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INTERVENTION AND INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES; DEVELOPING VOCABULARY SKILLS

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Title: INTERVENTION AND INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES; DEVELOPING VOCABULARY SKILLS


1
  • INTERVENTION AND INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
    DEVELOPING VOCABULARY SKILLS

2
There are a number of strategies that can be used
successfully in therapy rooms and general
education classrooms with ELL students with LI.

3
Teach names for common objects in the classroom
4
Focus on communication of meaning grammatical
correctness can come later.
  • When early-stage low-SES ELL students make
    grammatical errors, recast the utterance. For
    example, a student might say It nice day. You
    can say, Yes, it is a nice day. Im glad you
    think it is a nice day! In this way, the
    students hear correct models. They are not
    overtly corrected by the professional. Students
    become discouraged and unmotivated to communicate
    when professionals say something like No,
    Josefina, stop. Say It is a nice day. If
    professionals recast students incorrect
    utterances, students are motivated to keep
    communicating. The communication process has not
    been interrupted, and students have been exposed
    to accurate models of language.

5
We can also use the technique of focused
stimulation to provide correct language models
  • For example, a student may consistently omit
    plural s (e.g. I see 2 horse.)
  • We can play a game with a farm where we
    repeatedly model plural s. We might say Look,
    there are 3 horses and 4 cows. OhI see two pigs
    and several dogs too! The farmer is carrying two
    buckets of water, opening the farm doors, and
    taking the buckets of water to the animals. I
    wonder if he will find the eggs that the chickens
    laid.
  • In this way, students receive repeated models of
    the correct form without being interrupted in
    their attempts to communicate meaning.

6
Use computers with students
  • Some can benefit from computer programs that
    teach language content and form. Computers are
    fun for many students.
  • Several excellent websites for vocabulary,
    phonological awareness, literacy, and academic
    skills are
  • www.starfall.com
  • www.primarygames.com
  • www.enchantedlearning.com
  • www.speakingofspeech.com
  • The above websites offer free games and materials
    that can be available to students in their homes
    as well as at school.

7
  • Earobics (Cognitive Concepts, 1997-2003) are
    commercially available software programs that are
    graded to students individual levels. The
    computer programs teach phonological awareness
    skills and keep track of the progress of each
    individual student. Students can work on the
    programs at their own pace. Students love
    Earobics because the games are fun, colorful, and
    have music and animation.
  • For older students with writing/fine motor
    coordination problems, word processing can be an
    excellent option because students can freely
    express their ideas without the tedium of
    handwriting

8
Use visualization to help students form pictures
of information that they read or hear.
9
I have found that
  • Students especially benefit from visualizing, or
    making pictures in their brain as an adjunct to
    reading or listening. Visualizing helps
    information to be retained better, thus aiding in
    listening and reading comprehension.

10
Also, we can
  • Ask students to express opinions about what they
    hear/read. In many cultures, children are to be
    seen and not heard. But mainstream schools expect
    students to express opinions, and we can help
    students adjust to this school expectation by
    asking them for their opinions and helping them
    express themselves.
  • Ask students to speculate and expand upon
    information. It is especially helpful to ask
    students to predict what might happen.

11
Predicting what will happen
12
VI. DEVELOPING VOCABULARY SKILLS
  • It is important for students of all ages to build
    their content knowledge/ conceptual foundation
    within meaningful contexts. Drill without context
    is usually ineffective.
  • Develop knowledge of classroom/ curriculum
    vocabulary. We can ask teachers to provide us
    information about what vocabulary they are
    teaching in the classroom.

13
For example, if I have students from a classroom
where they are learning about the ocean and
marine life
  • I use materials about the ocean and marine life
    as part of my therapy session.
  • In this way, students are getting classroom
    vocabulary and concepts reinforced.

14
New words need to be learned in context
  • Ideally, students should have concrete
    experiences when they learn new information
  • Weiner (2001) emphasizes that when low-SES Ch
    first learn new vocabulary, that vocabulary needs
    to be contextualized

15
Research shows that
  • When language is contextualized, ELL students
    especially understand and comprehend much better

16
For example, if they are learning about horses,
its ideal to actually see and touch one
17
If concrete experiences are not available
18
The iPad.
  • Has fantastic apps with real-life pictures
  • The nice thing is that kids can touch and
    manipulate the pictures, often moving them around
    and even having audio sometimes

19
We can ask students to describe pictures and give
word definitionsthese skills are predictive of
success in literacy and school achievement
20
If students draw pictures of new words they are
learning.
21
Turnbull Justice (2012) stated that
22
Students benefit from learning words deeply and
retain the words better when
23
Turnbull and Justice (2012, p. 439) stated that
24
The research of Lovelace Ryan (2009) showed
that
25
Biemiller
26
  • Known Word New Word

27
WHEN TEACHING VOCABULARY
  • PRESENT RECEPTIVE ACTIVITIES FIRST
  • Follow these by carefully hierarchically
    sequenced expressive activities
  • Esp. helpful for early-stage ELL students
  • Does not demand that they speak right away
    students are given verbal space

28
VOCABULARY TEACHING HIERARCHY FOR ELL STUDENTS
WITH LI
  • Here is an example of a vocabulary hierarchy of
    IEP goals and objectives, beginning with
    receptive activities and progressing very
    gradually to expressive activities and finally to
    written language. This sample unit is used
    expressly with permission from Roseberry-McKibbin
    , C. The Source for Bilingual Students with
    Language Disorders. East Moline, IL
    LinguiSystems.

