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Power System Reliability: adequacy-long term planning, procurement security, planning criteria, states of power system


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Title: Power System Reliability: adequacy-long term planning, procurement security, planning criteria, states of power system

Power System Reliability adequacy-long term
planning, procurement security, planning
criteria, states of power system
  • PSTI Bengaluru
  • 16th June 2011

Outline of presentation
  • Power system reliability
  • Adequacy and security
  • Concepts and terminologies
  • Load forecasting-long term
  • Generation planning and procurement security
  • Transmission planning criteria
  • States of power system

  • A measure of the ability of a system, generally
    given as numerical indices, to deliver power to
    all points of utilisation within acceptable
    standards and in amounts desired. Power system
    reliability (comprising generation and
    transmission distribution facilities) can be
    described by two basic functional attributes
    adequacy and security. (Cigré definition)
  • Reliability is the probability of a device or a
    system performing its function adequately, for
    the period of time intended, under the operating
    conditions intended. (IEEE PES definition)

  • Adequacy relates to the existence of sufficient
    facilities within the system to satisfy the
    consumer load demand at all times.
  • Security relates to the ability to withstand
    sudden disturbances

  • Adequacy
  • A measure of the ability of the power system to
    supply the aggregate electric power and energy
    requirements of the customers within components
    ratings and voltage limits, taking into account
    planned and unplanned outages of system
    components. Adequacy measures the capability of
    the power system to supply the load in all the
    steady states in which the power system may exist
    considering standards conditions. (Cigré

Analysis of reliability.hierarchial levels
  • Generation only (Level 1)
  • Generation Transmission (Level 2)
  • Generation Transmission Distribution (Level
  • Analysis involving level 3 are not generally done
    due to enormity of the problem.
  • Most of the probabilistic techniques for
    reliability assessment are with respect to
    adequacy assessment.

Reliability of a system
  • A system composed of large number of components
    connected in series and parallel.
  • Each component would have its own reliability.
  • Reliability of the system would depend on the
    reliability of individual component.
  • A chains strength would be governed by the
    weakest link.

Reliability Indices (1)
  • SAIFI System Average Interruption Frequency
    Index (int/yr. cust) Total number of customer
    interruptions / Total number of customers served
  • SAIDI System Average Interruption Duration
    Index (h/yr. cust) Customer interruption
    durations / Total number of customers served
  • CAIFI Customer Average Interruption Frequency
    Index (int./yr. cust) Total number of customer
    interruptions / Total number of customers
  • CAIDI Customer Average Interruption Duration
    Index (h/y. cust.) Customer interruption
    durations/ Total number of customer interruptions
  • CTAIDI Customer Total Average Interruption
    Duration Index (h/ y. cust) Customer
    interruption durations / Total number of
    customers interrupted

Reliability Indices (2)
  • ENS Energy Not Supplied (kwh/y.) Total
    energy not supplied UE Unserved Energy
  • AENS Average Energy Not Supplied (kwh/y.
    Cust.) Total energy not supplied / Total number
    of customers served
  • LOLP Loss of Load Probability The probability
    that the total production in system cannot meet
    the load demand

Reliability Indices (3)
  • Protection system
  • Selectability should operate for the conditions
    intended and should not for which not intended.
  • Dependability Number of correct operation
    devided by number of incorrect operations
  • Other Equipments, high reliability would mean
  • In repeated operations probability that the out
    would be within a narrow range.
  • Low variance or standard deviation of output

Loss of Load Probability (LOLP)
Optimal value of reliability
Optimal value of reliability (2)
  • The costs of the producer CR
  • The costs of the consumers CIC
  • CIC Customer Interruption Costs
    ( VOLL Value of Lost Load)
  • At the optimum ?CR - ? CIC ( -? VOLL)

Time scale involved in security analysis
Source IEEE tutorial 2006 Delhi, Mohd.
  • Security
  • A measure of power system ability to withstand
    sudden disturbances such as electric short
    circuits or unanticipated losses of system
    components or load conditions together with
    operating constraints. Another aspect of security
    is system integrity, which is the ability to
    maintain interconnected operation. Integrity
    relates to the preservation of interconnected
    system operation, or avoidance of uncontrolled
    separation, in the presence of specified severe
    disturbances. (Cigré definition)

Power System stability
Power System stability (contd/-)
Insufficient synchronizing torque
Load forecasting------long term
  • Electric Power Survey (EPS) reports are brought
    out by CEA once in five (5) years.
  • Last report (17th ) released in March 2007
    containing year wise projections up to 2011-12
    and perspective projections at the end of 2016-17
    and 2021-22
  • 18th EPS committee constituted in Jan 2010 and
    scheduled to give its report by October 2011.
    (year wise projections up to 2016-17 and
    perspective projections at the end of 2021-22 and

Electric Power Survey (contd/-)
  • Annual forecasts released up to 11th EPS in 1982.
    Thereafter EPS period coincided with Five Year
    Plan (12th EPS released in 1985).
  • 17th EPS considered the objectives enshrined in
    the National Electricity Policy.

