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John Kennedy and the New Frontier

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Title: John Kennedy and the New Frontier


1
John Kennedy and the New Frontier
  • 1960 to Nov. 1963

2
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3
The 1960 Election
  • Eisenhower was limited by the 22nd Amendment
  • Republicans nominate Richard Nixon
  • Democrats nominate Senator John F. Kennedy

4
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5
Nixons background
  • Born in California
  • Served in the House of Representative the
    Senate
  • Became V.P. in 1952 An active member of the
    Eisenhower Administration
  • Famous Kitchen Debate 1959

6
More Nixon background
  • Traveling Representative
  • Heir Apparent to Presidency
  • Challenged by Nelson Rockefeller
  • Wins the nomination chooses Henry Cabot Lodge, JR
    as running mate.

7
John Kennedys background.
  • Born to wealth. One of four sons of Joseph
    Kennedy.
  • Harvard Educated, a war hero PT-109
  • Pulitzer Prize winning author Profiles in
    Courage.
  • Elected to the Senate

8
Kennedy defeats Lyndon Johnson for nomination
  • Johnson is the Senate Majority leader from Texas
  • Kennedy is the first catholic nominated since Al
    Smith in 1928
  • Kennedy selects Johnson as VP to balance the
    ticket.

9
Nixon has experience and name recognition
  • Nixon is 47
  • Kennedy 43 and unknown outside of Mass.
  • Nixon must defend the Eisenhower record.
  • Kennedy complains about a Missile Gap

10
First TV Debates key event of the Election
  • Nixon had been a champion debater
  • Nixon had been ill before the debate
  • Kennedy win on image
  • 80 million watch first debate.

11
Kennedy wins by narrow margin
  • 118,574 popular vote margin
  • 303 to 219 in electoral votes.
  • Vote fraud is charged in Illinois and Texas.
  • Kennedy promises to get the country moving again.

12
  • Closest election in U.S. history difference less
    than 1/10 of 1
  • Only Catholic president in U.S. history youngest
    to be elected at age 43
  • Democrats swept both houses in Congress,
    although lost a few seats
  • Inaugural Speech "Ask not what your country can
    do for you ask what you can do for your
    country."

13
Eisenhowers Farewell Address Jan. 1961
  • Beware of the Military Industrial Complex.
  • It has an unhealthy influence in the councils of
    government.

14
Launching the New Frontier Jan. 20, 1961
  • Youngest elected President in history.
  • Classic inaugural address- Full of Cold War
    language
  • Ask not what your country can do for you ask
    what you can do for your country.

15
Domestic Policy
  • Legislative failures JFK unable to get much
    through Congress due to resistance from
    Republicans and conservative Southern Democrats.
  • Congress blocked plans for federal aid to
    education, urban renewal, medical care the aged,
    reductions in income taxes, and creation of Dept.
    of Urban Affairs
  • Lyndon Johnson would later get these measures
    passed after JFK was assassinated.
  • Minimum wage rose from 1 to 1.25 an hour and
    extended to 3 million more workers.
  • Area Redevelopment Act of 1961 provided 400
    million in loans to "distressed areas."
  • Housing Act of 1961 Provided nearly 5 billion
    over four years for preservation of open urban
    spaces, development of mass transit, and the
    construction of middle class housing.
  • Steel Prices 1961, Kennedy "jawboned" the steel
    industry into overturning a price increase after
    having encouraged labor to lower its wage
    demands.

16
Space Race
  • 1. Kennedy promoted 24 billion project to land
    an American on the moon. -- As of the early
    1960s, the U.S. was behind the Russians in space
    technology. 2. Critics charge money could be
    better spent elsewhere. 3. 1969, Apollo 11
    mission transported two American astronauts
    successfully to the moon Neil Armstrong and
    Buzz Aldrin G. The Kennedys continued their
    crusade against organized crime --Robert
    Kennedy (RFK) was JFKs attorney general

17
Democrats control Congress
  • But conservative Republicans Southern democrats
    join forces.
  • Kennedy can claim no mandate.
  • Focus on Foreign Policy issues.

