Arthropods are different from all other animals because they are eucoelomates with a hard, segmented body. The phylum Arthropoda (jointed-foot) consists of most of the known animals and many are enormously abundant as individuals. The general - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Arthropods are different from all other animals because they are eucoelomates with a hard, segmented body. The phylum Arthropoda (jointed-foot) consists of most of the known animals and many are enormously abundant as individuals. The general

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Title: Arthropods are different from all other animals because they are eucoelomates with a hard, segmented body. The phylum Arthropoda (jointed-foot) consists of most of the known animals and many are enormously abundant as individuals. The general


1
  • Arthropods are different from all other animals
    because they are eucoelomates with a hard,
    segmented body. The phylum Arthropoda
    (jointed-foot) consists of most of the known
    animals and many are enormously abundant as
    individuals. The general characteristics of the
    arthropods include a hard exoskeleton called a
    cuticle made up of chitin and proteins. This hard
    exoskeleton gives the organisms segmented body
    protection and a place for muscle attachment.
    Arthropods also have jointed appendages that
    allow for specialized functions. They have an
    organ system level or organization and they are
    triploblastic. There are five subphyla
    Trilobita, Checlicerata, Crustacea, Myriapoda,
    and Hexapoda.

2
Subphylum Trilobita
  • This subphylum (like other
  • arthropods) have paired
  • appendages.
  • They are segmented
  • without any specialization.
  • This subphylum are all
  • extinct (Permian era
  • 250 mya)

3
Subphylum Cheliceriformes
  • Cheliceriformes all have 6 pairs of appendages.
    The first pair is modified into chelicerae. The
    next pair are modified into pedipalps. The last 4
    pairs are walking legs. These animals have one or
    two body regions (cephalothorax and abdomen).
    These animals do not have a mandible or any
    antennae.

4
Class Eurypterids
  • The Eurypterids or water scorpions are animals
    that are now extinct. They were normally marine
    and freshwater predators.

5
Class Merostomata
  • These organisms (horseshoe crabs) are found in
    shallow coastal waters. The first pair of
    appendages are modified into chelicerae but the
    second pair is not modified into pedipalps like
    other cheliceriformes. The Horseshow crabs
    larvae look similar to the extinct trilobites.

6
Class Pycnogonida
  • These organisms (sea spiders) are usually found
    in shallow coastal waters and many polar oceans.
    These animals often have eight legs (like true
    spiders) but may have extra legs from their
    segments being duplicated.

7
  • Class Arachnida
  • These organisms include spiders, scorpions,
    ticks, and mites. Spiders contain modified
    chelicerae which are used as fangs to inject
    poison. They also have a special gland that can
    produce silk used for webs, eggs, escape, and
    courtship. Scorpions are the first terrestrial
    invertebrates. Their pedipalps are modified into
    pinchers and their tail is modified into a
    stinger. Ticks and mites are parasitic.

8
Subphylum Crustacea
  • Crustacea have two pair of antennae. Each
    appendage is biramous (two main branches). They
    have mandibles. These animals have two or three
    body regions (cephalothorax and abdomen or head,
    thorax, and abdomen). These animals are mostly
    marine.

9
Isopoda
  • The isopods are the most diverse crustaceans.
    These animals are found in terrestrial,
    freshwater, and saltwater habitats.

10
Decapoda
  • The decapods include many of the familiar
    crustaceans. They are mostly aquatic species.

11
Copepoda
  • The copepods are animals that are among the most
    numerous members of the marine and freshwater
    plankton community.

12
Cirrepedia
  • Barnicles are animals that are exclusively
    marine, and tend to live in shallow and tidal
    waters, typically in erosive settings.

13
Subphylum Myriapoda
  • Myriapods all have appendages that are uniramous
    (one main branch). The body is long with a
    distinct head. The have one pair of antennae.
    These animals also have a mandible.

14
Class Chilopoda
  • These organisms are centipedes. They have one
    pair of jointed legs per segment. They have
    poison claws and are predators.

15
Class Diplopoda
  • These organisms are millipedes. They have two
    pair or jointed legs per segment. (Two segments
    have fused together). They are herbivores.

