protocols
  • Vehicles, trailers, equipment, footwear
  • Tick and fly control
  • Prevent contact between domesticated and feral
    swine

9
Anthrax The Agent
  • Gram positive, spore-forming bacteria
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Forms spores
  • Human disease
  • Skin
  • Intestinal
  • Inhalational
  • Animal disease
  • Septicemia and rapid death

10
Anthrax The Bioweapon
  • History
  • Available easily produced
  • Spores infective
  • Aerosolization
  • Low lethal dose
  • High mortality
  • Person-to-person transmission rare

11
Anthrax The Response
  • Vaccine for Livestock
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • When handling sick animals
  • Antibiotics
  • Treatment
  • Prophylaxis
  • Disinfection
  • Sporicidal agents, sterilization

12
Aujeszkys Disease (Pseudorabies)
  • Highly contagious viral disease
  • Reproductive
  • Nervous system
  • Primarily pigs
  • Other mammals
  • Not humans
  • Persistent in the environment
  • Disease eradicated from most countries
  • Still occurs in parts of world
  • Humans not affected

13
Aujeszkys The Disease
  • Transmission
  • Direct contact, reproductive, fomites, aerosol,
    ingestion
  • Incubation period 2-6 days
  • Neurological
  • tremors, seizures, paralysis
  • Respiratory
  • Intense itching
  • Abortions and stillbirths
  • Illness and death up to 100
  • Especially in neonates and other species

14
Aujeszkys Impact and Response
  • Reportable disease
  • Trade restrictions
  • Treatment not recommended
  • Depopulation and repopulation
  • Test and removal
  • Offspring segregation
  • Vaccine available in some
    countries

15
Aujeszky's Prevention
  • Isolate new or returning animals before
    entry into the herd
  • Disinfect vehicles, equipment, premises, footwear
  • Keep pigs away from feral swine
  • U.S. surveillance program
  • All states free as of April 2008

16
Avian Influenza, Highly Pathogenic (HPAI)
  • Type A Influenza virus
  • H5 or H7 surface antigens
  • Domestic and wild birds
  • Humans
  • Reservoir Migratory water fowl
  • Aerosols, contaminated drinking water
  • Infected flock- source of virus for life
  • Worldwide distribution

17
HPAI The Disease
  • Incubation period 3-14 days
  • Birds
  • Sudden death
  • Egg production drops
  • Swollen combs and wattles
  • Nasal discharge
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Humans
  • Conjunctivitis and respiratory illness
  • Death possible

18
HPAI Impact and Response
  • Direct losses
  • Depopulation and disposal
  • High illness and death
  • Quarantine and surveillance
  • Indemnities
  • 2003 European outbreak (H7N7)
  • 30 million birds destroyed
  • Estimated at 338 million USD
  • 2003-Present H5N1 outbreak

19
HPAI Impact and Response
  • Treatment
  • Poultry- none
  • Humans- antivirals
  • Control
  • Depopulation
  • Cleaning and disinfection
  • Vaccine
  • Poultry Expensive, no cross protection
  • Human No cross protection

20
Bluetongue
  • Viral disease
  • Ruminants Primarily sheep
  • 24 serotypes worldwide
  • 6 isolated in the U.S.
  • Vector-borne
  • Culicoides (biting midge)
  • Worldwide distribution
  • Mediterranean outbreak, 1997-2002

21
Bluetongue The Disease
  • Incubation period 5-10 days
  • Sheep
  • Salivation, facial swelling, nasal
    discharge
  • Cyanotic (blue) tongue
  • Reproductive disorders
  • Cattle, goats
  • Subclinical possible mild hyperemia
  • Wildlife
  • Hemorrhages, sudden death

22
Bluetongue Impact and Response
  • Affects cattle industry
  • 125 million per year in lost trade and animal
    testing
  • No treatment supportive care
  • Vector control
  • Vaccine available
  • Serotype specific, adverse effects
  • Humans Low risk of infection

23
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
  • Prions
  • Cattle and humans
  • Progressively fatal neurologic
    disease
  • Transmission
  • Consumption of
    scrapie-infected feed
  • Spontaneous mutation
  • Worldwide distribution

