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“A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.”

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A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step. -Lao-tzu Chinese philosopher (604 BC - 531 BC) Elements of an Abstract Kelly Latimer, MD LCDR MC USN ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: “A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.”


1
  • A journey of a thousand miles begins with a
    single step.
  • -Lao-tzu Chinese philosopher (604 BC -
    531 BC)

2
Elements of an Abstract
  • Kelly Latimer, MD
  • LCDR MC USN
  • Faculty Development Fellow

3
Objectives
  • Described the purpose of an abstract
  • Listed the format of an abstract
  • Be able to write an abstract that will get
    accepted for presentation and/or publication

4
Abstract
  • Condensed version of full paper
  • Used by judges to select for presentation at
    scientific meetings
  • Used by reader of journal to decide whether to
    read the article or not

5
4 Cs of an Abstract
  • Complete
  • Concise
  • Clear
  • Cohesive

6
Answer these Questions
  • Why did you start?
  • What did you do?
  • What did you find?
  • What does it mean?

7
General Rules for Abstract
  • Follow requirements explicitly
  • Use active voice
  • Use consistent verb tense
  • Define acronyms before use
  • Generic drug names
  • One thought per sentence
  • Eliminate unnecessary words

8
Reasons for Rejection
  • Poor presentation
  • Weak discussion
  • Lack of originality
  • Poor methods
  • Inappropriate statistical analysis
  • Inappropriate results

9
Two More Tips
  • Involve a mentor
  • Have a non-medical person review it for
    grammatical errors

10
Case Report Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Description
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion

11
Case Report Introduction
  • Grab interest of reader
  • Explain context of case
  • Concise background information
  • Why is it relevant?
  • Why is it important?

12
Case Report Description
  • Rules of medical communication
  • In chronological order
  • History, physical, studies
  • Patient progress and outcome
  • Be complete, omit irrelevant details

13
Case Report Discussion
  • Point to lessons from case
  • Review why decisions were made
  • Review existing literature
  • One or two teaching points

14
Case Report Conclusion
  • Restate purpose and teaching points

15
Basic Research Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Conclusions

16
Research Introduction
  • Interesting and dramatic!
  • 2-3 sentences
  • Background
  • Explain why its important
  • State the research hypothesis

17
Research Methods
  • Study design and setting
  • Number of patients
  • Selection and exclusion criteria
  • Intervention or observation
  • Outcomes measured
  • Statistical methods

18
Research Results
  • Describe outcome measures
  • Use 95 confidence intervals or p-values to show
    statistical significance

19
Research Conclusions
  • 1-2 sentences
  • Answer your question
  • Implications?
  • Generalizable?

20
Exercise
  • Write your abstract introduction
  • Grab the readers attention
  • Why is your study important?
  • Be prepared to share

21
Key Points
  • The abstract will make or break your research
  • Abstracts have defined elements
  • Content varies based on forum
  • Clear, concise writing is important

22
References
  • Pierson,D How to Write an Abstract that will be
    Accepted for Presentation at a National Meeting,
    Respiratory Care, Oct 2004 Vol 49 (10)
  • Kotur, PF, How to Write a Scientific Article for
    a Medical Journal, Indian Journal of Anesthesia,
    Feb 2002
  • International Committee of Medical Journal
    Editors website www.icmje.org
  • ACP website www.acponline.org
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