18
Kennedys cabinet
  • Robert Kennedy -Attorney General
  • Dean Rusk Sec. of State
  • Robert McNamara Sec of Defense
  • Kennedy promises to bring the best and
    brightest to Washington

19
Kennedy brings glamour high expectations
  • Beautiful wife- Jackie
  • Kennedy forms the Peace Corp appeals to
    missionary spirit.
  • Style and culture are part of the Kennedy image.

20
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21
Deal with the Economy
  • 8 unemployment, slow economic growth
  • Kennedy follows Keynesian economics. Increases
    government spending. Urban renewal
  • Increases the minimum wage. Set up retraining
    programs

22
The Trade Expansion Act 1962
  • President can cut tariffs by 50 or increase them
    by 50
  • Increase soil bank, limits wheat production

23
  • Peace Corps one of Kennedys most popular
    programs 1. Est. in 1961 sent young volunteers
    (doctors, lawyers and engineers) to third world
    countries to contribute their skills in locally
    sponsored projects to improve economic
    stagnation, poor health and inadequate education.
    2. Alternative to military containment of
    communism. 3. By 1966, 15,000 volunteers served
    in 46 countries but were often overwhelmed.
  • Alliance for Progress 1. 1961, JFK gave 20
    billion in aid to Latin America ("Latin American
    Marshall Plan") 2. Primary goal was to help
    Latin American countries to close the gap between
    rich and poor thus quieting communist sympathies.
    3. Result Little positive impact on Latin
    Americas social problems.

24
Berlin Wall
  • 1. 1949-1961 -- Thousands of East Germans flee to
    West Berlin.
  • 2. Khrushchev delivered new ultimatum on Berlin
    saw U.S. weakness in Bay of Pigs a. USSR would
    give Berlin to East Germany, stripping western
    access to Berlin. b. Kennedy US would not
    abandon West Berlin
  • 3. USSR announced increase in defense Kennedy
    asked for a 3.2 billion increase as well.
  • 4. August, 1961 -- Soviet Union builds wall
    separating West Berlin from the rest of Berlin
    and East Germany almost overnight. -- Purpose
    Stem the flow of 100,000 people leaving East
    Berlin
  • 5. Kennedy calls up 1,500 US reserves to
    reinforce West German garrisons. -- On
    personal trip to Berlin "Ich bin eine Berliner"
    ("I am a Berliner")
  • 6. Tensions eased as treaty not signed between
    USSR and East Germany -- Air and land routes
    to West Berlin were kept open.
  • 7. Wall remained until November, 1989

25
Civil Rights
  • A. Did nothing during his first two years
  • 1. Tried to avoid losing either white or black
    southern vote. 2. Most civil rights initiatives
    were merely symbolic 3. RFKs attempts at
    enfranchisement in the South was largely
    unsuccessful a. Only small percentage of
    blacks able to register due to spelling mistakes
    on literacy tests, poll taxes, white primaries,
    and grandfather clauses. b. White
    segregationists wreaked terror on Student
    Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC
    "snick") church bombings assaults on blacks
    4. While Kennedy was initially able to satisfy
    both sides of the issue, the rise of civil rights
    militants forced his hand.

26
Kennedy and the militants
  • 1. May 1961, Freedom Riders organized by CORE
    (Congress of Racial Equality) a. Rode
    interstate buses to verify that segregation was
    not occurring.. b. In Alabama, Freedom Riders
    were arrested by police, state troopers, and
    National Guard some were severely beaten. c.
    More Freedom Riders kept coming all summer. d.
    RFK petitioned Interstate Commerce Commission to
    issue a ruling against segregation of interstate
    facilities sent 400 marshals to protect freedom
    riders. e. ICC made the announcement on Sept.
    22, 1961 CORE victorious. 2. Sept. 1962, JFK
    had to send the U.S. Army to enforce a court
    order to enroll James Meredith in the University
    of Mississippi ("Ole Miss) -- Kennedy was
    losing control of the segregation issue.