24
BSE The Disease
  • Cattle (BSE)
  • Incubation period 2-8 yrs
  • Initial signs subtle
  • Final stages
  • Excitable, hypermetria, ataxic, tremors,
    loss of condition, death
  • Humans (vCJD)
  • Incubation unknown
  • Neurological signs progressing to death
  • 26 years old (mean age of onset)

25
BSE Impact and Response
  • United Kingdom
  • 3.7 billion by end of 2001/02 financial year
  • Estimated U.S. losses
  • 45 to 66 per head
  • No effective treatment or
  • vaccine
  • Surveillance program
  • Restrictions in place
  • Import, animal feeds,
  • slaughter, mammalian products
  • Very resistant

26
Brucellosis The Agent
  • Bacterial infection
  • Various species
  • Ingestion, inhalation, or direct contact
  • Clinical signs
  • Humans cyclic fever and
  • flu-like symptoms
  • Animals reproductive signs

27
Brucellosis The Agent
Species Natural Host Human Pathogen
B. abortus Cattle, bison, elk, horses Yes
B.melitensis Goats, sheep, cattle Yes
B. suis Swine, hares, reindeer, caribou, rodents Yes
B. canis Dogs, other canids Yes
B. ovis Sheep No
28
Brucellosis The Bioweapon
  • History
  • Highly infectious
  • Easily aerosolized
  • Stable
  • Prolonged incubation period
  • May make diagnosis difficult
  • Person-to-person unlikely

29
Brucellosis The Response
  • Long term antibiotics generally effective
  • Vaccinate calves, no human vaccine
  • Eliminate reservoir
  • Standard precaution to avoid
    exposure
  • Thorough disinfection

30
Classical Swine Fever
  • Highly contagious viral disease of pigs
  • Ingestion, direct contact, aerosol, vertical,
    insects, fomites
  • Worldwide distribution

31
CSF The Disease
  • Incubation period 2-14 days
  • Variable clinical signs
  • Acute to asymptomatic
  • Fever, weakness, anorexia, purplish
    discoloration of skin of ears, inner thighs
  • Can cause death
  • Strain of virus
  • Susceptibility of pigs
  • Signs mimic other swine diseases

32
CSF Impact and Response
  • Mortality up to 100
  • Ban on import/exports
  • Huge economic impact
  • No treatment
  • Control by quarantine, slaughter
  • Vaccine in endemic countries
  • Humans not susceptible to disease

33
Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP)
  • Bacteria
  • Cattle (European breeds, zebu)
  • Buffalo, bison, yak, water buffalo
  • Transmission
  • Aerosol (close contact)
  • Direct contact
  • Saliva, urine, fetal fluids
  • Transplacental
  • Endemic in Africa
  • Eradicated in Western Hemisphere, UK, Australia

34
CBPP The Disease
  • Incubation period 20-123 days
  • Respiratory signs
  • Cough, broad stance
  • Chronic infections
  • Depressed, thin, polyarthritis
    (calves)
  • 25 Subclinical carriers
  • Morbidity 100
  • Mortality 10-70

35
CBPP Impact and Response
  • High economic and social impact
  • Zambia, Tanzania, Botswana
  • Drought leads to migration to spread of disease
  • Treatment not always effective
  • Vaccine available in endemic areas
  • Not always economically feasible
  • Humans not susceptible

36
Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP)
  • Bacterial respiratory disease of goats
  • Mycoplasma capricolum (F38)
  • Mycoplasma mycoides capri
  • Transmission
  • Direct contact, inhalation
  • Africa, Middle East, Eastern Europe, Soviet
    Union, Far East
  • Not in North America

37
CCPP The Disease
  • Incubation period 6-28 days
  • Mycoplasma F38 strain
  • Respiratory symptoms
  • Coughing, labored respiration,
    nasal discharge,
  • Chronic cases Carriers
  • M. mycoides capri
  • Septicemia, reproductive, intestinal, and
    respiratory
  • Morbidity 100 Mortality 60-100

