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C&D Recycling Markets & Update on Asphalt Shingle Recyclin

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C&D Recycling Markets & Update on Asphalt Shingle Recycling Julie Gevrenov U.S. EPA Region 5 (Chicago) * Carpet (from CARE website) = Sergenian s Floor Coverings ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: C&D Recycling Markets & Update on Asphalt Shingle Recyclin


1
CD Recycling Markets Update on Asphalt
Shingle Recycling
  • Julie Gevrenov
  • U.S. EPA Region 5 (Chicago)

2
Materials Markets
  • Easy to reuse or recycle (good markets)
  • Clean rubble concrete, asphalt, brick
  • Good quality Chicago brick
  • Metal
  • Cardboard
  • Wood pallets, trees, clean dimensional/untreated
    lumber

3
Materials Markets
  • Not so easy (currently no strong regional
    markets)
  • Clean gypsum wallboard scrap
  • Agricultural land application may be strongest
    market
  • Asphalt shingles
  • Hot-mix asphalt pavement is strongest market
  • ? Regulatory status in IL
  • Engineered wood products (e.g., plywood, oriented
    strand board, pressed board)
  • PVC/vinyl (e.g., siding)
  • Carpet (Carpet America Recovery Effort gt
    Madison, Indianapolis)
  • Ceiling tiles (Armstrong Ceiling Recycling
    Program)
  • Glass
  • Plastics

4
Materials Markets
  • Challenging Materials
  • Demolition/renovation (used) drywall
  • Materials contaminated with lead-based paint
  • EPS insulation and other styrofoam
  • ?
  • ?
  • ?

5
Examples of End Markets
Excerpt from Illinois DCCA (DCEO)s Illinois
Construction and Demolition Site Recycling
Guidebook, 1997
6
Tear-off (Used) Asphalt Shingles
Photo credits Sean Anestis, Ben Brock, 3rd
Asphalt Shingle Recycling Forum 11/1-2/07
7
The Numbers
  • Estimated 11 million tons (or more!) tear-offs
    generated annually in U.S.
  • Very little is recycled
  • Shingles are 20 - 40 asphalt cement (AC).i.e.,
    a petroleum product!!
  • At 20 liquid AC _at_ 300/ton AC 660M worth of AC
    available annually

8
(No Transcript)
9
Typical Composition of An Asphalt Shingle
Component Organic Felt Fiberglass Mat
Asphalt cement 30-36 19-22
Felt 2-15 2-15
Mineral granules/aggregate 20-38 20-38
Mineral filler/stabilizer 8-40 8-40
Slide credit Jon Powell, Innovative Waste
Consulting Services, 3rd Asphalt Shingle
Recycling Forum, 11/2/07
10
Markets for Recycled Asphalt Shingles
  • Hot Mix Asphalt (pavement)
  • Cold Mix Asphalt
  • Cold Patch
  • Road Base
  • Dust control
  • Mulch
  • Landfill Cover
  • Other potential uses fuel (e.g., cement kiln),
    new shingles

11
How can I recycle shingles?
12
Best Practices (General)
  • Recyclers should carefully plan and implement a
    supply quality assurance / quality control
    (QA/QC) system.
  • Recyclers should optimize their operations to
    produce a RAS product that meets or exceeds
    specifications of their end markets.
  • Recyclers should develop a comprehensive
    marketing plan based on multiple outlets.
  • Guide contains CMRAs recommended asbestos
    sampling protocol

13
Photo credit Ben Brock, Astec Industries, 3rd
Asphalt Shingle Recycling Forum 11/2/07
14
Photo credit Ben Brock, Astec Industries, 3rd
Asphalt Shingle Recycling Forum 11/2/07
15
Photo credits Randy McMullin, Maine
DEP, 3rd Asphalt Shingle Recycling Forum 11/2/07
16
HMA Specifications, Mix Designs
  • DOT specifications are important!
  • DOT projects
  • Municipalities and private entities often refer
    to DOT specs