27
  • 3. Showdown in Birmingham, Alabama a. 1963,
    Birmingham closed parks, playgrounds, swimming
    pools, and golf courses to avoid desegregation.
    b. King chose Birmingham because it was the
    toughest challenge and a victory would break
    segregation. c. MLK and supporters arrested on
    Good Friday for marching without a permit and
    spent 2 weeks in jail.
  • "We know through painful experience that freedom
    is never voluntarily given by the oppressor it
    must be demanded by the oppressed. Frankly, I
    have yet to engage in a direct-action campaign
    that was well-timed in the view of those who
    have not suffered unduly from the disease of
    segregation. For years now I have heard the
    worked "Wait!" It rings in the ear of every Negro
    with piercing familiarity. This "Wait" has almost
    always meant "Never." We must come to see, with
    one of our distinguished jurists, that justice
    too long delayed is justice denied." -- Martin
    Luther King, Letter from a Birmingham Jail

28
  • d. After his release, King began using black
    school children in the demonstrations i.
    Police commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor used
    cattle prods and ordered police dogs on
    demonstrators and used fire hoses on children as
    world watched in horror. ii. Public pressure
    mounted for civil rights legislation. e. Local
    business leaders gave in and agreed to
    desegregate the big department stores. -- King
    called off the demonstrations. f. Shortly
    after, Kings motel was bombed as was his
    brothers home i. Rioting erupted. ii.
    Kennedy decided to side with King.

29
  • 4. Kennedy actively pursues civil rights a.
    June 1963, JFK federalized Alabama National Guard
    to enforce a court order requiring the admission
    of two blacks to the University of Alabama. --
    Governor George Wallace symbolically stood in the
    door way protesting that states rights were
    being crushed (earlier had said in his inaugural
    speech "segregation now, segregation
    tomorrow, segregation forever.") b. That
    night, Medgar Evers, NAACP director in
    Mississippi, was assassinated -- Seen as
    retaliation for University of Alabama incident
    c. In response, JFK announced he would send
    Congress a civil rights bill which would crush
    segregation, outlaw discrimination in elections,
    and give the justice department authority to
    enforce school integration.

30
  • March on Washington, August 28, 1963 i. Largest
    protest in nations history thus far 200,000
    -- Organized in part by A. Philip Randolph (who
    had started March on Washington Movement during
    WWII) ii. Protesters demanded support for
    Kennedys civil rights bill and for better and
    more jobs. iii. Martin Luther King, Jr. gave
    his "I have a dream" speech
  • "I have a dream. I have a dream that one day this
    nation will rise up and live out the true meaning
    of its creed We hold these truths to be
    self-evident, that all men are created
    equal....I have a dream that one day every
    valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain
    shall be made low, the rough places will be made
    plains, and the crooked places shall be made
    straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be
    revealed, and all flesh shall see it together....
    This will be the day when all of Gods children
    will be able to sing with new meaning, My
    country tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of
    thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of
    the pilgrims pride, from every mountainside, let
    freedom ring..... When we let freedom ring, when
    we let it ring from every village and every
    hamlet, from every state and every city, we will
    be able to speed up that day when all of Gods
    children, black men and white men, Jews and
    Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able
    to join hands and sing in the words of the old
    Negro spiritual, Free at last! Free at last!
    Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"

31
FOREIGN POLICY
  • KENNEDY IS A COLD WARRIOR
  • EISENHOWERS MASSIVE RETALIATION NO LONGER
    CREDITABLE.
  • KENNEDYS STRATEGY FLEXIBLE RESPONSE
  • MEET THREAT WITH THREAT

32
  • "flexible response" -- Kennedy developed
    conventional military strategies to deal with
    difficult challenges around the world.
  • 1. Khrushchev "Soviets would back wars of
    liberation" in third world countries.
  • 2. During presidential election of 1960, Kennedy
    had criticized Eisenhower for allowing a "missile
    gap" that favored the Soviets. -- When JFK became
    president, he learned that the gap was actually
    in favor of the US yet he continued the largest
    peacetime military buildup in history.
  • 3. Kennedy ordered buildup of conventional armed
    forces to fight localized wars in the Third
    World.
  • a. Replaced Ikes heavy reliance on nuclear
    weapons.
  • b. Set up Green Berets (elite commando force)
  • c. Built up nuclear arsenal for 2nd strike
    capability.