38
CCPP Impact and Response
  • Africa and Asia
  • Goats essential to economics
  • Meat, milk, hides
  • Treatment with antibiotics early
  • Newly infected countries
  • Slaughter recommended
  • Vaccine available in some countries
  • Humans not susceptible

39
Equine Encephalitis Viruses The Agent
  • Eastern (EEE), Western (WEE), Venezuelan (VEE)
  • Viruses transmitted by mosquitoes
  • Clinical signs
  • Humans and Equids (horses, donkeys, mules)
  • No to mild signs to flu-like illness
  • Encephalitis in small proportions
  • Birds
  • Asymptomatic carriers, act as sentinels

40
Equine Encephalitis Viruses The Bioweapon
  • Easy to produce
  • Aerosolization
  • High rate of infection
  • Person-to-person transmission possible

41
Equine Encephalitis Viruses The Response
  • Supportive care
  • Vaccine
  • Equine
  • Human High risk
  • Virus unstable in environment

42
Exotic Newcastle Disease
  • Virus affecting poultry
  • Four disease types
  • vND endemic in Asia, Middle East, Africa,
    Central/ South America
  • Outbreaks continue due to illegal importation of
    exotic birds and poultry

43
END The Disease
  • Incubation period 2-15 days
  • Drop in egg production, neurological damage,
    GI signs, respiratory
    distress
  • Numerous deaths within
    24-48 hours
  • Deaths continue for 7-10 days
  • Morbidity 100, mortality 90

44
END Impact and Response
  • Most costly poultry disease worldwide
  • 2002-2003 California outbreak
  • 160 million impact
  • Developing countries
  • Affects quality and quantity of dietary protein
  • Vaccine available
  • Humans can acquire eye infections from contact
    with virus

45
Foot and Mouth Disease
  • Highly contagious virus
  • Considered the most important livestock disease
    in the world
  • Not in U.S. since 1929
  • Vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals
  • Spread by aerosol fomites

46
FMD The Disease
  • Viral infection
  • Highly contagious
  • Cloven-hooved animals
  • Not horses
  • Transmission
  • Direct contact, aerosol, fomites
  • Worldwide distribution
  • Eradicated from U.S. in 1929

47
FMD The Disease
  • Incubation period 2-12 days
  • Cattle
  • Indicator host
  • Fever, blisters, ulcerations, salivation,
    lameness
  • Sheep and goats
  • Maintenance hosts
  • Mild clinical signs
  • Pigs Amplifying host
  • Lameness predominant sign

48
FMD Impact
  • Animals at risk in the United States
  • 100 million cattle
  • 60 million swine
  • 7 million sheep
  • 40 million wildlife
  • Not horses
  • Humans rarely infected
  • Huge economic impact

49
FMD Distribution
Free
Present
Recent Activity

(Rev. 3-25-01)
50
FMD Impact and Response
  • 2001, U.K. Outbreak
  • Total costs over 18 billion
    USD
  • 6 million animals slaughtered
  • FMD free in less than 1 year
  • Public perception
  • Animal welfare
  • Smoke pollution

51
FMD Impact and Response
  • Most important livestock disease in the
    world
  • USDA upgrading safeguarding
    measures
  • Quarantine, depopulation, disinfection
  • Vaccination complex decision
  • Extremely rare
  • Mild symptoms in people

52
Glanders The Agent
  • Bacteria
  • Burkholderia mallei
  • Transmission by ingestion, inhalation, direct
    contact
  • Animal-to-human transmission is inefficient
  • Clinical signs
  • Humans horses cutaneous pulmonary lesions,
    rapidly fatal illness

53
Glanders The Bioweapon
  • History
  • WWI Russian horses
  • WWII Chinese civilians, horses, POWs
  • Easy to produce
  • Aerosolized, highly infectious
  • Mortality high in chronic form
  • 50-70
  • Person to person transmission Rare

54
Glanders The Response
  • No vaccine
  • Antibiotic therapy likely effective
  • Destroyed by various chemicals

55
Heartwater
  • Rickettsia-bacteria
  • Ehrlichia (formerly Cowdria) ruminantium
  • Spread by ticks
  • Amblyomma sp.
  • Cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo
  • Severe disease
  • Endemic in Africa and Caribbean islands
  • Once of the most important diseases of livestock
    in Africa

