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SKIN CARE

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SKIN CARE TRAINING Alain KHAIAT, Ph. D. Vice President R&D Asia Pacific TRAINING CONTENT Skin physiology ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SKIN CARE


1
SKIN CARE
  • TRAINING
  • Alain KHAIAT, Ph. D.
  • Vice President RD Asia Pacific

2
TRAINING CONTENT
  • Skin physiology
  • Cosmetic functions
  • mechanism
  • ingredients used
  • performance assessment

3
Skin
  • Is the external barrier of the body, both
    physical and immunological
  • Is the mirror of the state of health of the body
  • Skin plays an essential role both in the
    aesthetic and health field.

4
SKIN PHYSIOLOGY
  • The skin is the outer most layer of the body. It
    is constituted of 2 layers
  • epidermis
  • dermis
  • which sit on the fat layer around the muscles.

5
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6
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7
EPIDERMIS
  • The stratum corneum made essentially of dead
    cells is exfoliating.
  • The space between the cells constitutes the
    intercellular cement.

8
DERMIS
  • The dermis is where the collagen and elastin
    fibers are. These fibers are responsible for the
    skin structure and elasticity.
  • They are degraded by enzymes called collagenase
    and elastase which belong to the class of Matrix
    Metallo Proteases or MMP.

9
OIL PRODUCTION
  • Oil is produced in the sebaceous gland ,
    production is stimulated by hormones
  • Oil flows into the hair follicle then onto the
    skin surface

10
Oil Production
  • Normal hair follicle where sebum empties onto
    skin surface
  • through follicle opening

11
COMEDONES
  • Whiteheads are closed comedones. The obstructed
    follicle prevents oil flow and provides an oil
    reservoir for bacterial growth. They lead to
    inflammation
  • Blackheads are open comedones (follicle
    obstruction). The color is melanin and oxidized
    lipids, not dirt. The content is firm and dilates
    the follicle, blackheads are not inflammatory

12
COMEDONES
  • Whiteheads or closed comedones
  • stays beneath the skin. Slightly raised, light
  • coloured lesion
  • Caused by build up of debris ( cells sebum)
    within follicle
  • Blackheads or open comedones
  • a whitehead becomes a blackhead when
  • it enlarges until a dark plug protrudes through
    the skin surface
  • Both whiteheads and blackheads may stay on the
    skin for a long time.
  • Whiteheads and Blackheads are non-inflammatory

13
SOLAR SPECTRUM
14
UVB DAMAGE
  • UVB impact on DNA in the cell creating damages
    which may lead to cancer
  • P53 gene codes for a protein that allows repair
    of the DNA or kill the cell if repair is not
    possible sunburn cells

15
UVA DAMAGE
  • UVA acts through an oxidative stress, forming
    free radicals (reactive oxygen species) that will
    damage the DNA
  • Reactive oxygen species create damages leading to
    cancer
  • Pigment production is the defense mechanism

16
TRAINING CONTENT
  • Skin physiology
  • Cosmetic functions
  • mechanism
  • ingredients used
  • performance assessment

17
COSMETICS
  • DEFINITION
  • Products applied on the skin, hair, teeth or
    teguments in order to
  • beautify
  • perfume
  • cleanse
  • promote attractiveness
  • alter the appearance

18
COSMETICS FUNCTIONS
  • Cleansing
  • Moisturizing
  • UV protection
  • Aging - Wrinkle
  • Acne Oily skin
  • Pigmentation

19
CLEANSING
  • Soap high pH, low rinsability, high irritation
  • Some soap have high rinsability, low irritation
  • Cream cleanser / Facial wash
  • rinse off detergent-based, neutral pH,
    irritation depends on detergent type and
    concentration
  • tissue off leave on, emulsion-based, less
    fresh clean feel

20
RINSABILITY
  • Measured by Fourrier Transform Infra Red or FTIR
    scanning of the skin before application and
    after rinsing of a cleanser. The difference is
    representative of the quantity of product left on
    the skin.
  • Digital imaging with proper light allows also to
    evaluate rinsability

21
IRRITATION
  • Patch test
  • Chromameter (red color)
  • Trans epidermal water loss TEWL

22
CLEANSER FORMULA
  • A typical cleanser formula consists of
  • detergent 10 - 15
  • foam booster 0 - 2
  • preservative lt 1
  • fragrance 0 - 1
  • water Qs 100