Electric Power Survey (contd/-)
High deviation in peak load estimates for the
last two years!!
Electric Power Survey (contd/-)
  • Partial End Use Method (PEUM) adopted by CEA for
    load forecasts.
  • Electricity utilization in different sectors
  • All agricultural loads and industry/non-industry
    loads gt 1 MW
  • Railway traction demand also covered.
  • Alternate forecast based on econometric model
    done during 17th EPS under the guidance of Prof D
    N Rao, JNU. Projections found on lower side and

Guidelines/objectives for 18th EPS
  • Analyses projections of 17th EPS vis-à-vis
  • 2. To make separate electricity demand forecast
    for mega cities of population of 50 lakhs and
    above. The number of cities of population of 50
    lakhs or above will be around 7.
  • Categorization of rural/urban loads in the
    forecast may be in such a way to achieve 100
    rural electrification target.
  • Impact of energy conservation on electricity
    demand forecast.
  • Impact of inter sector linkages of power sector
    with other important sectors of the economy on
    electricity demand forecast.
  • Capture and adopt Demand Side Management in the
  • Capture and adopt TD loss reduction programme in
    the forecast.
  • 8. Annual updating of the electricity demand

Generation planning and procurement security
FA, FB and FC are the fixed costs, VA, VB and VC
the variable costs of above plants
How many outage hours to allow?
Load should be unserved in hours when the cost of
serving it would exceed Value Of Lost Load
(VOLL). Put algebraically, outage makes sense so
long as VOLL (Outage Hours) lt FA (VA
(Outage Hours)), and solving this gives us the
Peaking capacity versus mid-load plant?
Peakers are the least cost option so long as FA
X(VA) lt FB X(VB), and solving for X gives
us the number of hours that the last peaker built
How much peaking capacity to build?
Calculation of mid load and base load capacity
Generation planning
  • In a competitive market also, the mix of plant
    types are arrived at similar to centralized
    planning except that it is through a
    decentralized price discovery and profitability

Transmission planning
  • Once we have the load forecast and generation
    location, it is easy to identify where to build
    lines and how many.
  • In India the transmission planning is done as per
    the Manual on Transmission Planning Criteria
    prepared by CEA in June 1994

CEA Transmission planning criteria (1)
  • Section 2.2 The system shall be evolved based on
    detailed power system studies which shall include
  • Power flow studies
  • Short Circuit Studies
  • Stability Studies (including transient stability,
    voltage stability and steady state oscillatory
    stability studies)
  • EMTP studies to determine switching / temporary
  • Note Voltage stability, oscillatory stability
    and EMTP studies may not form part of perspective
    planning studies. These are however required to
    be done before any scheme report is finalised.

CEA Transmission planning criteria (2)
  • Section 2.4 The following options may be
    considered for strengthening of the
    transmission network.
  • Addition of new Transmission lines to avoid
    overloading of existing system. (whenever three
    or more circuits of the same voltage class are
    envisaged between two sub stations, the next
    transmission voltage should also be considered.)
  • Application of Series Capacitors in existing
    transmission line to increase power transfer
  • Upgradation of the existing AC transmission lines
  • Reconductoring of the existing AC transmission
    line with higher size conductors or with AAAC.
  • Adoption of multi-voltage level and multi-circuit
    transmission lines.

CEA Transmission planning criteria (3)
  • 2.5 ln case of generating station close to a
    major load centre, sensitivity of its complete
    closure with loads to be met (to the extent
    possible) from other generating stations (refer
    para 3.3.3) shall also be studied.
  • 2.6 In case of transmission system associated
    with Nuclear Power Stations there shall be two
    independent sources of power supply for the
    purpose of providing start-up power facilities.
    Further the angle between start-up power source
    and the NPP switchyard should be, as far as
    possible, maintained within 10 degrees.
  • 2.7 The evacuation system for sensitive power
    stations viz., Nuclear Power stations, shall
    generally be planned so as to terminate it at
    large load centres to facilitate islanding of
    the power station in case of contingency.
  • 2.8 Where only two circuits are planned for
    evacuation of power from a generating station,
    these should be ( as far as possible) two single
    circuit lines instead of a double circuit line.