56
Heartwater The Disease
  • Incubation period 14-18 days
  • Four forms of the disease
  • Peracute (rare)
  • Sudden death
  • Acute (most common)
  • High fever, respiratory distress, nervous signs
  • Subacute (rare)
  • Prolonged fever, pulmonary edema
  • Mild or subclinical
  • Transient fever

57
Heartwater Impact and Response
  • Zimbabwe national losses
  • 56 million
  • Potential outbreak in U.S.
  • Estimated 40100 mortality
  • Treat with tetracycline
  • Vaccine is available
  • Vector control

58
Hendra Virus The Agent
  • Emerging viral disease
  • Australia
  • Transmission
  • Fruit bats
  • Urine, body fluids
  • Horses
  • Sudden respiratory signs, nasal discharge, fever,
    encephalitis, sudden death
  • Humans
  • Flu-like illness, respiratory failure, death

59
Hendra Virus The Response
  • Little is known about disease
  • Highest level of security to work with the agent
  • Potentially serious consequences
  • High mortality rate
  • Lack of treatment

60
Japanese Encephalitis
  • Viral infection
  • Pigs, other domestic species
  • Humans
  • Spread by mosquitoes
  • Culex sp.
  • Endemic in temperate and tropical Asia

61
JE The Disease
  • Incubation period 6-10 days
  • Horses
  • Fever and neurologic signs
  • Swine
  • Stillbirths
  • Humans
  • Fever, headache
  • Fatal encephalitis possible

62
JE Impact and Response
  • High financial loss in pigs
  • No effective treatment
  • Supportive care
  • Vector control measures
  • Vaccine
  • Horses and swine
  • Humans

63
Lumpy Skin Disease
  • Viral infection
  • Cattle
  • Arthropod vector
  • Mosquitoes and biting flies
  • Endemic in sub-Saharan Africa
  • Peak Rainy season

64
Lumpy Skin Disease The Disease
  • Incubation period 2-5 weeks
  • Fever, abortions, decreased milk production
  • Nodules typically appear 10 days later
  • Mortality rates vary
  • 2-85

65
Lumpy Skin Disease Impact and Response
  • Severe economic losses
  • Decreased production
  • Secondary infections
  • Attenuated vaccine
  • South Africa
  • Sheep and goat pox vaccine
  • Kenya, Egypt

66
Malignant Catarrhal Fever
  • Viral infection
  • Wildebeest- Africa
  • Sheep/goats- N. America
  • Susceptible species Cattle, bison, other wild
    ruminants
  • Dead-end hosts
  • Aerosol or mechanical transmission

67
MCF The Disease
  • Incubation period 9-77 days
  • Four clinical forms
  • Acute
  • Sudden death
  • Head and eye
  • Fever, necrotic lesions
  • Intestinal
  • Severe diarrhea
  • Mild

68
MCF Impact and Response
  • High economic losses in exotics
  • Mortality near 100 in clinically ill animals
  • No effective treatment
  • Supportive therapy
  • No current vaccine
  • Human disease not documented

69
Melioidosis The Agent
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei Gram-negative
  • Transmission Contact, ingestion, inhalation
  • Clinical signs Humans, sheep, goats, and pigs
  • Asymptomatic to pneumonia, lung and wound
    abscesses

70
Melioidosis The Bioweapon
  • Easy to produce
  • Available
  • Aerosolization
  • High mortality 90
  • Person-to-person (rare)
  • Animal-to-person (rare)

71
Melioidosis The Response
  • Long-term, multiple antibiotics effective
  • Vaccines available not in U.S.
  • Easily destroyed by disinfectants

72
Nipah Virus The Agent
  • Emerging viral disease in Southeast Asia
  • Fruit bat reservoir
  • Malaysia, Singapore
  • Bangladesh
  • Clinical signs
  • Humans Encephalitis
  • Pigs Respiratory, neurological
  • Dogs and cats Distemper