23
CLEANSER FORMULA
  • Surfactants usually combinations are used to
    enhance lathering and reduce irritation. SLS is
    to be avoided, it strips the skin of its lipids
    contributing to irritation.
  • Preservatives allergy potential of formaldehyde
    donors.
  • Fragrance known allergens (like Peru Balsam or
    Musk Ambrette) have been banned. It is important
    for the fragrance to meet IFRA guidelines

24
MOISTURIZING
  • Water, like air or light, is essential to life
  • Moisturization is a womans main expectation from
    a cosmetic product
  • Dermatologists face dry skin condition every day
    physiological, pathological (ichthyosis),
    therapeutic (PUVA, retinoids)

25
WHERE IS THE WATER ?
  • 50 is intracellular
  • 15 is extracellular
  • 5 is plasmatic
  • 30 is in the sweat glands

26
MECHANISMS OF REGULATION
  • Hydration through deeper layers
  • Loss through evaporation
  • Moisture retaining ability of the stratum
    corneum, dependent on
  • Hydro Lipido Proteic film (HLP)
  • Natural Moisturizing Factor (NMF)
  • integrity of intercellular cement

27
HLP FILM
  • Originates from sebum and sweat secretions
  • Composed of
  • water - triglycerides
  • ions - cholesterol free esterified
  • amino acids - squalene
  • urea - fatty acids
  • - waxes

28
NMF
  • Amino acids
  • Urocanic acid
  • Pyrollidone carboxylic acid PCA
  • Electrolytes
  • Sugars

29
INTERCELLULAR CEMENT
  • Ceramides ( sphingolipides )
  • Fatty acids ( Linoleic acid )
  • Cholesterol ( free esters )

30
MOISTURIZING INGREDIENTS
  • Occlusive agents
  • Structural lipids
  • Hydrophilic film forming agents
  • Humectants
  • NMF
  • AHA

31
OCCLUSIVE AGENTS
  • Vaseline, paraffin
  • Waxes of animal or plant origin
  • Some silicone oils or waxes
  • Some vegetable oil (sweet almond)
  • Some fatty esters (isopropyl myristate)
  • Fatty alcohols
  • older technique, often comedogenic

32
STRUCTURAL LIPIDS
  • Essential Fatty Acids (EFA linoleic, linolenic
    acids)
  • Poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA EPA, DHA)
  • Ceramides or pseudo ceramides
  • Cholesterol

33
HYDROPHILIC FILM FORMING AGENTS
  • GAG glycosaminoglycans like Hyaluronic acid or
    chondroitin sulfates
  • Collagen
  • Proteins
  • Chitin or Chitosan

34
HUMECTANTS
  • Glycerin
  • Propylene Glycol or Butylene Glycol
  • Sugars

35
NMF
  • PCA
  • Urea (below 10 )
  • Amino Acids or hydrolyzed protein

36
AHA
  • At low concentration (lt 2 ) AHA are
    moisturizing agents by creating hydrogen bonds
    between the protein chains.
  • The most common are
  • glycolic acid
  • lactic acid
  • citric acid
  • malic acid

37
PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
  • FTIR the ratio of amide I to amide II peaks is
    function of the skin hydration
  • NMR nuclear magnetic resonance
  • TEWL trans epidermal water loss
  • Capacitance (Corneometer)
  • Conductance (Skicon)

38
FORMULATION
  • Typically they are oil in water emulsions
  • water
  • propylene glycol penetration enhancer it
    becomes irritating above 5
  • humectants, film forming agents, AHA, NMF
  • emulsifiers could contribute to irritation,
    concentration to be kept to a minimum
  • oils, fatty esters some are comedogenic

39
UV PROTECTION
  • Two types of filters are used
  • chemical
  • mineral

40
SOLAR SPECTRUM
41
CHEMICAL FILTERS
  • Limited spectrum, highly regulated
  • Most common filters
  • cinnamates (UVB)
  • PABA (UVB)
  • Oxybenzone (UVA)
  • Avobenzone (UVA)