29
This is the Thematic Redundance Approach
  • The idea is to integrate vocabulary, literacy,
    and phonological awareness activities
  • The goal is to have students exposed to
    vocabulary words so many times that the repeated
    exposure helps them to truly anchor and fix the
    words in their memories

30
Remember, to help students learn vocabulary
31
In small groups
  • Write down 4-5 ideas for how to provide multiple
    exposures and active engagement for a group of
    ELL 1st graders (with language impairmentson
    your caseload) who are trying to learn the word
    fossil for a language arts story
  • We will share our ideas with the group

32
Active engagement and multiple exposures
33
VOCABULARY TARGET SCHOOL ITEMS Annual Goal
The student will demonstrate increased receptive
and expressive vocabulary skills.
  • Short term objective 1 When the clinician
    verbally gives school item target vocabulary
    words, the student will point to pictures of
    these items with 80 accuracy.
  • Clinician Marisol, point to pencil.
  • Student Points to the pencil.

34
Short term objective 2
  • When the clinician holds up a picture and says
    Is this a(n) ____? the student will verbally or
    nonverbally indicate yes or no with 80 accuracy.
  • Clinician Is this a desk?
  • Student Verbally or nonverbally indicates yes or
    no.

35
Short term objective 3
  • When the clinician gives a 1-2 sentence verbal
    description of a target word/concept and gives
    the student 2 choices of answers, the student
    will verbally supply the correct answer with 80
    accuracy.
  • Clinician Listen. This is usually made of wood
    and has an eraser. Students write with it. Is it
    a pencil or a crayon?
  • Student Pencil.

36
Short term objective 4
  • When shown pictures of school item target
    vocabulary words, the student will give verbal,
    one-word labels with 80 accuracy.
  • Clinician (shows a picture of a book) Anak,
    whats this?
  • Student Book.

37
Short term objective 5
  • When asked to verbally list 3-5 items in a given
    category, the student will do so with 80
    accuracy.
  • Clinician Lisa, tell me the names of four
    different things we find in a classroom at
    school.
  • Student Scissors, pencils, crayons, desks.

38
Short term objective 6
  • When asked to define a target vocabulary word,
    the student will give a 5 word verbal
    description with 80 accuracy.
  • Clinician Mario, what is a playground?
  • Student It is a large outside place at a
    school where students play.

39
Short term objective 7
  • When given a school item target vocabulary word,
    the student will use the word in a sentence with
    80 accuracy.
  • Clinician Carlo, please use the word paper in a
    sentence.
  • Student We write all our assignments on paper.

40
If students are old enough to read and write.
41
Short term objective 8
  • When presented with a paragraph or word list
    containing the school item target vocabulary
    word, the student will find and read the word out
    loud with 80 accuracy.
  • Clinician Josefina, look at this story. Please
    find the word desk, and read the word to me after
    you find it.
  • Student Finds the word desk and reads it aloud.

42
Short term objective 9
  • When asked to spell a target vocabulary word, the
    student will spell the word out loud with 80
    accuracy.
  • Clinician Jaime, please spell the word
    teacher.
  • Student Spells the word aloud.

43
Short term objective 10
  • When given a target vocabulary word, the student
    will write a sentence containing the word with
    80 accuracy.
  • Clinician Estera, please write the word bus in
    a sentence.
  • Student Writes a sentence containing the word
    bus.

44
Note
45
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46
Short term objective 11
  • With 80 accuracy, the student will count the
    number of words in a sentence that he has written
    or in a sentence that is prewritten.
  • Clinician Look, Carla, count how many words
    there are in this sentence.
  • Student (counts the number of words)

47
Short term objective 12
  • When given a target vocabulary word, the student
    will identify the number of syllables in the word
    with 80 accuracy.
  • Clinician Nina, how many syllables are in the
    word policeman?
  • Student Three

48
Short term objective 13
  • When given a target vocabulary word, the student
    will identify the number of sounds in the word
    with 80 accuracy.
  • Clinician Emilio, how many sounds are in the
    word boots?
  • Student 4

49
Short term objective 14
  • When the student hears a word that rhymes with a
    target vocabulary word, the student will identify
    that word verbally or nonverbally with 80
    accuracy.
  • Clinician Karinna, color the picture that rhymes
    with sat.
  • Student Colors a picture of a hat.

50
Short term objective 15
  • When the student hears the SLP say a target
    vocabulary word phoneme by phoneme, the student
    will demonstrate word blending skills by stating
    the whole word with 80 accuracy.
  • Clinician Montero, what word is this? S-t-o-p
  • Student Stop.

51
Short term objective 16
  • When given a target vocabulary word, the student
    will identify the first sound in that word with
    80 accuracy.
  • Clinician Listen, Michaela. Toothbrush. What is
    the first sound in that word?
  • Student T

52
Short term objective 17 (last one!)
  • When given a target vocabulary word, the student
    will identify the last sound in that word with
    80 accuracy.
  • Clinician Listen, Viktor. Comb. What is the
    last sound in that word?
  • Student M

53
A wonderful vocabulary resource for use with
Spanish-speaking Ch
  • Mattes, L., Garcia-Easterly, I. (2007).
    Bilingual speech and language intervention
    resource Lists, forms, and instructional aids
    for Hispanic students.
  • Academic Communication Associates
  • www.acadcom.com
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