73
Nipah Virus The Bioweapon
  • Aerosolization potential
  • Wide host range
  • Rare person-to-person has occurred
  • High morbidity and mortality

74
Nipah Virus The Response
  • Avoid contact with all infected animals and
    fluids
  • Vaccine being researched
  • Call authorities immediately

75
Peste des Petits Ruminants
  • Viral infection
  • Goats and sheep
  • Close contact
  • Aerosol, fomites?
  • Morbidity and mortality up
    to 100
  • Africa, the Middle East, India

76
Peste des Petits Ruminants The Disease
  • Incubation period 3-10 days
  • Sudden onset
  • Fever, erosive stomatitis,
    conjunctivitis, pneumonia
  • More severe in young
  • Abortions
  • Diarrhea, dehydration and death
  • Prognosis correlated with extent of mouth lesions

77
Peste des Petits Ruminants Impact and Response
  • Economic losses
  • Loss of production, death, abortion
  • Limit trade, export
  • Constraints on availability of
    protein for human
    consumption
  • No specific treatment
  • Rinderpest vaccine
  • Protects for 12 months
  • Hinders rinderpest campaign in Africa

78
Q Fever The Agent
  • Bacteria Coxiella burnetii
  • Transmission
  • Aerosol, direct contact, ingestion, ticks
  • Sheep, cattle and goats
  • Can be asymptomatic, abortions possible
  • Humans
  • Acute Flu-like pneumonia hepatitis
  • Chronic Endocarditis, osteomyelitis

79
Q Fever The Bioweapon
  • History
  • Easily accessible
  • Environmentally
  • resistant
  • Highly infectious
  • Aerosolization
  • Travel ½ mile by wind
  • Low mortality- chronic morbidity

80
Q Fever The Response
  • Often self-limiting disease
  • Antibiotic therapy may limit complications
  • Vaccine developed
  • Not available in U.S.
  • Variable susceptibility to disinfectants

81
Q Fever Prevention
  • Avoid contact with the placenta, birth tissues,
    fetal membranes and aborted fetuses of sheep,
    cattle and goats
  • Eat and drink only pasteurized milk and milk
    products

82
Rift Valley Fever The Agent
  • Viral disease found in most of Africa
  • Transmitted by mosquitoes
  • Aerosol or contact with infected body fluids or
    aborted fetuses
  • Clinical signs
  • Animals Abortions, death in neonates
  • Humans Flu-like, fever, headache
  • Severe disease eye and systemic infection

83
Rift Valley Fever The Bioweapon
  • WHO estimate 1970
  • 50 kg of virus aerosolized
  • 35,000 incapacitated
  • 400 deaths (1 mortality)
  • Stable at most temperatures
  • Inactivated by various chemicals

84
Rift Valley Fever The Response
  • Vaccinate ruminants in endemic areas
  • Control mosquitoes
  • Avoid contact with infected tissues blood
  • Wear protective clothing
  • No person-to-person transmission

85
Rinderpest
  • Highly contagious virus
  • Cattle, domestic buffalo
  • Other ungulates carriers
  • Transmission
  • Direct or close contact
  • Fomites (equipment) contaminated food
  • East Africa, possibly Asia

86
Rinderpest The Disease
  • Incubation period
  • 3-15 days
  • Four forms
  • Classical Fever, diarrhea, nasal/ocular
    discharge, oral erosions
  • Peracute Young animals, rapidly fatal
  • Subacute Mild signs, low mortality
  • Atypical Irregular fever, mild diarrhea

87
Rinderpest Impact and Response
  • Africa 1982-84
  • Outbreak cost 500 million
  • 100 million spent annually on vaccination
    world-wide
  • Diagnosis usually means slaughter
  • Vaccine offers life-long immunity
  • Humans not susceptible to disease

88
Screwworm Myiasis
  • Exotic fly larvae
  • All warm-blooded animals
  • Humans and animals infected when female
    fly deposits eggs into wound
  • Morbidity variable, can reach 100
  • Tropical regions

89
Screwworm Myiasis The Disease
  • Larvae
  • Emerge in 8-12 hours
  • Visible within 3 days
  • Wounds
  • Bloody discharge
  • Foul odor
  • Secondary infection
  • Depression, off feed, rubbing
  • Signs similar in humans

