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Greek Myths

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... and only gentle winds blew to set the flowers dancing. ... See, here comes one of the Greeks now!' 'He is but a slave!' cried another. 'Come here, fellow! ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Greek Myths


1
Greek Myths and Legends
2
In Greece, there stood a high mountain range
whose summit rushed into the heavens. On the top
of the range, Olympus was the home of the Gods.
3
He is also the user of thunderbolt.(??,??)
Zeus ruled as the father of gods and men.
4
Next to him was Hera, his Proud and jealous queen.
5
Neptune was the ruler of the sea.
6
Hades was king of the lower world.
7
Apollo was the god of the sun, music, poetry and
prophecy.
8
Athena, the goddess of wisdom and patroness of
domestic arts, personified pure intellect.
9
Mars was the god of war.
10
The charming Venus was the goddess of love and
beauty……
11
Narcissus(???)
12
Narcissus was a handsome young man who had hair
as yellow as gold and eyes as blue as the sky. He
had a twin sister whom he loved better than
anyone else in the world. This sister died when
she was young and very beautiful. Narcissus
missed her very much that he wished he might die
too.
13
One day, as he sat on the ground by a river,
looking absently(?????) into the water and
thinking of his lost sister, he saw a face like
hers, looking up at him. It seemed as if his
sister had become a water nymph and were
actually there in the water, but she would not
speak to him.
14
Of course the face Narcissus saw was really the
reflection of his own face in the water, but he
did not know that. So Narcissus leaned over the
water and looked at the beautiful face so like
his sisters, and wondered what it was and
whether he should ever see his sister again.
15
After this, he came back to the river day after
day and looked at the face he saw there, and
mourned(??,??) for his sister. At last, the gods
felt sorry for him and changed him into a flower.
This flower was the first narcissus. All the
flowers of this family, when they grow by the
side of a pond or a stream, still bend their
beautiful heads and look at the reflection of
their own faces in the water.
16
Now people often use Narcissus to refer to the
people who love themselves very much.
17
Pandoras Box
??????
18
A very long time ago, in the Golden Age, everyone
was good and happy. It was always spring the
earth was covered with flowers, and only gentle
winds blew to set the flowers dancing. And people
were never ill they had no troubles of anything
and never grew old.
19
The two brothers, Prometheus and Epimetheus,
lived in those wonderful days. After stealing the
fire for man, Prometheus, knowing that Zeus would
be angry, decided to go away for a time on a
distant journey but before he went, he warned
Epimetheus not to receive any gifts from the gods.
20
One day the messenger of Zeus led a beautiful
young woman called Pandora to Epimetheus. She was
made by Zeus to punish the two brothers. Every
god contributed something to perfect her. Venus
gave her beauty, Apollo music, etc. The messenger
said the gods had sent this gift to keep
Epimetheus from feeling lonely.
21
Pandora had such a lovely face that Epimetheus
could not help believing that the gods had sent
her to him in good faith(?????). So he paid no
attention to the warning of Prometheus, but took
Pandora into his house, and found that the days
passed much more quickly and pleasantly when she
was with him.
22
Soon the gods sent Epimetheus another gift. This
was a heavy box with directions that it was not
to be opened. He let it stand in a corner of his
house for by this time he had begun to think
that the caution of Prometheus about receiving
gifts from the gods was altogether unnecessary.
23
Often, Epimetheus was away all day. On such days,
Pandora had nothing to do but to wonder what was
in the mysterious box. One day her curiosity was
so great that she lifted the lid in a very little
way and peeped in. The result was similar to what
would have happened had she lifted the cover of a
beehive.
24
Out rushed a great swarm of little winged
creatures, and before Pandora knew what had
happened, she was stung. She dropped the lid and
ran out of the house, screaming. Epimetheus, who
was just coming in at the door, was well stung,
too. The little winged creatures that Pandora had
set free were troubles, the first that had ever
been seen in the world. They soon flew about and
spread themselves everywhere, make troubles
whenever they got the chance.
25
After this, the peaceful world was broken. People
began to have headaches, rheumatism(???), and
other illnesses And they became unfriendly and
quarrelsome. They began to grow old, too. Nor was
it always spring any longer. .All the troubles
escaped from the box, but when Pandora let the
lid fall so quickly, she shut in one little
winged creature, a kind of good fairy whose name
was Hope.
