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Team Leadership


Team Leadership Chapter 9 Team Leadership Team composed of members who are interdependent, who share common goals, and who must coordinate their activities to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Team Leadership

Team Leadership
  • Chapter 9

Team Leadership
  • Team composed of members who are interdependent,
    who share common goals, and who must coordinate
    their activities to accomplish these goals.

Team Leadership
  • With the increase in organizational work teams
    and their expanding role in the complex and
    rapidly changing organizational structuresIt is
    essential to understand the role of leadership
    within these teams to ensure team success and to
    avoid team failure.

Team Leadership
  • The use of organizational teamsto lead to
    greater productivity, more effective use of
    resources, better decisions and problem solving,
    better-quality products and services, and
    increased innovation and creativity.
  • Work team management or supervisiona primary
    reason to properly develop and yield improvements
    in productivity, quality, and quality of life.

Team Leadership
  • 1940-1950slittle emphasis on practical problems
    of real-life groups (temporary, laboratory-type
  • Researchers are attempting to determine the
    relationships between leadership, team
    excellence, and the organizational setting.
  • Much of the current researchfocuses on the
    practical problems of ongoing work teams and how
    to make them more effective.

Critical Functions of Team Leadership
  • To help the group accomplish its task (task
    function)team performance
  • To keep the group maintained and functioning
    (relational maintenance function)team
  • Both functions are interrelated.

Critical Functions of Team Leadership
  • Task or team performance functions include
    getting the job done, making decisions, solving
    problems, adapting to changes, making plans, and
    achieving goals.

Critical Functions of Team Leadership
  • Maintenance or team development functions include
    developing a positive climate, solving
    interpersonal problems, satisfying members
    needs, and developing cohesion.

Critical Functions of Team Leadership
  • In addition to dealing with and balancing the
    task and relational needs of the team, the leader
    also has to help the group to adapt to the
    external environment as well.

Critical Functions of Team Leadership
  • Effective team leaders need to learn to analyze
    and balance the internal and external demands of
    the group and react appropriately by changing or
    remaining consistent.

Critical Functions of Team Leadership
  • What functions does a leader have to perform to
    help a group be more effective?
  • McGrath (1964) formulated a modelgroup
    effectiveness (leadership function), analysis of
    the situation both internally and externally, and
    the leader should take an immediate action or not.

Critical Functions of Team Leadership
  • Two dimensions of leadership behavior
  • (a) monitoring vs. taking action
  • (b) internal group vs. external group

The three decisions
  • What type of intervention should be used
    (monitoring/action taking)?
  • At what level should the intervention be targeted
  • What leadership function should be implemented to
    improve group functioning?

Leader Mediation Decisions
  • The first decision confronting leadership is
    whether monitoring or action taking is the most
    appropriate for the issue at hand.
  • The second strategic decision is to determine
    what level of process needs leadership attention
    (internaltask/relational or externalenvironment
    team leadership).
  • The third decision for leadership is to determine
    the most appropriate function or skill to be
    performed in the intervention.

Hackman Walton (1986) indicated that leaders
need to monitor
  • (a) performance conditions (goals, structure,
  • (b) performance processes (effort, knowledge,
    strategies, and
  • (c) outcome states (satisfaction, performance)

Critical Functions of Team Leadership
  • As a leaderdiagnose, analyze, or forecast
    problems (monitoring) or take immediate action to
    solve a problem that we observe (taking action).
  • As a leaderfocus on the problem within the group
    (internal) or problems outside the group

Internal Task Leadership Functions
  • Goal focusing (clarifying, gaining agreement)
  • Structuring for results (planning, organizing,
    clarifying roles, delegating)
  • Facilitating decision making (informing,
    controlling, coordinating, mediating,
    synthesizing, issue focusing)
  • Training team members in task skills (educating,
  • Maintaining standards of excellence (assessing
    team and individual performance, confronting
    inadequate performance)