90
Screwworm Myiasis Impact and Response
  • Estimated losses if reintroduced
  • 540 million annually
  • 1.27 billion for eradication
  • Treatment
  • Removal of larvae
  • Topical larvicide 2-3 days
  • Sterile fly technique
  • U.S. free in 1966
  • Mexico free in 1991

91
Sheep and Goat Pox
  • Viral infection
  • Capripoxvirus
  • Contagious
  • Most important pox
    disease of domestic animals
  • Direct contact
  • Inhalation, insects?
  • Parts of Africa, Asia, India, and the Middle East

92
Sheep and Goat Pox The Disease
  • Incubation period
  • 4-13 days
  • Clinical signs
  • Fever, conjunctivitis, difficulty breathing
  • Skin lesions may take up to 6 weeks to heal
  • Mortality
  • 50 in susceptible flock
  • 100 in young
  • No chronic carriers

93
Sheep and Goat Pox Impact and Response
  • Infection can limit trade of live animals and
    product
  • Treat secondary infections
  • Vaccination
  • Endemic areas with attenuated virus
  • Slaughter should be considered
  • Humans not susceptible

94
Swine Vesicular Disease
  • Viral infection
  • Resistant to heat, pH, curing
  • Moderately contagious
  • Swine and humans
  • Ingestion or close contact
  • Previously Europe and Hong Kong
  • Only in Italy as of 2002

95
SVD The Disease
  • Incubation period
  • Ingestion 2-5 days
  • Direct contact 2-7 days
  • Resembles FMD
  • Fever, salivation, lameness
  • Blisters
  • Snout, mammary gland, coronary
    band
  • Mortality low

96
SVD Impact and Response
  • Control measures costly
  • Export restrictions
  • Supportive care
  • Vaccine not commercially available
  • Human infection not common
  • Incubation period 1-5 weeks
  • Mild influenza-like symptoms
  • Vesicular lesions not seen

97
Tularemia The Agent
  • Sheep, young pigs, horses, dogs, cats
  • Sudden fever, lethargy, stiffness, prostration,
    and death
  • Wildlife
  • Usually find dead
  • Rabbits behave strangely
  • Cattle, older pigs resistant

98
Tularemia The Agent
  • Francisella tularensis
  • Transmission
  • Ingestion, inhalation, vectors, direct contact
    through skin
  • Six clinical forms in humans

Ulceroglandular
Glandular
99
Tularemia The Bioweapon
  • Stable
  • Aerosolized
  • Low infective dose via inhalation
  • Case fatality 30-60 (untreated)
  • WHO estimation 1970
  • 50 kg agent City population 5 million
  • 250,000 ill
  • 19,000 deaths

100
Tularemia The Response
  • Person-to-person transmission not documented
  • Antibiotics effective, if given early or before
    exposure
  • Vaccine
  • For high risk individuals
  • Unknown efficacy against inhalational tularemia

101
Vesicular Stomatitis
  • Viral infection
  • Horses, donkeys, cattle, swine, South
    American camelids
  • Arthropod-borne, direct contact, aerosol
  • Morbidity 90, mortality low
  • Southwest United States

102
VSV The Disease
  • Animals
  • Incubation period 3-5 days
  • Oral/mammary/coronary band
    lesions, salivation, lameness
  • Resembles FMD
  • Recovery in 2 weeks
  • Humans
  • Incubation period 1-6 days
  • Influenza-like symptoms
  • Oral lesions rare
  • Self limiting

103
VSV Impact and Response
  • Outbreaks every 10 years in the U.S
  • 1982 and 1995 53-202 per head lost on cattle
  • 1998 Equine outbreak
  • Supportive treatment
  • Vaccines available during an
    outbreak

104
Acknowledgments
  • Development of this presentation was funded by a
    grant from the Iowa Homeland Security and
    Emergency Management Division and the
  • Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land
    Stewardship
  • to the Center for Food Security and Public
    Health at Iowa State University, College of
    Veterinary Medicine.
About PowerShow.com