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Universe 8/e Freedman & Kaufmann

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Title: Universe 8/e Freedman & Kaufmann


1
Roger A. Freedman William J. Kaufmann III
Universe Eighth Edition
CHAPTER 1 Astronomy and the Universe
2
Homework 1 Online quiz for Chapter 1 (see
syllabus for URL) DUE Friday 9/3 by 5 PM
3
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4
By reading this chapter, you will learn
  • 1-1 What distinguishes the methods of science
    from other
  • human activities
  • 1-2 How exploring other planets provides insight
    into the origins of the solar system and the
    nature of our Earth
  • 1-3 Stars have a life cyclethey form, evolve
    over millions or billions of years, and die
  • 1-4 Stars are grouped into galaxies, which are
    found throughout the universe
  • 1-5 How astronomers measure the positions and
    sizes of celestial objects
  • 1-6 How to express very large or very small
    numbers in convenient notation
  • 1-7 Why astronomers use different units to
    measure distances in space
  • 1-8 What astronomy can tell us about our place in
    the universe

5
Which of the following statements is true?
  1. A solar system may contain billions of stars.
  2. Stars are spread out more or less uniformly
    throughout the Universe.
  3. The Milky Way contains a variety of solar
    systems, stars, and galaxies.
  4. A galaxy contains billions of stars.
  5. A solar system contains billions of galaxies.

Q1.13
6
Which of the following statements is true?
  1. A solar system may contain billions of stars.
  2. Stars are spread out more or less uniformly
    throughout the Universe.
  3. The Milky Way contains a variety of solar
    systems, stars, and galaxies.
  4. A galaxy contains billions of stars.
  5. A solar system contains billions of galaxies.

Q1.13
7
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8
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9
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10
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13
The separation between the two pointer stars of
the Big Dipper is 5 degrees. What is this
separation in arcminutes?
  1. 50
  2. 60
  3. 300
  4. 500
  5. 18,000

Q1.4
14
The separation between the two pointer stars of
the Big Dipper is 5 degrees. What is this
separation in arcminutes?
  1. 50
  2. 60
  3. 300
  4. 500
  5. 18,000

A1.4
15
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16
What lengths are most conveniently measured in
units of nanometers (10-9 m)?
  1. Distances between the planets
  2. Distances between cities on Earth
  3. Dimensions of the human body
  4. Wavelengths of visible light
  5. Diameter of an atom

Q1.6
17
What lengths are most conveniently measured in
units of nanometers (10-9 m)?
  1. Distances between the planets
  2. Distances between cities on Earth
  3. Dimensions of the human body
  4. Wavelengths of visible light
  5. Diameter of an atom

A1.6
18
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19
What lengths are most conveniently measured in
astronomical units (AU)?
  1. Distances on the Earth
  2. Distances within the solar system
  3. Distances between stars in our Galaxy
  4. Distances between galaxies
  5. Only the largest distances in the universe

Q1.5
20
What lengths are most conveniently measured in
astronomical units (AU)?
  1. Distances on the Earth
  2. Distances within the solar system
  3. Distances between stars in our Galaxy
  4. Distances between galaxies
  5. Only the largest distances in the universe

A1.5
21
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22
What is the approximate diameter of our Galaxy,
the Milky Way?
  1. 50 106 km
  2. 50 astronomical units
  3. 50 light-years
  4. 50 kiloparsecs
  5. 10 million light-years

Q1.8
23
What is the approximate diameter of our Galaxy,
the Milky Way?
  1. 50 106 km
  2. 50 astronomical units
  3. 50 light-years
  4. 50 kiloparsecs
  5. 10 million light-years

Q1.8
24
Key Ideas
  • Astronomy, Science, and the Nature of the
    Universe The universe is comprehensible. The
    scientific method is a procedure for formulating
    hypotheses about the universe. These are tested
    by observation or experimentation in order to
    build consistent models or theories that
    accurately describe phenomena in nature.
  • Observations of the heavens have helped
    scientists discover some of the fundamental laws
    of physics. The laws of physics are in turn used
    by astronomers to interpret their observations.
  • The Solar System Exploration of the planets
    provides information about the origin and
    evolution of the solar system, as well as about
    the history and resources of Earth.
  • Stars and Nebulae Studying the stars and nebulae
    helps us learn about the origin and history of
    the Sun and the solar system.

25
Key Ideas
  • Galaxies Observations of galaxies tell us about
    the origin and history of the universe.
  • Angular Measure Astronomers use angles to denote
    the positions and sizes of objects in the sky.
    The size of an angle is measured in degrees,
    arcminutes, and arcseconds.
  • Powers-of-Ten Notation is a convenient shorthand
    system for writing numbers. It allows very large
    and very small numbers to be expressed in a
    compact form.
  • Units of Distance Astronomers use a variety of
    distance units. These include the astronomical
    unit (the average distance from Earth to the
    Sun), the light-year (the distance that light
    travels in one year), and the parsec.
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