26
This little Hope persuaded Pandora to let her
out. As soon as she was free, she flew about in
the world, reducing all the evil that the
troubles had done. No matter what evil thing had
happened to poor mortals, she always found some
way to comfort them. So this is the way that
Troubles came into the world, but we must not
forget
that Hope came with them.
27
Now people use Pandoras Box to indicate
something that can not be touched.
28
War Against Troy
29
Helen of Sparta, loveliest woman of the ancient
world, and she was always spoken of as one of the
immortals. Such was Helen and to a world for
which the Greek Helen cannot die, such is Helen
still. (?????,?????????????????,???????)
30
(No Transcript)
31
The marriage of Helen to King Menelaus of Sparta
was attended by all the noblest princes of the
Grecian(???) cities and islands. There was
Menelaus brother Agamemnon, who was the most
dignity king there was Ulysses who was the
wisest prince and there were many great princes
of hardly less note. They had all been
wooers(???) for the hand of Helen, and after she
had chosen Menelaus as her husband, they remained
to join in the wedding festival.
32
On the wedding day Helens father had a strong
fear that despite Helens husband had strength
and wisdom some mighty prince may try to carry
her away by force. So he reminded Ulysses of the
wooers promise which was a condition to be a
wooer.
The promise whomever Helen chose, they would all
respect her choice if any man afterwards should
carry her away by force, all her former wooers
should assemble in arms,(????), rescue fair Helen
from her captor(???).
33
Now across the sea which lies to the east of
Greece is a country which we call Asia Minor.
Next to the coast of this country stood the rich
and powerful city of Troy, at that time ruled
over by a king named Priam. One day, news came to
Helen and Menelaus that Paris, the second son of
Priam, was to visit them in their palace. They
gave Prince Paris a warm welcome.
34
But suddenly Menelaus friend invited him to take
part in a hunting expedition. So he had to ask
Helen to entertain Paris while he was away. As
days passed by, Paris, forgetting the duties of a
guest towards an absent host, began to make
dishonorable love to Helen(????????) While she,
though she wished to do so, found herself unable
to resist his wooing. One evening, Helen asked
Paris why he came here. Paris told her the secret.
35
The Secret
Helen, I can keep no secret from you. I must
explain to you that one day, when the gods were
assembled, the goddess of Disagreement appeared
in their midst and threw down a golden apple, on
which were written the words, FOR THE FAIREST.
This apple was at once claimed by Hera, by
Athena, and by Venus, for each of these goddesses
believed herself to be the most fair.
FOR THE FAIREST
36
But at last they agreed that I, unworthy as I am,
should be the judge, and award the golden apple
as I myself thought fit. The three goddesses
came to me, and each in turn offered me a
precious gift if only I would award the apple to
her. Hera offered me power, Athena offered me
wisdom but Venus----his voice sank to
gentleness---Venus offered me the worlds most
lovely woman as my bride.
37
I awarded the apple to Venus, and in return she
told me to come here to marry you, the loveliest
woman on earth. And then Helen was persuaded to
flee away with Paris.
38
The news of Helens abduction(??) soon spread
through all the states of Greece, and through all
the islands of the Greek seas. All Helens
wooers(???)were reminded of their promise to
Helens father. They soon prepared their ships
and came with their men. Agamemnon was chosen as
commander-in-chief. And he gave orders for the
ships to meet in the Port.
39
Meanwhile, messengers were sent to Paris
demanding Helens return to her husband. But
Paris refused, and his father and his elder
brother Hector supported him in his refusal for
even old Priam, looking on the beauty of Helen,
felt that it was worth of fighting to have her
always near him. So Helen remained in Troy, and
the Greek Princes prepared with even more
determination for war.
40
Many of the Greek ships had already met in the
port except Ulysses. Though Ulysses only had
twelve ships and a small number of men, yet he
was regarded as the wisest prince in Greece and
no gathering of princes would be complete without
him. However, Agamemnon and Menelaus waited for a
long time in vain, and at last they sent a noble
to find out the cause of Ulysses delay.
41
Now the truth was that Ulysses was very unwilling
to join the expedition to Troy. For one thing,
his wife was not anxious that her husband should
go away, for she feared that he might once again
fall a victim to (??……????) Helens charms.
Moreover, Ulysses was very happy in his home, and
he did not wish to leave his wife and his baby
son. When he heard of the arrival of the noble,
he pretended to be mad.
42
When the noble came, he saw a strange sight.
