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The Dark Side of Natural Resources Natural Resources and

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The Dark Side of Natural Resources Natural Resources and Conflict The Dark Side Natural resources often lie at the heart of wars and civil strife. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Dark Side of Natural Resources Natural Resources and


1
The Dark Side of Natural Resources
  • Natural Resources and Conflict

2
The Dark Side
  • Natural resources often lie at the heart of wars
    and civil strife.
  • Huge mining and resource companies, including
    giants like Exxon Mobil and Anglo
    American/DeBeers, do not hesitate to use force in
    pursuit of their corporate interests.

3
The Dark Side
  • Grasberg Gold Mine, West Papua

4
The Dark Side
  • There are many players in this bloody nexus of
    natural resources and conflict.
  • Shadowy resource traders
  • Smugglers
  • Corrupt local officials
  • Arms dealers
  • Transport operators
  • Mercenary companies
  • National governments

5
Resources in Conflict
  • Diamonds
  • Oil and Natural Gas
  • Water
  • Timber
  • Minerals

6
Diamonds
  • Diamonds have often been associated with violence
    and misery the very opposite of the advertising
    images of diamonds as symbols of joy and love.
  • Goes far beyond rebel groups seizing control of
    diamond-rich areas and selling the precious gems
    for arms and war supplies.

7
Diamonds
  • Large diamond companies are involved in this
    deadly game, along with traders, transport
    companies, arms smugglers and financial firms.
  • Most such conflicts arise in Africa, where
    valuable gem diamonds are largely found.
  • During the 1990s, diamonds fueled the civil war
    in Angola with terrible consequences.

8
Diamonds
9
Diamonds
  • In 1999, the UN Security Council acted to enforce
    sanctions on diamond sales by the UNITA rebel
    group and the conflict finally ended a short time
    later.
  • Since then, further diamond-related conflicts
    have raged in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast
    and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

10
Diamonds
11
Oil and Natural Gas
  • "Black gold" often brings hardship and misery to
    the societies where it is found.
  • Petroleum-producing countries are plagued by
    corrupt and authoritarian governments, lopsided
    and unsustainable economic development and
    violent conflict.

12
Oil and Natural Gas
  • Foreign powers and their huge multinational oil
    companies often maneuver for control of the oil
    fields through clandestine operations or outright
    military intervention.
  • In addition, disaffected rebels challenge
    governments in hope of winning a share of the
    lucrative oil revenues.

13
Oil and Natural Gas
  • Environmental damage by oil extraction can spark
    protest movements, which are frequently met by
    violent repression.
  • Boundary disputes between states over oil
    reserves represent yet another link between oil
    and violence.

14
Oil and Natural Gas
  • As worldwide oil and gas production peaks and
    consumer demand continues to rise, prices soar.
  • Conflicts for this increasingly scarce resource
    are even more likely in the future.

15
Water
  • Demand for water is hitting the limits of finite
    supply.
  • Potential conflicts are brewing between nations
    that share transboundary freshwater reserves.

16
Water
  • More than 50 countries on five continents might
    soon be caught up in water disputes.
  • They must move quickly to establish agreements on
    how to share reservoirs, rivers, and underground
    water acquifers.

17
Timber
  • Rampant timber exploitation has not only
    destroyed the environment but also funded illegal
    arms deals and fueled bloody civil wars and
    regional instability.

18
Timber
  • Extensive forest destruction throughout the world
    has had severe social and economic consequences
    for indigenous peoples.
  • This has lead to rights violations, communal
    conflict and harsh repression by governments and
    timber companies.

19
Minerals
  • Countries rich in minerals such as cobalt,
    copper, and gold are often marred by corruption,
    authoritarian repression, militarization, and
    civil war.
  • Rebel groups, governments and mining companies
    exploit mineral resources, fueling civil and
    interstate conflict as players vie for control
    over riches.

20
Minerals
21
Minerals
  • Countries such as the Democratic Republic of
    Congo have fallen victim to rebels who use
    revenue from minerals to purchase arms and fuel
    conflict.

22
Minerals
  • Governments often establish repressive military
    regimes in mineral producing regions to protect
    their "national interests."
  • Local populations rarely see the profits and are
    subjected to environmental damage wrought by
    corporations.

23
Conclusion
  • Increasing scarcity of resources, driven by
    rising world population and the spread of
    unsustainable consumption, will further sharpen
    conflicts over natural resources.
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