33
IMPLEMENTING POLICY
  • 1000 MINUTEMAN MISSILES
  • 32 POLARIS SUBS
  • 5 COMBAT READY DIVISIONS
  • CREATE SPECIAL FORCES GREEN BRETS

34
CRITICS OF FLEXIBLE RESPONSE
  • GRADUAL BUILD UP LEADS TO STALEMATE
  • LACKS DECISIVE FORCE
  • LETS ENEMY SET THE TERMS OF BATTLE

35
LATIN AMERICA
  • MOST SO. AMERICAN GOVTS ARE DICTATORSHIPS
  • U.S. SUPPORTS THEM BECAUSE THEY ARE
    ANTI-COMMUNIST
  • 1959 FIDEL CASTRO LEADS CUBAN REVOLUTION

36
CUBA
  • PRIOR TO CASTRO U.S. HAS LARGE INVESTMENTS IN
    CUBA
  • 80 0F UTILITIES
  • 40 OF SUGAR
  • 90 OF MINERALS U.S. OWNED

37
CASTRO SEIZES U.S. HOLDINGS
  • OCT 1960 U.S. IMPOSES EMBARGO
  • 1961 BREAKS DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS
  • SOVIET UNION BACKS CUBA
  • EISENHOWER PLAN INVASION OF CUBA

38
THE BAY OF PIGS APRIL 1961
  • KENNEDY AUTHORIZES INVASION USING CUBAN REFUGEES
  • BELIEVES THERE WILL BE A POPULAR UPRISING
  • COVERT U.S. SUPPORT, AIR STRIKES

39
  • Early 1860, Eisenhower authorized CIA to
    organize, train, and arm in Central America a
    brigade of 1,400 Cuban exiles for an invasion of
    Cuba to overthrow Fidel Castro.
  • Invaders would presumably trigger a popular
    uprising in Cuba
  • JFK continued the plan
  • In April 1961, Bay of Pigs invasion pinned down
    and forced to surrender
  • Kennedy had decided a day earlier against direct
    U.S. intervention as he did not want to spark an
    international diplomatic crisis.
  • Some 1,189 men were captured, 400 killed, only 14
    exiles rescued -- Cuban people did not support
    the invasion
  • Kennedy publicly took full responsibility on
    national TV for the ill-conceived mission. --
    Privately Kennedy blamed the CIA for faulty
    information
  • Significance brought USSR and Cuba closer
    together in planning for defense of a future U.S.
    invasion.

40
FAILURE AT THE BAY OF PIGS
  • 1400 EXILES LAND
  • U.S. AIR STRIKES FAIL TO DESTROY CUBAN AIR FORCE
  • NO POPULAR UPRISING, NO ADDITIONAL U.S. SUPPORT
  • 500 CUBAN EXILES KILLED, REST CAPTURED

41
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42
KENNEDY TAKES RESPONSIBILITY
  • HIS POPULARITY INCREASES.
  • EXPRESSES NO REMORSE
  • REGRETS THE OUTCOME
  • NEGOTIATES FOR EXILES FREEDOM
  • AUTHORIZES C.I.A. TO PLOT CASTROS ASSASSINATION
  • Operation Mongoose 1. CIA-backed plan to
    overthrow and assassinate Fidel Castro 2.
    Ultimately failed and abandoned after Cuban
    Missile Crisis.