Ulysses was busy ploughing deep furrows(?) in the
sand of the shore, and was sowing salt as if it
were seed. The noble shook his head for sorrow.
He cried, To think that Ulysses, as wise as he
was, should have lost the use of his wisdom!
Then an idea occurred to him. He took the baby
and placed it on the sand where the plough would
strike it. Ulysses came on, ploughing steadily,
and his wife screamed.
43
But Ulysses suddenly caught sight of the baby and
turned suddenly to one side to avoid running the
plough over him. At once, the noble cried out
that Ulysses was not mad, and reminded him of his
promise to Helens father. Ulysses argued in
vain, for he could not deny his promise and
finally he went with the noble bringing his
ships.
44
But the Greeks could never hope to capture Troy
unless they had the help of Achilles. Achilles
mother, a beautiful sea god called Thetis, was
devoted to her noble son, and she knew that
Achilles would lose his life in this battle. So
she had disguised(??) Archilles as a maiden, and
sent him to be hidden away amongst the maidens of
a palace.
45
However, Menelaus guessed where Achilles was
hidden, and he suggested that Ulysses should go
to discover Archilles, and induce him to take
part in the expedition to Troy. So Ulysses
dressed himself as a merchant and set out for the
palace. He arrived and took out his goods while
all the young maidens gathered around him. Cries
of delight arose as the girls seized rings and
necklaces, and began to put them on.
46
But one maiden showed no interest in the contents
of the goods, and stood still till the merchant
drew out a wonderful dagger(??). Then the maiden
came forward and caught the dagger, and shook it
above her head with a warlike shout. And Ulysses
knew that it must be Achilles, and succeeded in
persuading him to join the war.
47
The Greek ships crossed the sea and touched the
coast of Asia Minor, near to the city called
Troy. Here the Greeks built camps along the
shores. Beyond the beach was an open plain, and
further inland there was a high hill on which
Troy stood. The Trojans position was strongly
strengthened, and from time to time they attacked
the Greeks. So most of the fighting was done in
the plain that lay between the city and the sea.
48
And Troy has lost Paris and his elder brother,
Trojans two most famous warriors. But the city of
Troy was as far as ever from being taken.
For many years the Greeks made no attempt to take
the city by storm. And during these years the
Greek had lost two princes and Achilles whose
heel was his weak point.
Now we use Achilles heel to describe ones
deadly weak point.
49
One day, Helen stood alone in Troy, and as she
gazed out towards the sea, the warm tears rolled
down her lovely face. It was not grief for Paris
death that caused her tears, but rather a great
change of heart which had come over her since
Paris died. Helen had lost all desire to stay
with the Trojans, and longed only to return to
the arms of Menelaus her husband and implore(??)
his forgiveness.
50
Helen dried her tears then walked along the road
in Troy. Then she was aware of an aged and dirty
beggar, hurrying up towards the gates of the
city. Behind him ran a number of Greeks, crying
Thief! Be off with you(??), never come near our
camp again! Some minutes later, the beggar had
taken refuge(??) within the gates of Troy. There
is something strange about that beggar, said
Helen to herself.
51
Soon she saw the beggar moving along in her
direction. Helen said, Come, my friend. Come to
my house, and let me wash your wounds and give
you clothing. You are a beggar, and maybe a
thief, too, but the gods themselves tell us that
there is good in every mortal man. Helen led
the beggar to her house, where she washed him,
and dressed him in clean clothes.
52
Helen sighed. I will not betray you I would
even help you if I could. Hear this, great
Ulysses, and let my dear husband know what I say
that it was not of my own free will that I left
Sparta, for the cruel goddess Venus made me to
flee with Paris. And now that Paris was dead, I
was eager to go back to my own people---- to fall
down at the feet of my husband and ask his
forgiveness.
Then, looking him in the face, and speaking very
gently, she said You are Ulysses, are you
not? Fair Princess! cried the hero. If my
presence in this town were known, I should be a
dead man! Sweet Helen, do not betray(??) me!
Tell him this, dear Ulysses, when you return to
your camp----tell my husband what I have
said. I will do as you say, returned Ulysses,
touched, as a man must be, by Helens beauty
53
But now you must help me, Helen, for I am here
on a secret task. It has been prophesied that
Troy can never be taken so long as the sacred
image of Athena remains within these walls. I
have come to carry it away from the city. If you
will help me in this, I will intercede(??) with
your husband on the day when he rushed in the
flames of Troy and raises his sword to punish
you.