16
Subphylum Hexapoda
  • Hexapods all have 6 appendages, each pair are
    attached to a segment of the thorax. The body
    consists of a distinct head, thorax, and abdomen.
    They have one pair of antennae. These animals
    also have a mandible.

17
Class Insecta
  • Insects are the most diverse of all arthropods.
    They may have been the cause of angiosperm
    diversity. Know the orders that are demonstrated
    here.

18
Arthropoda
Level of Organization Organ-system
Tissue Layers Triploblastic
Digestive System Alimentary Canal with modified mouth parts
Excretory System Nephridia
Circulatory System Open system with heart
Respiratory System Skin, gills, tracheae or book lungs
Nervous System Dorsal brain with ring connected to ventral cords
Body Cavity True
Asexual Reproduction Budding in some
Sexual Reproduction Usually Dioecious
19
Phylum Echinodermata
  • The word Echinodermata means spiny skin. These
    animals demonstrate secondary radial symmetry as
    adults (evolved from bilateral symmetry back to
    radial symmetry) while the larvae stage still
    exhibits bilateral symmetry. They are probably
    more closely related to the vertebrates because
    of their deuterostome development. Unique to
    echinoderms is the water vascular system used for
    locomotion, feeding and food exchange.

20
Echinoderm Structures(P 126 Figure 7.100)
  • Oral Side Side with mouth
  • Arboral Side side without mouth
  • Madreporite opening into water vascular system
  • Ambulacral Grooves Radiating grooves that
    contain tube feet
  • Pedicellariae pincer-like organs on surface (see
    compound microscope)
  • Papillae skin gills

21
Echinodermata Classes
Class Characteristics Examples
Asteroidea Pentaradial symmetry Sea stars
Ophiuroidea Pentaradial symmetry Brittle stars
Echinoidea Disk-shaped, no arms, spines Sea urchin
Holothuroidea Cucumber-shaped, no arms, no spines Sea cucumbers
Crinoidea Sessile, arms used for filter-feeding Sea lillies
22
Class Asteroidea
  • Sea stars have five arms that radiate from a
    central disc. They have an open ambulacral
    groove. The madreporite is on the aboral side.
    They contain both pedicellariae and dermal
    branchiae.

23
Class Ophiuroidea
  • They have five thin arms radiating from a
    central disc. They have a closed ambulacral
    groove. The madreporite is on the oral side. They
    do not have pedicellariae or dermal branchiae.

24
  • The Sea urchins have no arms but have five rows
    of tube feet. They contain moveable spines. They
    have closed ambulacral grooves. They madreporite
    is on the aboral side. They contain pedicellariae
    and dermal branchiae. They have specialized
    jaw-like structures called an Aristotles lantern.
  • Class Echinoidea

25
  • Class Holothuroidea
  • Sea cucumbers are soft bodied animals with
    ambulacral areas with tube feet. They have an
    internal madreporite. They have no pedicellariae
    or dermal branchiae.

26
  • The sea lilies are attached to the substrate
    with many branched arms. They have open
    ambulacral grooves. They have no madreporite,
    pedicellariae or dermal branchiae.
  • Class Crinoidea

27
  • Bipinnaria Larvae
  • The larvae form is evidence that this phyla has
    evolved radial symmetry from a bilateral
    ancestor. The larvae form is used for dispersal.

28
Echinodermata
Level of Organization Organ-system
Tissue Layers Triploblastic
Digestive System Alimentary canal
Excretory System Absent
Circulatory System Reduced if at all
Respiratory System Dermal branchiae, tube feet, respiratory tree
Nervous System No brain, nerve ring with radial nerves
Body Cavity True
Asexual Reproduction Regeneration
Sexual Reproduction Dioecious
29
Phylum Chordata
  • The Phylum Chordata
  • include animals that sometime in their life
    cycle have a notochord (for muscle attachment), a
    hollow dorsal nerve cord (to send nervous
    signals), pharyngeal slits (various functions)
    and a post-anal tail (movement). The three
    subphyla are Urochordata, Cephalochordata, and
    Vertebrata.

