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Causes of conflicts can be found in three basic areas.


He takes a break to go into town to buy a pair of jeans. How do People Cope with Conflict? ... Not surprisingly, the families find these words far from reassuring. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Causes of conflicts can be found in three basic areas.

  • Causes of conflicts can be found in three basic
  • They are conflicts about resources, conflicts
    about needs, and conflicts about values.
  • Every conflictno matter how smallhas the
    power to damage relationships to the point of
    total destruction. Sometimes finding the source
    of the conflict is difficultespecially if there
    hasnt been a pattern of settling accounts in a
    relationship. Minor offenses pile up and then
    there are a number of unresolved issues to
    tackle. Resolving conflicts as they occur makes
    it easier to define the cause or source of each
    one. Remember to keep short accounts with your
    friends and family by addressing conflicts as
    they occur. Relationships are too important to

Forms of Expository Writing
  • An essay
  • A feature article
  • A report
  • A letter
  • An editorial

Expository Essays
  • You are required to explain or expose the main
    ideas generated by the prompt.
  • In other words you are to discuss an
    interpretation of the Context using Omagh as a
    springboard for your ideas.
  • There are many forms of writing that are
    considered expository. In the SAC you can choose
    your own but in the exam, it will be given to

Forms of Persuasive Writing
  • A letter to the editor
  • A speech
  • A review
  • An essay
  • An opinion or comment piece

Persuasive Writing
  • Persuasive writing invites you to respond to the
    Context by presenting a point of view on it. You
    need to argue a clear perspective of the issue
    raised by the prompt. You are invited to present
    a biased reading of the Context and to argue a
    point of view with evidence to support this
    stance from the set texts and other knowledge you
    have from the outside world.

Explanation of Decisions
  • I would like to respond to this prompt by
    writing an expository essay as I think this will
    enable me to discuss my ideas in a more balanced
    manner. I will focus on Omagh and other media
    events to illustrate my view. I would like my
    essay to be published in a magazine that is
    targeted to those who like to think about the
    ways people interact with each other.

Explanation of Decisions
  • I have chosen to write about this Context in an
    essay because I would like to present a serious
    discussion about the idea of conflict and how it
    shapes our lives. I believe the film Omagh
    generates much discussion on this prompt. I think
    an expository essay would be suitable for a
    journal that focuses on how conflict has affected
    many people in Northern Ireland and beyond.

What is Conflict?
  • Conflict is probably the easiest place to
    start. To come into conflict is to experience
    opposition, to struggle to feel anatagonism, to
    experience controversy. This conflict might be
    about ownership, relationships or principals. As
    a society we often assume that conflict is a bad
    thing, but in fact there are some battles that
    need to be fought and there are times when
    conflict is necessary as the impetus to finding a
    resolution to a problem. There are other times
    when conflict is negative and distructive. The
    term encountering raises some interesting
    issues. One could encounter conflict by being a
    participant in it, but also by being an observer
    to it. It is possible to be caught up in a larger
    conflict and to live with the results of a
    conflict in which you play no part. Its a very
    broad Context that we are dealing with. One of
    the ways that we will consider this Context is to
    study texts that deal with people Encountering

Vocabulary- 15 August 1998
Atrocity Obliterated Devastation Innocence Unwitti
ngly Atrocities Incompatible Diametrically
Opposite Provocative Contentious Irreconcilable An
imosity Skirmish subversive
Innocuous Dissent Discordance At variance
Antagonistic Incongruous Collide Recrimination Ru
pture Tension Friction Faction Breach
Collision of beliefs Hostile reaction Incapable
of living together Confrontation Embroiled Affray
Acquiesce Acrimonious Appease Tension Avoidance
style Collaborative style
  • Consumed
  • Obsessed
  • Bickering
  • Malevolence
  • Scrimmage
  • Feud
  • Altercation
  • Turmoil
  • Bellicose
  • Belligerent
  • Vendetta
  • Mutinous
  • Enrage
  • Defiance
  • Daring