17
States with Known DOT Materials Specifications
and/or Beneficial Use Determination (BUD)
Approvals for RAS
Recycling Tear-Off Asphalt Shingles Best
Practices Guide, CMRA 10/07
18
AASHTO Specification
  • New (2006) AASHTO provisional specification and
    recommended practice for shingle recycling into
    HMA.
  • R2005A-TS-2c Provisional
  • M2005A-TS-2c - Provisional
  • Addresses need for QA/QC, provides detailed
    technical guidance including
  • Types, definitions, sources, and sampling
  • Gradation of RAS
  • Addition rates of RAS into HMA
  • Deleterious substances
  • Methods of sampling and testing
  • A DOT task force is reviewing the documents, will
    likely recommend changes that will be presented
    to the AASHTO committees in spring 2008.

Recycling Tear-Off Asphalt Shingles Best
Practices Guide, CMRA 10/07
19
Environmental Issues
  • Environmental Issues Associated With Asphalt
    Shingle Recycling
  • Prepared for
  • Construction Materials Recycling Association
  • Asphalt Shingle Recycling Project
  • US EPA Innovations Workgroup
  • Prepared by
  • Innovative Waste Consulting Services, LLC
  • Gainesville, Florida
  • Authors Timothy Townsend, Ph.D., P.E., Jon
    Powell, E.I., Chad Xu, Ph.D.
  • October 19, 2007

20
Constituents of Concern
ASBESTOS
PAHs
Slide credit Jon Powell, Innovative Waste
Consulting Services, 3rd Asphalt Shingle
Recycling Forum, 11/2/07
21
Possible Exposure Pathways
PAH leaching?
Release of Asbestos?
PAH emissions?
or
or
Pavement, mulch, etc.
Grinding
HMA
Slide credit Jon Powell, Innovative Waste
Consulting Services, 3rd Asphalt Shingle
Recycling Forum, 11/2/07
22
Health Impacts of Asbestos and PAHs
  • Asbestos
  • Lung cancer
  • Mesothelioma
  • PAHs
  • Cataracts, kidney and liver damage
  • Some PAHs are identified as carcinogenic

23
Was Asbestos Widely Used?
Manufacturer Years Manufactured Product
Barber Asphalt Corporation NA Asphalt-asbestos roof felt
Carey Manufacturing Company NA Asphalt-asbestos shingles, asbestos finish felt, mastic
The Celotex Corporation 1906 through 1984 Asphalt roof coating and other miscellaneous materials
Fibreboard Corporation 1920 to 1968 Roof paint, roll roofings with asbestos-containing base sheets, caulking compounds, plastic cements, taping and finishing compounds
General Aniline and Film Corporation NA Roofing asphalt
Johns-Manville Corporation 1891 through 1983 Asphalt-asbestos shingles, rag-felt shingles, fibrous roof coating, shingle tab cement, roof putty
Kaylite Company NA Asbestos surface coating for shingles
National Gypsum Company 1941 through 1981 Roofing and shingles
Monroe Company NA Asbestos surface coatings for shingles
Rhone-Poulenc Ag Company Early 1930s through 1976 Adhesives, coatings, sealants, and mastics
United States Gypsum Company 1930 through 1977 Paper and felt
Slide credit Jon Powell, Innovative Waste
Consulting Services, 3rd Asphalt Shingle
Recycling Forum, 11/2/07
24
Aggregated asbestos test results
  • Data from processors in Maine, Iowa, Florida,
    Missouri, Minnesota, and Massachusetts
  • Data available for 27,694 samples collected
  • 18 detections asbestos content lt1
  • 408 detections asbestos content gt1 (ACM)
  • Overall, asbestos detections in 426 samples
  • Approximately 1.53
  • About 1.47 of samples were ACM