CEA Transmission planning criteria (4)
  • 2.9 Reactive power flow through ICTs shall be
    minimal. Normally it shall not exceed l0 of the
    rating of the ICTs. Wherever voltage on HV side
    of ICT is less than 0.975 pu no reactive power
    shall flow through ICT.
  • 2.10 Thermal/nuclear Generating units shall
    normally not run at leading power factor.
    However, for the purpose of charging, generating
    unit may be allowed to operate at leading power
    factor as per the respective capability curve.

CEA Transmission planning criteria (5)
  • 3.2.1 The profile of annual and daily demands
    will be determined from past data. These data
    will usually give the demand at grid supply
    points and for the whole system identifying the
    annual and daily peak demand.
  • 3.2.2 Active Power (MW)
  • The system peak demands shall be based on the
    latest reports of Electric Power survey (EPS)
    Committee. ln case these peak load figures are
    more than the peaking availability, the loads
    will be suitably adjusted substation- wise to
    match with the availability. The load demands at
    other periods (seasonal variations and minimum
    loads) shall be derived based on the annual peak
    demand and past pattern of load variations. From
    practical considerations the load variations
    over the year shall be considered as under
  • Annual Peak Load
  • Seasonal variation in Peak loads (corresponding
    to high thermal and high hydro generation)
  • Minimum load.
  • Off -Peak Load relevant where Pumped Storage
    Plants are involved or inter-regional exchanges
    are envisaged.

CEA Transmission planning criteria (6)
  • 3.2.3 Reactive power (MVAR)
  • Reactive power plays an important role in EHV
    transmission system planning and hence forecast
    of reactive power demand on an area-wise or
    substation-wise basis is as important as active
    power forecast.
  • This will require compilation
    of past data in order to arrive at reasonably
    accurate load forecast. Recognising the fact that
    this data is presently not available it is
    suggested that pending availability of such data,
    the load power factor at 220/132 KV voltage
    levels shall be taken as 0.85 lag during peak
    load condition and 0.9 lag during light load
    condition excepting areas feeding predominantly
    agricultural loads where power factor can be
    taken as 0.75 and 0.85 for peak load and light
    load conditions respectively. In areas where
    power factor is less than the limit specified
    above, it shall be the responsibility of the
    respective utility to bring the load power factor
    to these limits by providing shunt capacitors at
    appropriate places in the system.

CEA Transmission planning criteria (7)
  • 3.3.1 Generation despatch assumptions..Table
    at Annex-1
  • 3.3.2 Generation despatches corresponding to the
    following operating conditions shall be
    considered depending on the nature and
    characteristics of the system
  • Annual Peak Load
  • Maximum thermal generation
  • Maximum hydro generation
  • Annual Minimum Load
  • Special area despatches
  • Special despatches corresponding to hi-uh
    agricultural load with low power factor, wherever
  • Off peak conditions with maximum pumping load
    where Pumped Storage stations exist and also with
    the inter-regional exchanges, if envisaged
  • Complete closure of a generating station close to
    a major load centre.

CEA Transmission planning criteria (8)
  • 4.0 Permissible line loading limits
  • 4.1 Permissible line loading limit depend on
    many factors such as voltage regulation,
    stability and current carrying capacity (thermal
    capacity) etc. While Surge Impedance Loading
    (SIL) gives a general idea of the loading
    capability of the line, it is usual to load the
    short lines above SIL and long lines lower than
    SIL (because of the stability limitations). SIL
    at different voltage levels is given at Annex
    -II. Annex-II also shows line loading (in terms
    of surge impedance loading of uncompensated line
    )as a function of line length assuming a voltage
    regulation of 5 and phase angular difference of
    30 degree between the two ends of the line. In
    case of shunt compensated lines, the SIL will
    get reduced by a factor k, where
  • k square root (1-degree of compensation)
  • For lines whose permissible line loading as
    determined from the curve higher than the
    thermal loading limit, permissible loading limit
    shall be restricted to thermal loading limit.

