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Plant Nutrition

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... Composition Organic and inorganic chemical component Fertility Importance of organic matter Topsoil Most important to plant growth Rich in organic matter ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Plant Nutrition


1
Plant Nutrition
  • Powerpoint adopted from http//209.85.173.132/sea
    rch?qcacheMhSZ0kbKXowJteachers.sduhsd.net/lolso
    n/AP2520Biology/Powerpoint2520files/35Ch37PlantN
    utrition2005a.pdfapbiologyplantnutritionhlen
    ctclnkcd2gluslrlang_enclientsafari
  • http//www.holmdel.k12.nj.us/faculty/cconover-pann
    one/Plants/Plant20Nutrition.pdf

2
Nutritional Needs
  • Autotrophic does not mean autonomous
  • Plants need
  • Sun as an energy source
  • Inorganic compounds as raw materials
  • Water (H2O)
  • CO2
  • minerals

3
Essential Elements
  • Macronutrients (needed in relatively large
    amounts)
  • Carbon (C)
  • Oxygen (O)
  • Hydrogen (H)
  • Nitrogen (N)
  • Phosphorous (P)
  • Sulfur (S)
  • Potassium (K)
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • Micronutrients (needed in very small amounts)
  • Chlorine
  • Iron
  • Manganese
  • Boron
  • Zinc
  • Copper
  • Nickel
  • Molybdenum

4
Nutrient Deficiency
  • Lack of essential nutrients
  • Exhibit specific symptoms
  • Dependent on function of nutrient
  • Dependent on solubility of nutrient

5
Water and mineral uptake
  • Water uptake
  • Plants cannot extract all water from soil, only
    free water
  • osmosis
  • Cation uptake
  • Cation uptake is aided by H secreation by root
    cells (proton pump)
  • Active transport

6
The Role of Soils
  • Plants are dependent on soil quality
  • Texture/structure
  • Relative amounts of various sizes
  • of soil particles
  • Composition
  • Organic and inorganic
  • chemical component
  • Fertility

7
Importance of organic matter
  • Topsoil
  • Most important to plant growth
  • Rich in organic matter
  • Humus
  • Decomposing organic material
  • Breakdown of dead organisms, feces, fallen leaves
    other organic refuse by bacteria and fungi
  • Improves soil texture
  • Reservoir of minerals

8
Importance of organic matter, cont.
  • Topsoil, cont.
  • Organisms
  • 1 teaspoon of topsoil has 5 billion
  • bacteria living with fungi, algae,
  • protists, insects, earthworms,
  • and nematodes

9
Soil health as a global issue
  • Lack of soil conservation
  • Growing wheat
  • Raising cattle
  • Land exposed to wind erosion
  • Drought
  • Soil conservation and sustainable agriculture
  • Maintaining healthy environment
  • Production of food supply
  • Economically viable farming industry

10
Global Issues
  • Fertility
  • Erosion
  • Irrigation
  • Forestry destruction

11
Fertilizer
  • Organic fertilizers
  • Manure, compost, fishmeal
  • Chemical fertilizers
  • Commercially manufactured
  • N-P-K ratio

12
Irrigation
  • Most often the limiting factor in plant growth
  • Issues
  • US rivers reduced to trickles by diversions of
    water
  • Soil becomes salty and infertile

13
Erosion
  • Topsoil - lost to water and wind erosion
  • Precautions
  • Trees as windbreaks
  • Hillside crops
  • Contour pattern
  • Sustainable Agriculture

14
Soil Reclamation
  • Removal and storage of contaminated soils
  • New method phytoremediation
  • Biological, nondestructive
  • cheap

15
Nitrogen Fixation
N2 (gas)
N2 (gas)
Atmosphere
Soil
Denitrifying bacteria
Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria
H (from soil)
NH4 (ammonium)
Nitrifying bacteria
NH3 (ammonia)
NO3- (nitrate)
NH4
Ammonifying Bacteria
Root
Organic material (humus)
16
Soybean Root Nodule
  • N fixation by Rhizobium bacteria
  • Symbiotic relationship between nitrogen-fixing
    bacteria and legumes
  • Bacteroids inside nodules form

17
Mycorrhizae and Plant Nutrition
  • Symbiotic relationship
  • Mycorrhizal fungus gets sugars from the plant
  • In return, mycorrhizal fungus provides better
    absorption of water and minerals for the plant
  • Ectomycorrhizae
  • versus
  • Endomycorrhizae

18
Unusual Adaptations
  • Epiphytes
  • Grows on branches and
  • trunks of trees
  • Staghorn ferns, orchids
  • Parasitic Plants
  • Absorbs sugars and
  • minerals from living hosts
  • Mistletoe, dodder, and Indian pipes

19
  • Carnivorous Plants
  • Photosynthetic, but obtain minerals and nutrients
    by killing insects and other small animals
  • Venus flytraps, pitcher plants, sundews
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