43
THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS OCT 1962
  • THE U.S. HAS MISSILE BASES IN TURKEY
  • SOVIETS HAVE ADVISERS IN CUBA
  • KENNEDY INSISTS THERE ARE NO OFFENSIVE WEAPONS IN
    CUBA
  • KHRUSHCHEV WE HAVE NO INTENTIONS.

44
OCT 14TH CRISIS BEGINS
  • U-2 FLIGHT SHOWS MISSILE SITES BEING BUILT
  • 24 MEDIUM RANGE MISSILES
  • 18 INTERMEDIATE RANGE MISSILES
  • KENNEDYS GOAL GET THE MISSILES OUT OF CUBA

45
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46
PROBLEM SOLVING
  • COLLECT INFORMATION
  • DEFINE GOALS PRIORITIZE
  • LIST POLICY OPTIONS
  • ANALYZE CONSEQUENCES OF EACH
  • CHOOSE BEST OPTION ACT

47
KENNEDY ESTABLISH A COMMITTEE OF ADVISERS
  • EXCLUDES CONGRESS
  • KEEP CRISIS A SECRET

48
COLLECTION INFORMATION
  • CUBA IS 90 MILES OFF OUR COAST
  • MISSILES CAN REACH ANY CITY IN U.S.
  • NO DEFENSE 5 MINUTES FROM LAUNCH TO TARGET
  • RUSSIAN ADVISERS IN CUBA
  • WE HAVE AIR NAVAL SUPERIORITY
  • SITES WILL BE OPERATIONAL IN 3 WEEKS

49
GOALS AND PRIORITIES
  • GET MISSILES REMOVED
  • DONT START WW III
  • AVOID WAR
  • DONT GET A LOT OF PEOPLE KILLED
  • DONT BE POLITICALLY EMBARRASSED
  • DONT LET SOVIETS GAIN

50
OPTIONS
  • DO NOTHING
  • BOMB SITES
  • INVADE CUBA
  • BLOCKADE THE ISLAND
  • TRADE TURKISH MISSILES FOR REMOVAL OF CUBAN
    MISSILES

51
POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES
  • DO NOTHING WILL
  • ENCOURAGE SOVIET AGGRESSION
  • HURT POLITICALLY AT HOME
  • FAIL TO ACCOMPLISH PRIMARY GOAL

52
BOMBING WILL
  • NULLIFY MISSILES
  • KILL SOME RUSSIAN
  • ESCALATE THE CRISIS
  • MAY TRIGGER NUCLEAR WAR

53
INVADE CUBA WILL
  • REMOVE MISSILE THREAT
  • COST MANY AMERICAN CUBAN LIVES
  • LEAD TO PROLONGED OCCUPATION
  • ESCALATE THE CRISIS

54
BLOCKADE
  • STOP COMPLETION OF MISSILE SITES
  • NO ONE WILL DIE
  • PROVIDE TIME FOR THE SOVIETS TO THOUGHTFULLY
    REACT
  • NOT REQUIRE AN INVASION OR OCCUPATION OF CUBA
  • LEAVE THE OTHER OPTIONS AS ABACK UP

55
KENNEDYS DECISION
  • A NAVAL QUARANTINE (NICE WORD FOR BLOCKADE)
  • SECRETLY TELLS RUSSIAN HE WILL REMOVE MISSILES
    FROM TURKEY

56
THE WORLD HOLDS ITS BREATH
  • WILL THE RUSSIAN RESIST THE BLOCKADE?
  • WILL THE RUSSIAN BACK DOWN?
  • WILL THE RUSSIANS STRIKE ELSE WHERE?