Reckless Caution Challenge Rebellious Terror Tacti
cal Militant Retaliate Deterrent Champion Vindicat
e Custodian Entrenched Resistance Indomitable unyi
Quiet gladiator Crusader Campaigner
Inner Conflict
Michael Gallagher is unwittingly drawn into the
conflict because of the death of his son,
Aiden. Michael Gallagher is motivated into
action to seek justice for his son. He refuses to
let his sons death pass unresolved, his sons
life has to have meaning. Mr Adams, my brother
was murdered by an IRA gunman in 1984. No
witnesses came forward for that either. So they
got away. I agree with you - let's put the past
behind us. That was my brother then. But this is
my son now.
A Resolution to Conflict
  • The troubles in Ireland can only be resolved for
    Michael Gallagher if he actively assists in
    attaining justice for those who died.

Michael is activated to the point of obsession.
He is consumed by his sons death.
Conflict can propel people out of their comfort
zone to act for the common good.
  • The war is supposed to be over. You say you want
    to build a new Northern Ireland. A peaceful
    Northern Ireland. But how can we build a peaceful
    Northern Ireland unless you help us bring his
    killers to justice?

Michael Gallagher can only move on if he actively
takes on the perpetrators of the atrocities.
  • To have that knowledge, however distressing,
    however shocking means that we can at last move

Pursuing justice means that Michael Gallagher can
move forward.
Resolving conflict can cause people to change
Notice how strong the placid Michaels speech has
  • We speak for the victims of terrorism of
    whatever tradition. And all those victims of
    terror wherever it happens. We will not go away.
    We will not be quiet. We will not be forgotten.

People are drawn unwittingly into conflict
  • A few hours later, Aiden makes the worst
    decision of his young life.
  • He takes a break to go into town to buy a pair
    of jeans.

How do People Cope with Conflict?
  • His wife, Patsy (Michele Forbes), is not so
    lucky. bereavement, takes people in different
    ways, and for her the ceaseless round of meetings
    and telephone calls becomes
  • unbearable. She
  • retreats into
  • solitude,feeling
  • she's lost
  • husband as well
  • as son.

How do we deal with conflict?
  • The search for answers begins to take over
    Michaels life, offering some consolation and
    distraction to him as a way of directing his
    grief. His wife finds much of her husbands
    increasingly absorbed involvement in the case
    very difficult, feeling she has lost not only her
    son but also her husband.

Patsy Gallagher
  • Patsy is stressed, she smokes, her home is no
    as clean and orderly as it used to be. Her
    daughter says that she has these days when she
    sleeps, when shes too sad to get up. She
    questions her husband, Who are you doing this
  • She is stressed, the phone rings and the
    media are constantly at their door, their home is
    part of a media circus, I cant do this
    anymore, she states but her husband replies, We
    cant stop now, weve just started.

Sensitivity to those who died- Making the film
can cause conflict.
  • Making a film about the Omagh atrocity was never
    going to be an easy task. Sensitivities are raw
    for some it's too soon there are the inevitable
    conflicting viewpoints.
  • And above all, there
    are the unresolved truths about what
    happened and whether it could have been

To overcome adversity, groups need to combine
forces to fight for their cause.
  • But throughout the last five years, a group of
    families the Omagh Support and Self Help Group
    have been pursuing a patient, determined,
    indomitable campaign to bring those responsible
    for the bomb to justice, and to hold to account
    politicians and police on both sides of the
    border who promised so much in the immediate
    aftermath of the atrocity but who in the
    families' eyes have delivered all too little.

  • Omagh was filmed in and around Dublin at the
    end of 2003. To film in Omagh would have been
    insensitive and inappropriate, particularly when
    it came to recreating the explosion of the bomb.
    This was filmed in the town of Navan, near
    Dublin, where the centre of Omagh was recreated.

The director, Pete Travis, is sensitive to the
feelings of the inhabitants of Omagh
Politicians distance themselves from the conflict
-Jerry Adams
  • A pious Gerry Adams offers a smoothly couched
    speech denouncing this "dreadful and appalling
    outrage" and offering sympathy but absolutely no
    help in identifying the bombers.