Internal Relational Leadership Functions
  • Coaching team members in interpersonal skills
  • Collaborating (including, involving)
  • Managing conflict and power issues (avoiding
    confrontation, questioning ideas)
  • Building commitment and team work (being
    optimistic, innovating, envisioning, socializing,
    rewarding, recognizing)
  • Satisfying individual member needs (trusting,
    supporting, advocating)
  • Modeling ethical and principled practices (fair,
    consistent, normative)

External Environmental Leadership Functions
  • Networking and forming alliances in environment
    (gather information, increase influence)
  • Advocating and representing team to environment
  • Negotiating upward to secure necessary resources,
    support, and recognition for team
  • Buffering of team members from environmental
  • Assessing environment indicators of teams
    effectiveness (surveys, evaluations, performance
  • Sharing relevant environmental information with

Hackman Walton (1986)
  • Two dimensions result four types of group
    leadership functions
  • 1. Diagnosing group deficiencies
  • 2. Taking remedial action to correct deficiencies
    (executive action/internal)
  • 3. Forecasting impending environmental changes
  • 4. Taking preventive action in response to
    environmental changes (executive action/external)

Team Effectiveness
  • Team performance (task accomplishment)
  • Team development (maintenance of team)

The team leadership Model
  • The team leadership model provides a tool for
    understanding the very complex phenomenon of team
    leadership with its mediation decisions, its
    critical functions, and its focus on outcomes of
    team excellence.
  • The leaders function or job is to monitor the
    team and then to take whatever action is
    necessary to ensure team effectiveness.

Critical Functions of Team Leadership
  • Leadership behavior would be seen as team-based
    problem solving in which the leader attempts to
    achieve team goals by analyzing the internal and
    external situation and then selecting and
    implementing the appropriate behaviors to ensure
    team effectiveness.

Team Leadership
  • Leadership is not a role but an ongoing process
    to continually gather information, reduce
    equivocality, provide structure, and overcome
  • All members of the group can engage in this
    process and collectively help the group adapt to
    changing conditions.

Team Leadership
  • Team leaders must learn to be open and objective
    in understanding and diagnosing team problems and
    skillful in selecting the most appropriate
    actions to help achieve team goals.

The Leaders Ability
  • Barge (1996)networking (the obtaining of
    relevant information) data splitting (the
    interpretation of this information).
  • The ability to facilitate decision making
    (task/team performance) the ability to manage
    interpersonal relations (maintenance/team

The Leaders Ability
  • Fleishman et al. (1991)information search
    (search out information to explain the current
    state of the teams functioning) structuring
    (analyzed and organized the information so that
    the leader can decide how to act).

Conditions of Group Effectiveness
  • Clear, engaging direction
  • An enabling performance situation
  • A group structure that fosters competent task
  • work
  • An organizational context that supports and
  • reinforces excellence
  • Available, expert coaching and process
  • assistance
  • Adequate material resources

Characteristics of Team Excellence
  • Clear, elevation goal
  • Results-driven structure
  • Competent team members
  • Unified commitment
  • Collaborative climate
  • Standards of excellence
  • Principled leadership
  • External support

Strengths of Team Leadership
  • To help make decisions about the current state of
    their teams and what specific actions they need
    to take to improve the teams functioning.
  • To provide a cognitive map to identify group
    needs and offer practical suggestions to the
    leader to take appropriate corrective actions.
  • To help the leader make sense of the complexity
    of groups and offers practical suggestions based
    on theory and research as to what actions to take
    to make the group more effective.

Strengths of Team Leadership
  • Its focus on real-life organizational teams and
    their effectiveness
  • Its emphasize the functions of leadership that
    can be shared and distributed within the work
  • Its help in selecting leaders and team members
    with the appropriate diagnostic and action-taking

Criticisms of Team Leadership
  • The entire model is not completely supported or
  • The model is complex and does not provide easy
    answers to difficult decisions for the leader.