30
Subphylum Urochordata
  • The Tunicates or Sea Squirts contain only the
    pharyngeal slits as an adult. They are usually
    sessile and use the pharynx for filter feeding.

31
Subphylum Cephalochordata
  • The Lancelets contain all four chordate
    characteristics as an adult. They are usually
    found buried in the sand off our coast. They are
    considered to be the closest relative to
    vertebrates.

32
Subphylum Vertebrata
  • The Vertebrates are animals with backbones.
    They contain all four chordate characteristics as
    an adult with some modifications. They are
    free-living.

33
What is a Fish?
  • Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are not a
    mammal, bird, or reptile (It isnt a monophyletic
    group).
  • There are the five major living groups of fish
  • Hagfish (jawless)
  • Lamprey (jawless)
  • Cartilaginous Fish
  • Lobe-finned Fish
  • Ray-finned Fish

34
Superclass Agnatha
  • The agnatha are animals without jaws and most
    lack paired appendages. Hagfishes may also lack
    eyes and a stomach. They are scavengers that
    enter natural openings on living and dead fish
    and mammals. Hagfish find their prey by a sense
    of smell. Hagfish can secrete large quantities of
    slime or mucus and can tie themselves into a
    knot which can also help release the slime.

35
Superclass Agnatha
  • The agnatha are animals without jaws and most
    lack paired appendages. The adult lamprey feeds
    by attaching its mouth to a fish, secreting an
    anticoagulant into the host, and feeding on the
    blood and tissues of the host.
  • Lamprey swim upstream to spawn. They are called
    ammocoetes as larva and are found in burrows.
    The larva must go through a metamorphosis to
    become adults where the entire digestive system
    must be restructured.

36
Superclass Gnathostomata
  • This superclass contains jaws which evolved from
    skeletal supports of the pharyngeal slits.

37
Class Chondrichthyes
  • The class chondrichthyes all lack true bone and
    have a skeleton made of cartilage which is not a
    primitive characteristic. Their tough skin is
    covered with placoid scales. Males have a
    structure called claspers which arent seen in
    females.
  • The two subclasses in this class are
    Elasmobranchii (the sharks, skates, and rays) and
    the Holocehphali (the ratfish)

38
Shark Reproduction
  • Male and female sharks can easily be told apart.
    Male sharks have claspers which are extensions
    of the pelvic fins used to transfer sperm. There
    is also three different types of shark egg
    development. They are
  • Viviparity the mother feeds the babies by a
    placenta
  • Oviparity the mother deposits eggs in the
    ocean
  • Ovoviviparity the eggs are retained in mom
    but without any nourishment from the mother.

39
Order SelachiformesGreat White Sharks
  • The Great White Shark measures up to 20 feet
    and can weigh up to 4200 lbs. They usually eat
    large bony fish, smaller sharks, dolphins, seals,
    and sea lions. They are found in almost all
    coastal and offshore waters between 54 to 75
    degrees F. The Great White has been labeled a
    man eater but in the last 100 years more people
    have been killed by dogs in the U.S. than this
    shark.

40
Order Selachiformes Leopard Sharks
  • The Leopard Shark measures up to 6.5 feet and
    can weigh up to 40 lbs. They usually eat bony
    fish, crustaceans, worms, and clams. They are
    found along the coast from Oregon to Baja
    California. The leopard shark is spotted as a
    juvenile in the shallows but usually lose their
    spots as they get larger and move to deeper
    water.

41
Order Selachiformes Whale Sharks
  • The Whale Shark is the largest fish in the
    ocean and measures up to 66 feet and can weigh up
    to 7500 lbs. They usually are filter feeders
    eating enormous amounts of plankton. They are
    found in along the coast from Oregon to Baja
    California. The Whale shark can filter 6000
    liters of water an hour.

42
Order Selachiformes Hammerhead Shark
  • The Hammerhead shark measures up to 18 feet and
    can weigh up to 1000 lbs. They usually eat fish,
    rays, other sharks, cephalopods and crustaceans.
    They are found in tropical and subtropical waters
    along the shorelines. The shape of the head is
    thought to spread their receptors across a larger
    area making them 10 times more likely to detect
    prey.