54
Then Helen promised to lead Ulysses that night
to the temple of Athena, where he could steal
away the image. After Ulysses return, a good
idea had occurred to him. During the following
weeks there was great activity in the Greek camp.
First a wooden horse had to be built, and then
the camp had to be taken apart, and the stores
and slaves had to be taken on board the ships.
55
But at last all these tasks were accomplished
the chosen warriors, including Ulysses, were
concealed inside the hollow horse and the rest
of the army, going on board, sailed away from the
coast where they had been encamped for so long.
The Trojans saw with joy the departure of the
fleet from their shores, and they laughed to
think that, after so many years of the
surrounding, the Greek should have had abandon
their quest.
56
The Trojans now streamed out of the city and made
their way to the seashore, where most of them had
not been for many years. Some wandered along the
beach some searched aimlessly amongst the ruins
of the huts but most of them gathered round the
large wooden horse which had been left in the
middle of the plain. As they stood gazing, one
man cried They are not yet all gone! See, here
comes one of the Greeks now!
57
It is strange, that they should allow this
statue to fall into our hands! For if we were to
drag it into the city, and make it our own, and
then Neptune might turn against the Greeks, and
send all their ships to the bottom! They had
no fear that you would take possession of their
offering to the sea god, for it is too large to
bring through the gates of the city.
So orders were given that a part of the wall
should be broken away, and that the horse should
be dragged into the city. They decorated(??) it
with flowers and then danced round it, men, women
and children together, rejoicing in the end of a
ten-year war and the destruction of their hated
enemies. When night came and the festivities were
over, the Trojans left the horse in the centre of
the city, and all men retired to their rest.
He is but a slave! cried another. Come here,
fellow! Have you some quarrel with the Greeks,
then? they asked. I have quarrel enough,
indeed! But see here. Here is their statue of a
horse, which they have built as an offering to
Neptune, so as to secure a safe voyage back to
Greece.
58
Along of all the attackers, Menelaus did not take
part in the general massacre(???), nor did he
join the mad rush for goods For his only purpose
was to find Helen, When he caught sight of Pale
Helen, she was in a white coat, standing alone in
the middle of the floor of Paris brother. Helen
saw him too she hesitated for but a moment and
then ran forward, casting herself on the ground
before him.
Thus the doom of Troy was sealed. Out of their
sleep the Trojans started to hear cries of terror
through their city. Greek warriors, moved rapidly
from house to house, seeking out all the most
notable Trojans and putting them to the sword.
Palace and temple were not spared the whole city
was quickly becoming ruins.
59
Oh, faithless Helen! Helen whom I loved and
trusted! Worthless Helen, for whose crimes a
thousand of my dear companions lie dead! Do you
now come crying to me for mercy?
Helen made no reply she only sobbed(??), and her
sobs mixed with the groans and yells.(???)
Draw back from me, that I may strike you the
better for nothing but the immortal gods can
save you from my anger!
60
A voice rang out Hold your hand, Menelaus! For
your own sake and mine, hold your hand!
Menelaus turned and asked if it was Ulysses. It
is I! Menelaus, you once offered, if only we
should take Troy, to grant and require that I
should ask of you. I ask you now for the life of
Helen.
61
For indeed, it was not her fault, but the fault
of the goddess Venus, that she was brought to
follow the fortunes of Paris. Let me add my
prayers to hers and ask you to pardon her and
receive her once more into your arms.
Bright flames leapt up from a house not far away.
Helen rose to her feet, her cheeks stained with
tears and by this new light Menelaus saw clearly
all her great beauty, which time had not
fingered, and felt her charm as he had felt it in
their Spartan days, so many years before.
Hardly knowing what he did, he allowed his sword
to fall, and held out both hands to the hands
before him. Helen took but two steps, and fell
crying on his breast. Menelaus turned round at
last.
62
Ulysses, for your sake, for my own sake, but
most of all for hers----which her loveliness may
live and increase, and her light be not yet
quenched by the darkness. I grant you your
benefit.
63
But Ulysses did not hear these words. He had
already turned away his task accomplished, and
had disappeared into a night that was bright with
brightness like day.
64
People often use Narcissus to refer to the people
who love themselves very much.
People use Pandoras Box to indicate something
that can not be touched.
We use Achilles heel to describe ones deadly
weak point.
65
The End
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