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Contingency Theories of Leadership

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Contingency Theories of Leadership Wofford & Liska (1993) Graeff (1997) Howell et al. (1990) Peters et al. (1985) Agenda July 5, 2005 Reminders Questions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Contingency Theories of Leadership


1
Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • Wofford Liska (1993)
  • Graeff (1997)
  • Howell et al. (1990)
  • Peters et al. (1985)

2
Agenda July 5, 2005
  • Reminders
  • Questions, Comments, and Concerns
  • Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • Path-Goal Theory
  • Situational Leadership Theory
  • Substitutes for Leadership
  • Fiedlers Contingency Theory
  • Break
  • TRP 7
  • Thursday

3
Reminder
  • Your Final SAP and TRP are Due Thursdaythe Last
    Class

4
In Honor of Your Final Class
  • Pizza and Beverages Will Be Provided

5
Turn in SAP 7
  • Please Pass to the Aisle and then Pass Forward
  • Thanks

6
Questions, Comments, or Concerns?
  • The Presence of What Two Factors Cause Decision
    Making Quality to Plummet? Why Is LMX Referred to
    as a Dyadic Theory?

7
Contingency Theories of Leadership
  • The Interaction Perspective of Leadership
  • Path-Goal Theory
  • Situational Leadership Theory
  • Substitutes for Leadership
  • Fiedlers Contingency Theory

8
Path-Goal Theory
  • Leaders Influence Satisfaction and Performance
  • Increase Subordinate Outcomes By
  • Clarifying Path to Goals
  • Reducing Roadblocks to Goals
  • Increase JS on the Way
  • Links to VIE
  • Inclusion of Task Characteristics and Subordinate
    Characteristics
  • 4 Types of Leaders
  • Supportive (Boring)
  • Directive (Unstructured)
  • Participative (Complex)
  • Achievement-Oriented (High nACH Employees)
  • Mixed Results

9
Causal Model for Supportive Leader on Subordinate
Effort
Reduce boredom Make more tolerable
Increase intrinsic Value of work
Increase effort
Supportive leadership
Increase confidence And lower anxiety
Increase effort-performance expectation
Yukl (1998). Leadership in organizations (4th
Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall.
10
Causal Model for Directive Leadership on
Subordinate Effort
Reduce role ambiguity
Increase effort-perform expectation
Increase incentives
Increase valence for task success
Increased effort
Directive leadership
Strengthen reward contingencies
Increase perform-reward expectation
Yukl (1998). Leadership in organizations (4th
Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall.
11
Situational Leadership
  • Hersey Blanchard (1977)
  • Leadership Depends of Maturity of Followers
  • Job Maturity (KSAs)
  • Psychological Maturity (Self-Efficacy)
  • Minimal to Moderate Maturity Supportive
  • Moderate to Maximum Maturity Directive
  • Developmental Interventions
  • Simple vs. Contingency Contracting

12
Hersey Blanchards Model
Much
Amount of Behavior
Directive
Supportive
Little
M1
M2
M3
M4
Follower Maturity
Yukl (1998). Leadership in organizations (4th
Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall.
13
Substitutes for Leadership
  • Kerr Jermier (1978)
  • Identify Aspects of Situation that Minimize Need
    for Leaders
  • Substitutes (Task, Organization, Roles,
    Subordinate Characteristics)
  • Neutralizers (Reward, Authority, External)
  • Substitutes Make Leaders Redundant
  • Strong Support for Substitutes and Neutralizers

14
Summary of Substitutes Model
Substitute or Neutralizer
Supportive Leadership
Instrumental (Directive) Leadership
  • Subordinate Characteristics
  • Experience, ability, training
  • Professional orientation
  • Indifference toward reward

Substitute Substitute Neutralizer
Substitute Neutralizer
  • B. Task Characteristics
  • Structured, routine
  • Feedback provided by task
  • Intrinsically satisfying

Substitute Substitute
Substitute
  • C. Organization Characteristics
  • Cohesive workgroup
  • Low position power
  • Formalization
  • Inflexibility
  • Dispersed worksites

Substitute Neutralizer
Substitute Neutralizer Substitute Neutralizer Neut
ralizer
Neutralizer
Kerr Jermier (1978)
15
Fiedlers Contingency Theory
  • Fiedler (1964, 1967)
  • Situation Moderates Leader Effectiveness and
    Subordinate Traits
  • Based on Least Preferred Coworker (LPC)
  • Indicates Leaders Motive Hierarchy (nAFF)
  • High LPC is Considerate
  • Low LPC is Directive
  • Based on Situational Favorability
  • Leader-Member Relations, Position Power, Task
    Structure

16
Fiedlers LPC Model
Group performance
Leaders LPC
Leader-member relations Leader position
power Task structure
Yukl (1998). Leadership in organizations (4th
Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall.
17
Break
  • 20 Minute Break

18
TRP 7
19
Thursday
  • Last Class
  • Pizza Party!
  • SAP and TRP 8 Due
  • Transformational, Transactional, and Charismatic
    Leadership
  • Conger Kanungo (1987)
  • Kuhnert Lewis (1987)
  • Judge Piccolo (2004)
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