When you encounter conflict, how do you act when
the powers that be are unconcerned?
  • The RUC offers evasions and denials, delivered
    with blustering rhetoric by its Chief Constable.
    "You have to trust us," he says. "Otherwise what
    else is there?" Not surprisingly, the families
    find these words far from reassuring. They've
    begun to feel as if they're trapped in a maze of
    assertion and counter-assertion, all of it
    bolstering their growing suspicion that nobody is
    going to do anything more about finding and
    convicting the killers for fear of further
    disrupting the peace process.

  • in the polarised climate
  • Our unwillingness to engage in dialogue with
    those who dont share our view of the world has
    brought us to an impasse.

How does the film depict conflict?
  • Pete Travis juxtaposes the tranquillity of
    country Northern Ireland with the darkness of the
    clandestine meetings.
  • The shaky hand held camera constantly reminds the
    audience that the community of Omagh and indeed,
    Northern Ireland is in conflict.
  • Initially, the silence of those making the bomb
    is juxtaposed against the friendly small talk of
    the citizens of Omagh as they go about their day
    to day business.
  • The constant ringing of phones also puts the
    audience on edge.

Notes from the film
  • Conflict shatters relationships
  • Innocent lives are drawn unwittingly into the
  • Conflict can also cement families and make them
    protective towards each other, Dont let your
    mammy watch the t.v.
  • Families try to get back to normal but in the
    face of such loss, this is impossible, some like
    Lawrence Rush experience anger.

  • Maybe it takes someone to become angry to be the
    catalyst to deal with the conflict ie Rush
    initiates the meeting. Then it needs someone
    calm, like Gallagher to lead the resolution in a
    calm manner.
  • The effect of conflict can also be to obliterate
    a persons beliefs. and now some of us have no
  • The effect can also encourage a sense of
    community, Were going to have to do this

  • Conflict can cause some to question their
    beliefs, and now some of us have no God.
    Michael Gallagher.
  • It makes some join together to solve their
    problems. were going to have to do this
  • Gallagher realises that action is necessary for
    change but that action must be done in a
    civilised manner, we must retain our dignity.

Conflict and those in power
  • They have been told to go quietly so that
    the authorities can go on with the peace process.
  • Gallagher refuses to shake hands with Gerry
  • Adams calls the Omagh bombing an appalling
    atrocity and states that Sinn Fein and the
    Republican community would like to do everything
    possible to assist. He says that I dont know
    who is responsible, but he doesnt try too hard
    to find out. He tells Gallagher that these
    people are as much our enemies as yours. He asks
    Gallagher to put the past behind, and that we
    cannot jeopardise the peace process. He is the
    practical politician who states that the peace
    process is the main concern and that this is the
    reality we face. But this is not so easy when
    Gallagher has lost a brother and now a son to the
    IRA. It would appear that generational hatred for
    each other will be difficult to break.

Those in Power
  • Lawrence Rush, If you think youve been told the
    whole truth, you are more stupid and naïve than I
  • There were more than 2000 unsolved murders since
    the beginning of the troubles…why should we be
    any different.

  • One mans terrorist may be anothers freedom

How is our response to the death and injuring of
civilians in times of conflict different from the
way we might respond to the death of soldiers or
other military personnel?
The making of the film
  • Recreating a real event requires a particular
    directorial approach. Here is what Pete Travis,
    the director of Omagh, says about this challenge
  • You cant approach the film in any other way than
    as if you are filming a fly-on-the-wall
    documentary what youre after is vivid realism.
    You want to tell a truthful story, so its all
    hand-held cameras, no lights, no artifice of any
    kind. You have to capture a moment in time and
    try to get it right first time.

The Making of the film
  • In Omagh the impressive camerawork of Donal
    Gilligan and editing work of Clive Barrett are
    important in establishing both the tension in the
    early stages and the intensity of peoples
    emotional states. Hand-held camerawork and close
    cross-cutting between different scenes and groups
    create a sense of both urgency and uncertainty.

  • Throughout the film we are gradually made aware
    of the difficulties facing the Omagh Support
    Group in their search for answers. We also see
    how absolutely devastated individuals are when
    they lose a family member in an act of violence
    that seems arbitrary and callous in its targeting
    of victims. We are made aware of how people
    define themselves through their behaviour and
    attitudes much of the expected anger does not
    manifest itself in raging but in compassionate
    and determined community action.

