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Zool 4409/5409 Comparative Animal Physiology

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Zool 4409/5409 Comparative Animal Physiology * Zool 4409/5409 * * Zool 4409/5409 Figure 1.6 Mixed conformity and regulation in a single species * Zool 4409/5409 Basic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Zool 4409/5409 Comparative Animal Physiology


1
Zool 4409/5409 Comparative Animal Physiology
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Introduction
  • Introduction
  • Basic Principles of Physiology

4
Introduction
  • Animal physiology is an attempt to answer the
    question- How do animals work?
  • Requires a background in chemistry, physics,
    anatomy and zoology
  • physiological principles follow basic laws of
    physics and chemistry
  • Principally a science of the last 3 centuries

5
Hemodynamics
Q blood flow rate (mL/sec) P pressure
difference between ends of vessels R
resistance
P
Q
R
P2
P1
6
OHM'S LAW
Georg Simon Ohm
  • V I x R
  • V/R I
  • I, current R, resistance V, voltage

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Introduction (cont)
  • I. Search for generalizations
  • Can we study the heart of a frog and make
    predictions about how the human heart works?
  • Can we study nerve function in an invertebrate
    and learn how our nervous system works?

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YES!
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  • At the cellular level, there are many
    similarities in function among all animals
  • Animals cells use ion movement across the cell
    membrane to maintain water balance.
  • Plant cells use a thick cell wall in plants.

12
At the organ system level, many similarities
amongst the vertebrates
  • Frog skeletal muscle is great for lab study.
  • Can be maintained at low temps.
  • Low oxygen demands.
  • Most of what we know about how human muscle works
    is based on frog studies.

13
  • All animals are faced with the same sorts of
    physiological problems
  • obtain and digest food
  • supply oxygen to tissues
  • get rid of carbon dioxide and other wastes
  • maintain body fluids
  • study how a system works in a simple model and
    learn how this works in humans

14
Introduction (cont)
  • II. Search for oddities (gee-whiz physiology)
  • How do fish survive in the seas off antarctica?
  • How do some animals such as turtles survive after
    their body fluids have frozen?

15
Fish around Antarctica spend their entire lives
at body temperatures near 1.9C
16
McMurdo Sound, Antarctica
Trematomus bernacchii
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Antifreeze glycoproteins
18
Introduction (cont)
  • Knowledge of how animals adapt to extreme
    environmental problems may be useful for learning
    about human performance in extreme situations
    eg. Space, underseas, etc.

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Bar-headed Goose- Fly at 30,000 feet Unique
hemoglobin
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  • III. Knowledge for Knowledges sake
  • basic science is required for all advances and
    applications in science
  • emphasis on product-oriented science will
    result in fewer new discoveries.

22
Introduction (cont)
  • IV. Physiology is the cornerstone of human
    medicine.
  • Good physicians must have a solid understanding
    of how the body functions normally in order to
    diagnose disease

23
Basic Principles of Physiology
  • I. Form follows function
  • over time (geologic time), form evolves with
    function

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Basic Principles of Physiology
  • II. Homeostasis
  • Ability to regulate internal environment within
    narrow limits
  • Homeostasis balance
  • Claude Bernard (maintenance of the internal
    milieu, late 1800s)
  • Walter Cannon (coined the term homeostasis,
  • early 1900s).

28
Basic Principles of Physiology
  • II. Homeostasis (cont)
  • Maintained by multiple control systems
  • eg. Blood pressure is regulated by both
    short-term (seconds) and long-term (min, hr,
    days, wks)

29
Control systems involved in blood pressure
regulation
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Disruption of homeostasis- stress
Stressor
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Figure 1.6 Mixed conformity and regulation in a
single species
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Basic Principles of Physiology
  • III. Regulatory systems
  • Nervous system
  • integrate learning