42
MINERAL FILTERS
  • Broad spectrum, filtering capacity function of
    size, influence on product texture
  • Most common filters
  • TiO2
  • ZnO

43
PERFORMANCE ASSESSEMENT
  • SPF measurement in vivo it is the ratio of the
    minimum erythemal dose with and without
    protection ( relates only to UVB protection )
  • in vitro measurements
  • Diffey method
  • spectrophotometric absorption method

44
AGING INTRINSIC
  • Program theory each cell contains a clock which
    control the number of multiplication
  • Error theory occurrence of errors in the
    replication which eventually lead to cell death
  • Control theory cells function is remotely
    controlled by secretions ( hormones )

45
AGING EXTRINSIC
  • Sun UVA / UVB / IR
  • Psycho social factors overwork, stress
  • Dietary factors insufficient water supply,
    vitamin deficiency, alcohol, smoking
  • Iatrogenic factors corticosteroids, ionizing
    radiation, diuretics
  • Pathological factors genodermatose, acrogenia
  • Hormonal factor menopause

46
MANIFESTATIONS OF SKIN AGING
  • Epidermis
  • reduction in cell renewal rate
  • thickening of stratum corneum
  • decrease in barrier efficiency increase in TEWL
    and hyperkeratosis
  • ridges are flattened out and intercellular spaces
    enlarged
  • pigmentation problems actinic lentigines
  • decrease in skin immune system

47
MANIFESTATIONS OF SKIN AGING
  • Sebaceous glands
  • reduction in sebum secretion (hormones
    influenced)
  • Sweat glands
  • less active
  • HLP film
  • thinning of film means less protective barrier

48
MANIFESTATION OF SKIN AGING
  • Dermis
  • destruction of collagen and elastin fibers
    network
  • proteoglycans and glycoproteins are reduced
  • increase in elastin synthesis elastosis

49
WRINKLES
  • Expression lines
  • they are the first manifestation
  • due to constant creasing of the face
  • accentuated by environmental factors
  • they appear around the eyes (crows feet), the
    nose and mouth (naso-labial fold), forehead
    (frown lines)

50
WRINKLES
  • Gravity lines
  • skin and muscle structure become slack and droops
    downwards
  • subcutaneous tissues tend to sag
  • flabby cheeks, double chin, bags under the eyes
    and drooping eyelids

51
WRINKLES
  • Elastosis wrinkles
  • due to UV radiation, the epidermis is injured
    (free radicals), the fibroblasts in the dermis
    are over-active and abnormal deposits of elastin
    occur

52
ANTI AGING PREVENTION
  • Protective agents
  • sun protection
  • anti free radicals SOD, Se, Si, Vit. E, Vit. C,
    carotenoids, flavonoids, ?-orizanol
  • Nourishing agents
  • vitamins A (esters), B5 (panthenol), C, E, EFA
    (linoleic linolenic acids), PUFA

53
ANTI AGE PREVENTION
  • Moisturizing agents
  • Metabolism activators
  • unsaponifiable lipids (phytosterols)
  • plant extracts (Centella asiatica, Ginseng)
  • microalgae extracts
  • Bacteria, fungal or yeast extracts

54
ANTI AGING PREVENTION
  • Conditioning agents
  • anti MMP (elastase, collagenase)
  • hyaluronic acid
  • collagen, elastin (hydrolyzed)
  • nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)

55
ANTI AGING REPARATION
  • Retinol transformed into the skin in retinoic
    acid, it has its positive properties without the
    irritation
  • AHAs work by reducing the corneocytes cohesion,
    increasing desquamation (cell renewal), hydration
    and plasticity
  • Vitamin C
  • micro circulation activators plant extracts

56
PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT
  • Cutaneous relief
  • imprint techniques micro depressionary network,
    profilometry
  • macrophotography visible, UV light
  • confocal microscopy
  • biopsy
  • Cell renewal
  • use of a dye danzyl chloride or dihydroxy
    acetone (DHA)

57
PERFORMANCE ASSESSEMENT
  • Alternative methods
  • used to determine the activity of ingredients on
    molecules, cell cultures or skin replica
  • Physiological parameters
  • hydration
  • elasticity cutometry, twistometry, balistometry
  • pigmentation photography, chromameter
  • vascularisation Laser Doppler Velocimetry

58
COSMETIC ACNE from physiology to treatment
59
ACNE
  • 95 of the population is affected at one time or
    another by ACNE
  • ACNE affects 85 of the teenagers
  • 10 require medical attention severe acne with
    1 difficult to treat
  • 90 have mild acne or cosmetic acne

60
  • Puberty period over which the
  • secondary sexual characters gradually
  • become manifest as the reproductive
  • system develops to full capacity and
  • there is rapid somatic growth.