Think About…
  • Establishment scenes. How does the rapid
    cross-cutting between domestic family scenes, the
    bombers going about their work and the images of
    Omagh people setting up for a normal day create
    both tension and a sense of normality in the
    first part of the film?

Think About…
The search for Aiden. How is a sense of chaos and
disbelief shown in the section of the film
immediately following the explosion? Explain how
this part of the film also illustrates the
kindness of strangers. What are some of the
moving images we see that show the terrible and
indiscriminate destructive power of the bomb?
Think About…
3. Michael Gallagher at his first meeting of the
Omagh Support Group. How does Michaels
contribution to the meeting command respect and
suggest a way forward? 4. At the pub where the 32
Counties Sovereign Committee is meeting. When
the Omagh Support Group protest together to
persuade people not to assist the suspected
bombers and their backers meeting at the pub, we
see the expression of both public action and
private grief as part of a protest movement. How
does this scene crystallize the two worlds the
Gallaghers now move in?
Think About…
  • 5. Meeting with Gerry Adams, the leader of
    Sinn Fein, the political arm of the IRA and a
    leader in the continuing peace talks. Describe
    the different perspectives in the search for
    answers offered by the father and the politician.
    What is wrong with Adams advice we must put the
    past behind us?

Think About…
  • 6. Going home after meeting with police informer
    Fulton in the car. How does Michaels deepening
    involvement in finding the bombers and those who
    support them affect his wife and daughters?

Think About…
  • 7. Meeting with Chief Constable Ronnie Flanagan.
    How does this scene reveal the half-truths and
    lies underlying the spin used to try and
    reassure you all … that you must trust us? The
    briefing suggests others have been involved in
    the much compromised inquiry. Who are these

Think About…
  • 8. The Ombudsmans report. What are the main
    findings ofthe Police Ombudsmans reportin
    relation to the search for the Omagh bombers?
    When Michael reluctantly speaks to the press
    after the report has been presented, how does he
    respond to the results which essentially
    vindicate the efforts made by the Support Group?

  • Quotes who says the following to whom and in
    what context?
  • Number Quote Speaker and context
  • Move down to the bottom of the hill.
  • I have to find him. Hell be helping.
  • Aiden went to town to get some jeans. Theyre
    saying it was the Real IRA. I thought this was
    all supposed to be over.
  • Wheres our voice in all this?
  • They dont care as long as the bombs stay out of
  • 6. I havent put the TV on since the day we
    buried our Aiden … so I dont know whats going
    on. But I do know this. In this room theres
    Catholics, Protestants, Presbyterians and Mormons
    and some of us believe in God and some of us
    have no God. But were not going to get anywhere
    unless we do it together.
  • 7. I extend my deepest sympathies. You all have
    liaison officers?
  • 8. We all want to know when youll be pressing

9. Were still at the very early stages of a very
difficult enquiry. Were making good
progress. 10. Somebody called … he says he knows
who they are. Ive got the names. 11. Im not
talking to you as a politician. My heart goes out
to you in this terrible loss youve suffered …
we in Sinn Fein and the Republican community. We
have to make sure the peace process keeps moving
forward … put the past behind us. 12. I cant
do this any more … all I want to know is that
hes at peace. 13. The absence of prosecutions
is an increasing burden for the victims of the
Omagh bombings. 14. They knew about the bomb …
the army, MI5, the RUC. 15. There wont be any
prosecutions … if you ask me, they made a deal
to do with the peace process which cant be
16. Shes too sad to get up … who are you doing
it for … you should be here looking after
us. 17. The world of intelligence is difficult
and trying to anticipate intentions of a
terrorist organization like the real IRA is
difficult. We need good reliable information.
Kevin Fulton was a bad informer who made things
up for money. 18. He wasnt just my son … he was
my workmate. He was everything to me. 19. The
judgment of leadership of the Chief Constable
has been seriously flawed. Victims have been let
down. Because of a lack of urgency the chances
of detaining the Omagh bombers are now
significantly reduced. 20. They have failed us
before the bomb, after the bomb and now … We
speak for all those victims of terror … we will
not go away, we will not be quiet, we will not
be forgotten.