CEA Transmission planning criteria (9)
CEA Transmission planning criteria (10)
  • 4.2 Thermal loading limits..Annex-III

CEA Transmission planning criteria (11)
  • 5.0 Steady state voltage limits

Note The step change in voltage may exceed the
above limits where simultaneous double circuit
outages of 400 kV lines are considered. In such
cases it may be necessary to supplement dynamic
VAR resources at sensitive nodes.
CEA Transmission planning criteria (12)
  • 5.0 Steady state voltage limits

CEA Transmission planning criteria (13)
  • 6.0 Security Standards
  • 6.2 Steady state operation
  • i) As a general rule, the EHV grid system shall
    be capable of withstanding without necessitating
    load shedding or rescheduling of generation, the
    following contingencies
  • Outage of a 132 kV D/C line or,
  • Outage of a 220 kV D/C line or
  • Outage of 400 kV single circuit line or,
  • Outage of 765 kV single circuit line or
  • Outage of one pole of HVDC Bipolar line or
  • Outage of an Interconnecting Transformer
  • The above contingencies shall be considered
    assuming a precontingency system depletion
    (planned outage) of another 220 kV double circuit
    line or 400 kV single circuit line in another
    corridor and not emanating from the same
    substation. All the generating plants shall
    operate within their reactive capability curves
    and the network voltage profile shall also be
    maintained within voltage limits specified in
    para 5.

CEA Transmission planning criteria (14)
  • 6.0 Security Standards
  • 6.2 Steady state operation
  1. The power evacuation system from major generating
    station/complex shall be adequate to withstand
    outage of a 400 kV Double Circuit line if the
    terrain indicates such a possibility.
  2. In case of large load complexes with demands
    exceeding 1000 MW the need for load shedding in
    the event of outage of a 400 kV Double circuit
    line shall be assessed and kept minimum. System
    strengthening required, if any, on account of
    this shall be planned on an individual
    case-to-case basis.
  3. The maximum angular separation between any two
    adjacent buses shall not normally exceed 30

CEA Transmission planning criteria (15)
  • 6.0 Security Standards
  • 6.3 Stability considerations
  • A. Transient Stability
  • The system shall remain stable under the
    contingency of outage of single largest unit.
  • The system shall remain stable under the
    contingency of a temporary single-phase-to-ground
    fault on a 765 s/c kV line close to the bus
    assuming single pole opening of the faulted
    phase from both ends in 100 msec (5 cycles) and
    successful reclosure (dead time I sec).

CEA Transmission planning criteria (16)
  • 6.0 Security Standards
  • 6.3 Stability considerations

iii) The system shall be able to survive a single
phase-to-ground fault on a 400 kV line close to
the bus as per following criteria A. 400 kV
S/C line System shall be capable of
withstanding a permanent fault. Accordingly,
single pole opening ( 100 msec) of the faulted
phase and unsuccessful reclosure (dead time 1
sec.) followed by 3-pole opening (100 msec) of
the faulted line shall be considered. B. 400 kV
D/C line System shall be capable of
withstanding a permanent fault on one of the
circuits when both circuits are in service and a
transient fault when the system is already
depleted with one circuit under
maintenance/outage. Accordingly, 3 pole opening
(100 msec) of the faulted circuit shall be
considered when both circuits are assumed in
operation ( single pole opening and unsuccessful
auto-reclosure is not considered generally in
long 400 kV D/C lines since the reclosure
facility is bypassed when both circuits are in
operation, due to difficulties in sizing of
neutral grounding reactors) and single pole
opening ( 100 msec ) of the faulted phase with
successful reclosure (dead time I sec) when only
one circuit is in service.
CEA Transmission planning criteria (17)
  • 6.0 Security Standards
  • 6.3 Stability considerations
  • ln case of 220/132 kV networks, the system
    shall be able to survive a three-phase fault
    with a fault clearing time of 160 msec (8 cycles)
    assuming 3-pole opening.
  • The system shall be able to survive a fault in
    HVDC converter station resulting in permanent
    outage of one of the poles of HVDC bipoles.
  • B. Voltage stability
  • Each bus shall operate above knee point of Q-V
    curve under normal as well as the contingency
    conditions as discussed above in para 6.2.

CEA Transmission planning criteria (17)
  • 6.0 Security Standards
  • 6.3 Stability considerations

C. Steady State Oscillatory Stability The
steady state oscillatory stability may be
evaluated through Eigenvalue analysis. In case
all the real parts of Eigen-values of linearized
system matrix are negative, the system may be
considered to have steady state oscillatory
CEA Transmission planning criteria (18)
  • Reactive power compensation
  • 7.1 Shunt capacitors..provide as close to
    lower voltages
  • 7.2 Shunt reactors
  • 7.2.1 Switchable reactors shall be provided at
    EHV substations for controlling voltages within
    the limits defined in the Para 5 without
    resorting to switching-off of lines. The size of
    reactors should be such that under steady state
    condition, switching on and off of the reactors
    shall not cause a voltage change exceeding 5.
    The standard sizes (MVAR) of reactors are
  • 400 kV (3-phase units) 50, 63 and 80 (at 420
  • 765 kV (1-phase units) 50, 63 and 110 (at 800

CEA Transmission planning criteria (19)
  • Reactive power compensation
  • 7.2 Shunt reactors
  • 7.2.2 Fixed line reactors may be provided to
    control Temporary Power Frequency overvoltage
    (after all voltage regulation action has taken
    place within the limits as defined in para 5
    under all probable operating conditions.
  • 7.2.3 Line reactors (switchable/controlled
    fixed) may be provided if it is not possible to
    charge EHV line without exceeding the voltage
    limits defined in para 5. The possibility of
    reducing pre-charging voltage of the charging
    end shall also be considered in the context of
    establishing the need for reactors.