61
Onset of puberty in girls
  • Breast development following the increase of
    estrogen from the ovaries
  • Menstruation

62
Puberty and Adolescence
  • Adolescence is a difficult period for most
    people period of changes
  • Herd bonding sexual involvement
  • Adolescence is a particularly bad time to have
    skin problems, especially on the face or on the
    extremities

63
Physiological changes in the skin during puberty
and adolescence
  • Increase in sebum production oily skin and hair
  • Onset of "body odor"
  • Anguish in young men when male-pattern balding
    begins in the teenage years

64
Ideal skin for girls
  • Skin should be oil-free with no pimples or spots
  • Plenty of hair on head, but none on face, under
    the arms or on the legs
  • ? puberty makes this ideal image virtually
    impossible to achieve

65
Acne vulgaris (Pimples)
66
  • Acne a disorder of the pilosebaceous
  • unit, occurs in both sexes but is more
  • distressing to the women, not only
  • because of the cosmetic effect but
  • because of the frequent permanent
  • scarring

67
ACNE
  • Normal hair follicle where sebum empties onto
    skin surface
  • through follicle opening

68
Classification of acne
  • Non-inflammatory lesions open closed comedones
  • Inflammatory lesions papules, pustules, nodules,
    cysts

69
Pathogenesis of acne
  • Sebaceous glands hyper-activity
  • Pilosebaceous duct obstruction
  • Bacterial colonization and inflammation

70
The cause of acne (1)
The effect of Androgen hormones
Im Androgen
71
The cause of acne (2)
The effect of Propionobacterium acnes
We love sebum
Hydrolyzes sebum
Free fatty acids
Inflammatory acne
72
ACNE TREATMENT
  • Drugs
  • Dermatological Procedures
  • Cosmetics
  • and/or
  • Squeeze the pimple

73
DERMATOLOGICAL PROCEDURE
  • Peeling with drying and keratolytic agents
    sulfur, salicylic acid, resorcinol, benzoyl
    peroxide

74
COSMETICS
  • Traditionally the anti-acne approach has used
    drying keratolytic ingredients
  • Benzoyl peroxide (5 or 10)
  • Salicylic acid (0.5 or 2)
  • Sulfur (2)

75
OILY SKIN
  • Ingredients usually used to reduce shine
  • clay (bentonite)
  • talc
  • Kaolin
  • These ingredients will increase oil production
  • Ingredients used to control oil secretion
  • Soy/Wheat protein
  • Cedarwood

76
OILY SKIN
  • Efficacy is measured by
  • Sebumeter measure of the absorbance of a tape
  • Sebutape
  • removal of lipids and determination of quantity

77
PIGMENTATION
  • Melanins are the result of the transformation of
    Tyrosine into DOPA then Dopaquinone by Tyrosinase
    in the melanocyte.
  • Melanins are transferred from the melanocyte to
    the keratinocyte layers

78
Pigmentation Formation Mechanism
1
  • Variety of Causes
  • Variety of Responses

Irritation
2
Inflammatory Response
KERATINOCYTE (Epidermis)
3
Hormone
MELANOCYTE (Basal Layer)
Melanin
Tyrosine
Melanosome
FIBROBLAST
Tyrosinase
Dermis
79
PIGMENTATION
  • Ingredients used to decrease pigmentation
  • hydroquinone effective but not safe
  • ascorbic acid derivatives
  • plant extracts Kojic acid, arbutin, Licorice,
    Centella, Bayberry extract
  • Except for Hydroquinone, the skin lightening
    effect is only visible after several weeks.

80
PIGMENTATION
  • Efficacy is measured by
  • Chromameter L measure
  • Mexameter evaluation of melanin and redness
  • Photography visible, UV with data analysis

81
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