43
Order BatiformesSkates and Rays
  • Both skates and rays are flat bottom-dwelling
    organisms.
  • Skates have a tiny caudal fin with no stinging
    spines, each pelvic fin is divided into two lobes
    and lay egg cases.
  • Rays have a slender whip-like tail with
    stinging spines, each pelvic fin contains one
    lobe and give live birth.

44
Broad Skate
  • The broad skate is known to grow to be just
    under a meter in length. It is a deep-water skate
    found in the central and northern Pacific ocean.
    They feed on mollusks, crustaceans and fishes.

45
Manta Ray
  • The manta ray is the largest of the rays, with
    the largest known specimen having been about 7.6
    m (about 25 ft) across. It ranges throughout all
    tropical waters of the world, typically around
    coral reefs. Manta rays are believed by some to
    have evolved from bottom-feeding ancestry, but
    have adapted to become filter feeders in the open
    ocean

46
Guitarfish
  • The guitarfish are mainly found in tropical and
    temperate waters, traveling in large schools.
    Most adult guitarfishes reach five or six feet in
    length. These fish are bottom feeders, preferring
    small crustaceans.

47
Order ChimaeriformesChimaeras
  • Chimaeras differ from sharks in that their upper
    jaws are fused with their skulls they have
    separate anal and urogenital openings and they
    lack the many sharp and replaceable teeth of
    sharks, having instead a few large permanent
    grinding tooth plates. They are often called
    ratfish or rabbit fish. They are found in cold
    water often at great depths. The diet consists
    primarily of benthic invertebrates. The tooth
    plates are used to crush hard-bodied prey such as
    crabs, clams, and echinoderms.

48
Osteichthyes
  • The Osteichthyes all have a skeleton made of
    true bone. Their skin is covered with ctenoid
    scales. They also have an operculum (a hard
    covering over the gills), which helps them
    breathe without having to swim. They also have a
    swim bladder which helps the body create a
    neutral balance between sinking and floating.
    There are two classes in this group the Class
    Sarcopterygii, the Lobe-finned fish and the
    Class Actinopterygii the Ray-finned Fish

49
Sarcopterygii Lobe-finned FishSubclass
Coelacanthimorpha
  • Coelocanths are lobe-finned fish with the
    pectoral and anal fins on fleshy stalks supported
    by bones, and the tail is divided into three
    lobes. Coelacanths also have a special
    electroreceptive device called a rostral organ in
    the front of the skull, which probably helps in
    prey detection.
  • Coelacanth populations have been found near
    Indonesia and South Africa. Coelacanths are
    opportunistic feeders, hunting cuttlefish, squid,
    snipe eels, small sharks, and other fish.

50
Sarcopterygii Lobe-finned FishSubclass Dipnoi
  • Lungfish are fresh water lobe-finned fish.
    Lungfish are best-known for retaining primitive
    characteristics, including the ability to breathe
    air, Today, they live only in Africa, South
    America, and Australia. African and South
    American lungfish are capable of surviving
    seasonal desiccation of habitats by burrowing
    into mud and estivating throughout the dry
    season. They have a diet of fish, insects,
    mollusks, worms, crustaceans, and plant material.

51
Infraclass Holosteri
  • In this infraclass, all of the fish are
    considered to be primitive fish. They are found
    in brackish conditions. They can use their swim
    bladders to obtain extra oxygen

52
Infraclass HolosteriOrder Lepisoteriformes
  • Gars inhabit fresh, brackish, and occasionally
    marine, waters of eastern North America, Central
    America, and the Caribbean islands. They have a
    swim bladder that opens to the pharynx that can
    function as a lung and most gars surface
    periodically to take a gulp of air, doing so more
    frequently in stagnant or warm water when the
    concentration of oxygen in the water is low

53
Infraclass HolosteriOrder Amiiformes
  • Amia's are also called Bowfin or Dog fish.
    Amias distribution is restricted to eastern
    North America. Amia's swim bladder functions much
    like a lung, allowing this fish to gulp air when
    dissolved oxygen levels become dangerously low in
    the weed beds where it lives.
  • They are primarily fish eaters, although
    crayfish can make up a substantial proportion of
    the diet, and frogs are also consumed.
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