Slide credit Jon Powell, Innovative Waste
Consulting Services, 3rd Asphalt Shingle
Recycling Forum, 11/2/07
25
Their summary of asbestos
  • Asbestos was phased out of asphalt shingles by
    the early 1980s.
  • Service life of an asphalt shingle is around two
    decades, /-. Roofs may have two or three
    built-up layers
  • ..so a load of shingles may contain shingles of
    varying age.
  • Of 27,000 samples tested, asbestos was detected
    in 1.5.
  • Many detections attributed to other materials
    (e.g., mastic) attached to samples.
  • Consistent with the fact that asbestos was mostly
    phased out in the 1970s, typical reported service
    life for asphalt shingles is 15-25 years
  • Obtaining/sourcing uncontaminated material should
    further reduce incidence of asbestos in samples

Slide credit Jon Powell, Innovative Waste
Consulting Services, 3rd Asphalt Shingle
Recycling Forum, 11/2/07
26
Their summary of PAHs
  • Shingles naturally contain PAHs (asphalt contains
    PAHs).
  • Discarded asphalt shingles not found to readily
    leach PAHs. Related studies on virgin roofing
    asphalt, reclaimed asphalt pavement, and run-off
    from asphalt pavement indicated PAH
    concentrations below the laboratory detection
    limits.
  • However, since that study some acceptable levels
    have decreased
  • Additional data are required to detect these
    samples at lower concentrations
  • PAHs are emitted during normal HMA production
  • Pollution control equipment reduces PAH
    concentrations
  • The effect of using post-consumer asphalt
    shingles in HMA on PAHs is unknown
  • A study in Texas is investigating this issue. No
    data yet.

Slide credit Jon Powell, Innovative Waste
Consulting Services, 3rd Asphalt Shingle
Recycling Forum, 11/2/07
27
Their recommendations
  • Paper contains authors recommendations to both
    facilities and regulatory agencies for minimizing
    environmental risks and worker health risks
  • Operations plan
  • Monitoring and QA plan
  • End-use plan

28
Questions to Consider
  • What kind of permits or changes do I need for my
    facility or to get a beneficial use license?
  • What kind of testing must I do to satisfy the
    regulators with respect to asbestos or anything
    else?
  • What kind of pilot or test project would be
    required to prove the material to satisfy DOT?
  • DOT avoids liability (engineering, environmental)

See presentation by Randy McMullin, Maine DEP,
3rd Asphalt Shingle Recycling Forum, 11/2/07!
29
Economics
  • Transportation is the limiting factor
  • Tear-offs generated in populated areas, road
    network denser in populated areas.
  • Recyclers tipping fee must be competitive with
    landfill tipping fee
  • End user (especially DOT) wants to save

30
Market Challenges
  • Tear-offs usually contain various contaminants
    nails, wood, demolition debris, household refuse,
    and on very rare occasions asbestos
  • Specifications needed, even for non-road
    applications in some states
  • Hot-mix plant operators preference for adding
    recycled asphalt shingles varies
  • Logistics to collect and transfer tear-offs to
    hot-mix plants lacks widespread workable
    infrastructure

List from Husnu Kalkanoglu, CERTAINTEED, 3rd
Asphalt Shingle Recycling Forum, 11/2/07
31
www.shinglerecycling.org






32
Resources
  • EPA Region 5s CD Recycling Website
  • www.epa.gov/reg5rcra/wptdiv/solidwaste/debris/inde
    x.htm
  • EPA Region 5s Brownfields Recycling Website
  • www.epa.gov/reg5rcra/wptdiv/solidwaste/debris/brow
    nfields/index.htm
  • City of Chicago CD Recycling website
  • Cityofchicago.org/environment
  • WMRC Green Development Construction Program
  • www.wmrc.uiuc.edu/main_sections/tech_assist/green_
    development.cfm

33
Questions?
  • Julie Gevrenov
  • Environmental Engineer
  • U.S. EPA Region 5
  • Materials Management Branch
  • gevrenov.julie_at_epa.gov
  • 312-886-6832
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