DETECT INTEGRATE RESPOND
storage
retrieval
36
Basic Principles of Physiology
  • III. Regulatory systems (cont)
  • Endocrine system

blood
hormone
stimulus
endocrine cell
Target
RESPONSE
37
Neuroendocrine Integration
Endocrine system
Nervous system
Neuroendocrine system
Endocrine organs cannot detect environmental chang
es on their own- they require input from nervous
system
38
Basic Principles of Physiology
  • IV. Feedback control
  • Negative feedback
  • reduces the difference between the output and
    setpoint. eg. thermostat

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  • Positive feedback
  • increases difference between outpoint and
    setpoint

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Feedback Control of Body Temperature
HBC
Higher brain center
Set point 98.6o F
-
THERMORECEPTORS
integration
hypothalamus
coordination
hypothalamus
effector
eg., muscle
Response
43
Basic Principles of Physiology
  • V. Critical thinking and the scientific method
  • A. Inductive reasoning
  • B. Hypothesis
  • C. Deductive reasoning
  • D. Testing hypothesis

44
Basic Principles of Physiology
  • A. Inductive reasoning-Francis Bacon, 1620
  • Collecting information in an unbiased way.
  • In 1620 Bacon published Novum Organum (Or True
    Directions Concerning the Interpretation of
    Nature)

45
Without inductive reasoning
  • Example of bad science
  • gt400 years ago, Bishop Usher concluded that the
    earth began on October 9th, 4004 BC, 930 AM by
    counting the number of begats.

46
TRUE DIRECTIONS CONCERNING THE INTERPRETATION OF
NATURE Francis Bacon 1620
  • The formation of ideas and axioms by true
    induction is no doubt the proper remedy to be
    applied for the keeping off and clearing away of
    idols. To point them out, however, is of great
    use.

47
The Four Idols of Bacon that Prevent Accurate
Interpretations of Nature
  • The Idols of the Tribe-erroneous preconceived
    ideas common to ones tribe or community

48
The Four Idols of Bacon that Prevent Accurate
Interpretations of Nature
  • The Idols of the Cave- erroneous beliefs of ones
    mind individuals tend to favor their own ideas

49
The Four Idols of Bacon that Prevent Accurate
Interpretations of Nature
  • The Idols of the Marketplace- everyday language
    is not sufficient for describing scientific ideas

50
The Four Idols of Bacon that Prevent Accurate
Interpretations of Nature
  • The Idols of the Theatre- adherence to
    theological and philosophical modes of thought
    where truth is deduced from what is assumed to be
    true.

51
Hypothesis Follows Observation
  • B. A hypothesis is a testable prediction,
    falsifiable. Ie., based on data, we can either
    accept or reject the hypothesis.

52
  • Falsifiable hypothesis
  • The adrenal gland is involved in regulating blood
    sugar.
  • Based on data we accept or reject hypothesis.
  • Non-falsifiable hypothesis
  • God created the earth in 7 days. This hypothesis
    cant be falsified.

53
  • NOTE Nothing is ever proven or disproven in
    science.
  • Scientific theories are accepted or rejected
    based on collection of evidence.

54
Basic Principles of Physiology
  • C. Deduction-
  • if adrenal gland is involved in regulating blood
    sugar, then removing adrenal should alter blood
    sugar.
  • D. Testing hypothesis- state of the art
    technology.

55
Theory of evolution
  • Populations increase
  • variability within species
  • resources are limited
  • those best fit to utilize resources reproduce and
    survive -
  • Descent with modification!

56
Industrial melanism in Biston betularia (see
H.B.D. Kettelwell.  1973.  Industrial Melanism. 
Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, U.K.)
  • Two forms of the pepper moth in Britain, light
    form and melanistic form
  • Single gene difference leads to more melanin
    pigment synthesis
  • In the last 150 years, switch from fewer to more
    melanistic forms

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Basic Principles of Physiology
archeology
geoscience
paleontology
Theory of Evolution (Descent with modification)
biochemistry
molecular biology
59
OTHER THEORIES RELATED TO PHYSIOLOGY
  • CELL THEORY
  • THEORY OF GENETIC INHERITANCE
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