57
KHRUSHCHEV OFFERS TWO DEALS
  • DEAL ONE
  • HE WILL REMOVE THE MISSILE
  • IF U.S. PROMISES NOT TO INVADE CUBA
  • DEAL TWO
  • HE WILL REMOVE MISSILES
  • IF U.S. PROMISES NOT TO INVADE CUBA
  • AND REMOVES MISSILES FROM TURKEY

58
KENNEDYS RESPONSE
  • PRESIDENT KENNEDY IS CONFUSED
  • BROTHER BOBBY STEPS IN
  • ACCEPT THE FIRST DEAL AND IGNORE THE SECOND
  • MAKE KHRUSHCHEV PROLONG THE CRISIS

59
KHRUSHCHEV RESPONDS
  • HE BACKS DOWN
  • KENNEDY SECRETLY AGREES TO REMOVE TURKISH
    MISSILES.

60
KENNEDY ASSASSINATION
  • KENNEDY VISITS DALLAS ON A POLITICAL TRIP
  • PRIOR TO THE VISIT THERE ARE DEATH THREATS
  • A WANTED POSTER DEAD OR ALIVE

61
KENNEDY IS KILLED
  • BY LEE HARVEY OSWALD
  • OSWALD WAS SHOT TO DEATH BY JACK RUBY
  • DID OSWALD ACT ALONE OR WAS HE PART OF A LARGER
    CONSPIRACY?
  • THE WARREN COMMISSION REPORT CONCLUDES OSWALD
    ACTED ALONE
  • BUT DOUBT REMAINS

62
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63
CONSPIRACY THEORIES
  • THE BODY WAS ALTERED
  • REPORTS OF A SECOND SHOOTER
  • THE MAGIC BULLET

64
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  • HE WAS KILLED BY CASTRO
  • HE WAS KILLED BY THE CIA
  • HE WAS KILLED BY THE MOB
  • HE WAS KILLED BY DEFENSE CONTRACTORS

65
LBJ THE GREAT SOCIETY
  • 1963 TO 1969

66
LBJ BEGINS
  • SUFFERED FROM COMPARISONS TO JFK
  • LACKS HIS STYLE
  • JOHNSONS STRENGTH
  • KNOWLEDGE OF CONGRESS
  • FIERCE EGO
  • THE JOHNSON TREATMENT

67
LBJS WEAKNESSES
  • POOR T.V. IMAGE
  • STILTED SPEECH PATTERNS
  • LACKED KENNEDY WIT AND CHARM

68
JOHNSONS SUCCESS
  • WORKS WELL WITH CONGRESS
  • JOHNSON WORKED FOR CONSENSUS. HE WAS A DEAL
    MAKER, NOT TIED TO IDEOLOGY.
  • TAX CUT PLAN- KENNEDY HAD PROPOSED IT. LBJ GOT IT
    PASSED.
  • 10 BILL CUT. KEYNESIAN STIMULUS.
  • POLITICAL MOVE BEFORE ELECTION.

69
TAX CUT WORKS
  • THE ECONOMY RECOVERS.
  • RATES ARE LOWER, BUT BASE IS HIGHER. RESULT MORE
    REVENUE THAN EXPECTED.
  • INSPIRES SUPPLY SIDE THEORY.

70
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT 1964
  • THE JOHNSON TREATMENT WINS DESPITE LONGEST
    FILIBUSTER IN SENATE HISTORY.
  • BARS SEGREGATION IN ALL PUBLIC FACILITIES
  • STRENGTHENS FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES COMMISSION
  • TITLE VII- PROHIBITS SEX DISCRIMINATION

71
THE 24TH AMENDMENT
  • OUTLAWS POLL TAXES.
  • ONE BARRIER TO BLACKS VOTING IN THE SOUTH

72
THE ELECTION OF 1964
  • JOHNSON MAKE POVERTY THE KEY ISSUE
  • MICHAEL HARRINGTONS THE OTHER AMERICA DOCUMENTS
    POVERTY.
  • THE POOR ARE BLACKS, AGED, AND SINGLE PARENT
    HOUSEHOLDS
  • THE POOR ARE POLITICALLY INVISIBLE.