CEA Transmission planning criteria (20)
  • Reactive power compensation
  • 7.3 Static Var Compensation (SVC)
  • 7.3.1 Static Var Compensation shall be provided
    where found necessary to damp the power swings
    and provide the system stability under conditions
    defined in the para 6 on "security Standards ".
    The dynamic range of static compensators shall
    not be utilized under steady state operating
    condition as far as possible.

CEA Transmission planning criteria (21)
  • Sub-Station Planning Criteria
  • 8.2 The maximum fault level on any new
    substation bus should not exceed 80 of the
    rated rupturing capacity of the circuit breaker.
    The 20 margin is intended to take care of the
    increase in short- circuit levels as the system
    grows. The rated breaking current capability of
    switchgear at different voltage levels may be
    taken as

CEA Transmission planning criteria (22)
  • Sub-Station Planning Criteria
  • 8.4 The capacity of any single sub-station at
    different voltage levels shall not normally
  • 765 kV 2500 MVA
  • 400 kV 1000 MVA
  • 220 kV 320 MVA
  • 132 kV 150 MVA
  • 8.5 Size and number of interconnecting
    transformers (ICTs) shall be planned in such a
    way that the outage of any single unit would not
    over load the remaining ICT(s) or the underlying
  • 8.6 A stuck breaker condition shall not cause
    disruption of more than four feeders for 220kV
    system and two feeders for 400 kV system and one
    feeder for 765 kV system.

Power system operating states
Power system operating states (2)
  • Normal state
  • All system variables are in the normal range and
    no equipment is being overloaded. The system
    operates in a secure manner and is able to
    withstand a contingency without violating any of
    the constraints.

Power system operating states (3)
  • Alert state
  • Security level falls below a certain limit of
    adequacy or if the possibility of a disturbance
    increases due to adverse weather conditions such
    as the approach of severe storms. All system
    variables are still within the acceptable range
    and all constraints are satisfied. However the
    system has weakened to a level where a
    contingency may cause equipments to get
    overloaded and reach an emergency state. If the
    contingency is very severe we could land up
    directly in the in extremis state (extreme
  • Preventive actions such as a generation
    re-dispatch could bring the system back to normal
    state else it might remain in alert state.

Power system operating states (4)
  • Emergency state
  • Sufficiently severe disturbance under alert state
    leads to an emergency state. Voltages at many
    buses become low and equipment loading exceeds
    the short term emergency ratings. System is still
  • System can be restored back to alert state by
    emergency control actions such as fault clearing,
    excitation control, fast valving, generation
    tripping, generation runback, HVDC modulation and
    load shedding.

Power system operating states (5)
  • In extremis state
  • If the emergency measures are not applied or are
    ineffective, the system goes to in extremis
    state, the result is cascading outages and the
    possibility of shutdown of major part of the
  • Control actions such as load shedding and
    controlled separation could save much of the
    system from a possible blackout.

Power system operating states (6)
  • Restorative state
  • This represents a condition where control action
    is being taken to reconnect all the facilities as
    well as the affected loads.
  • System could either go directly to the normal
    state or through the alert state depending on the

  1. Roy Billinton and Ronald N Allan, Reliability
    Assessment of Large Electric Power Systems,
    Kluwer Academic Publishers
  2. Dr. Mohammad Shahidehpour, Electricity
    Restructuring and the role of security in power
    systems operation and planning, IEEE tutorial,
    April 2006, New Delhi
  3. P Kundur, Power System Stability and Control,
    Mc Graw Hill Inc.
  4. Brainstorming session and agenda for the first
    meeting of 18th EPS Committee on 27th August 2010
    available at CEA website http//www.cea.nic.in
  5. Manual on Transmission Planning Criteria, June
    1994, CEA
  6. Sally Hunt, Making Competition Work in
    Electricity, John Wiley and Sons, Appendix
    E----Building New generators, When, Where and How

Thank you
  • Discussion
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