73
THE WAR ON POVERTY.
  • 1964 STATE OF THE UNION ADDRESS
  • CONGRESS VOTES 1 BILLION FOR WAR.
  • POVERTY PROGRAMS
  • OFFICE OF ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY
  • JOB CORP
  • DAY CARE CENTERS
  • CONSUMER EDUCATION
  • LEGAL AID TO THE POOR
  • ADULT REMEDIAL EDUCATION

74
SOME SUCCESS
  • POVERTY LEVEL A FAMILY OF 4 LIVING ON AN INCOME
    OF 3,500 PER YEAR.
  • WAR ON POVERTY LIFTS 10 MILLION ABOVE THAT LINE.

75
JOHNSON V GOLDWATER
  • JOHNSON REFUSES TO CHOOSE ROBERT KENNEDY AS V.P.,
    SELECTS H.HUMPHREY
  • REPUBLICANS NOMINATE BARRY GOLDWATER IN YOUR
    HEART YOU KNOW HES RIGHT!

76
GOLDWATERS POSITIONS
  • WAR ON POVERTY IS SOCIALISM
  • TVA IS SOCIALISTIC, SHOULD BE PRIVATIZED.
  • SOCIAL SECURITY SHOULD BE ELIMINATED
  • WE SHOULD THREATEN THE USE OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS IN
    VIETNAM
  • EXTREMISM IN THE DEFENSE OF LIBERTY IS NO VICE.

77
LBJ AS PEACE CANDIDATE
  • GOLDWATER IS A WARMONGER.
  • DAISY GIRL COMMERCIAL
  • JOHNSON WIN A LANDSLIDE 61 OF POPULAR VOTE. 486
    TO 52 IN ELECTORAL VOTE
  • DEMOCRATS CONTROL CONGRESS.

78
LBJS GREAT SOCIETY
  • TOP PRIORITY HEALTH CARE REFORM EDUCATION
  • MEDICARE IS ADDED TO SOCIAL SECURITY
  • MEDICAID IS ESTABLISHED FOR THE POOR.
  • CHILD-BENEFIT AID FEDERAL AID TO EDUCATION,
    PUBLIC PAROCHIAL

79
ELEMENTARY SECONDARY EDUCATION ACT 1965
  • 1 BILLION AID TO SCHOOLS
  • FEDERAL AID TO EDUCATION ARRIVES.
  • FEDERAL AID LEADS TO FEDERAL CONTROL.

80
LBJ CIVIL RIGHTS
  • SELMA DEMONSTRATIONS
  • SHERIFF JIM CLARK
  • JOHNSON USES NATIONAL GUARD TO PROTECT
    DEMONSTRATORS.
  • LBJ INTRODUCES THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT 1965
  • FIVE MONTHS LATER IT PASSES.
  • WITHIN 1 YEAR 166,000 BLACKS REGISTER TO VOTE.

81
89TH CONGRESS
  • PASSED 89 BILLS OF THE GREAT SOCIETY
  • NEW CABINET POST TRANSPORTATION, HOUSING, URBAN
    AFFAIRS
  • HIGHWAY SAFETY ACT
  • CLEAN AIR ACT
  • AID TO HIGHER EDUCATION ACT
  • PUBLIC HOUSING ACT

82
LBJ FOREIGN POLICY
  • NO BACKGROUND IN FOREIGN POLICY
  • RELIES ON SEC OF STATE DEAN RUSK
  • AND DEFENSE SEC ROBERT McNAMARA
  • LBJ WE MUST STAND FIRM IN VIETNAM, SUPPORTS THE
    CONTAINMENT POLICY.

83
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
  • SENDS 20,000 TROOPS TO STOP LEFT WING GOVERNMENT.
  • SO MUCH FOR THE GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY.

84
AUG. 1964 GULF OF TONKIN
  • RESOLUTION BASED ON LIES.
  • GIVE LBJ ABSOLUTE POWER TO DEAL WITH VIETNAM.
  • AFTER THE ELECTION HE BEGINS US.S ESCALATION
  • BY 1968 WE HAVE 550,000 TROOPS IN VIETNAM
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