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Principles of Effective Intervention: Supervision-Leadership Skills


Principles of Effective Intervention: Supervision-Leadership Skills William Chris Cunningham Grant County Community Corrections 501 South Adams Street – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Principles of Effective Intervention: Supervision-Leadership Skills

Principles of Effective InterventionSupervision-
Leadership Skills
  • William Chris Cunningham
  • Grant County Community Corrections
  • 501 South Adams Street
  • Marion, Indiana 46953
  • 765-668-6528

What we will cover?
  • The principles of effective intervention
  • How to merge Leadership and Supervision with EBP
    and PEI
  • Modeling skills to impact change
  • Taking current personnel system from task to
    change driven system

Principles of Effective Intervention(Corrections)
  • Risk Principle target moderate to high risk
    offenders (WHO)
  • Need Principle target criminogenic factors
  • Responsivity Principle styles and modes of
    service must be matched to the learning styles
    and abilities of the offenders (HOW)
  • Objective Principle certain interventions are
    more effective at reducing or managing risk than
    others depending on what your objective is
  • Fidelity Principle interventions must be
    administered with strict adherence to the social
    learning model in order to get the results

Principles of Effective Intervention(Corrections)
  • 1. Assess Actuarial Risk/Needs.
  • 2. Enhance Intrinsic Motivation.
  • 3. Target Interventions.
  • a. Risk Principle Prioritize supervision and
    treatment resources for higher risk offenders.
  • b. Need Principle Target interventions to
    criminogenic needs.
  • c. Responsivity Principle Be responsive to
    temperament, learning style, motivation, culture,
  • gender when assigning programs.
  • d. Dosage Structure 40-70 of high-risk
    offenders time for 3-9 months.
  • e. Treatment Integrate treatment into the full
    sentence/sanction requirements.
  • 4. Skill Train with Directed Practice (use
    Cognitive Behavioral treatment methods).
  • 5. Increase Positive Reinforcement.
  • 6. Engage Ongoing Support in Natural Communities.
  • 7. Measure Relevant Processes/Practices.
  • 8. Provide Measurement Feedback.

Principles of Effective Intervention(Leadership-S
  • 1) Assess Personnel Skills Risk/Needs.
  • Develop and maintain a system of ongoing
    personnel assessment tools.
  • Assessing employees in a reliable and valid
    manner is a prerequisite for the effective
    management (i.e. supervision and training) of
  • Timely, relevant measures of staff risk and need
    at the
  • individual and aggregate levels are essential for
    the implementation
  • of principles of best practice in staff
    supervision, (e.g.,
  • risk, need, and responsivity).
  • Screening and assessment tools that focus on
    dynamic and static
  • risk factors, profile staff training needs, and
    have been validated
  • Are vital. They should also be supported by
    sufficiently detailed and accurately written
  • (DISC, Primary Colors, True Colors, MMPI)

Principles of Effective Intervention(Leadership-S
  • 2) Enhance Intrinsic Motivation.
  • Supervisors should relate to staff in
    interpersonally sensitive and
  • Constructive ways to enhance intrinsic
  • Behavioral change is an inside job for lasting
    change to occur, a level of intrinsic motivation
    is needed. Motivation to change is dynamic and
    the probability that change may occur is strongly
    influenced by interpersonal interactions, such as
    those of ambivalence that usually accompany
    change can be explored through motivational
    interviewing, a style and method of communication
    used to help people overcome their ambivalence
    regarding behavior changes. Research strongly
  • that motivational interviewing techniques, rather
    than persuasion tactics, effectively enhance
    motivation for initiating and maintaining
    behavior changes.

Principles of Effective Intervention(Leadership-S
  • Target Interventions.
  • A. RISK PRINCIPLE Prioritize supervision and
    training resources for higher risk Staff.
  • B. NEED PRINCIPLE Target interventions to
    employee training needs.
  • C. RESPONSIVITY PRINCIPLE Be responsive to
    temperament, learning style, motivation, gender,
    and culture when using interventions.
  • D. DOSAGE The higher the training need the
    greater the time invested in change.
  • E. TRAINING PRINCIPLE Integrate training (all of
    the above) into the staff improvement plan.
  • a) Risk Principle
  • Prioritize primary supervision and training
    resources for staff who are at higher risk.
    Research indicates that supervision and training
    resources that are focused on communication,
    thinking and problem solving skills offer the
    best results.

Principles of Effective Intervention(Leadership-S
  • b) Staff Need Principle
  • Address Staff greatest training needs. Employees
    have a variety of needs, some of which are
    directly linked to poor performance. These staff
    needs that, when addressed or changed, affect
    work performance. Examples of staff needs are
    attitudes, values, and beliefs low self control
    peers and personality type. Based on an
    assessment of the employee, these needs can be
    prioritized so that training is focused on the
    greatest training needs.
  • Questions to Ask
  • Are Supervisors and staff trained in motivational
  • interviewing techniques?
  • What quality assurance is in place?
  • Are supervisors held accountable for using
    motivational interviewing techniques in their
    day-to-day interactions with staff?

Principles of Effective Intervention(Leadership-S
c) Responsivity Principle Responsivity requires
that we consider individual characteristics when
matching supervision with staff. These
characteristics include, but are not limited to
culture, gender, motivational stages,
developmental stages, and learning styles. These
factors influence staff responsiveness to
different types of training. The principle of
responsivity also requires that staff be provided
with training that is proven effective with other
staff. Certain training strategies, such as
cognitive-behavioral methodologies, have
consistently produced better results. Providing
appropriate responsivity to staff involves
selecting services in accordance with these
factors, including a) Matching training staff
needs and b) Matching style and methods of
communication with staff on stages of change
Principles of Effective Intervention(Leadership-S
  • d) Dosage
  • Providing appropriate doses of training,
    pro-social structure, and supervision as a
    strategic application of resources. Staff needs
    (risk) dictate a higher allocation of structure
    and supervision. Staff in need commonly require
    strategic, extensive, and extended
    training/support. However, too often individuals
    are neither explicitly identified nor provided a
    coordinated package of supervision/training.
  • The evidence indicates that incomplete or
  • approaches can have negative effects, often
    wasting resources.

Principles of Effective Intervention(Leadership-S
  • e) Training Principle
  • Training, particularly cognitive-behavioral
    types, should be applied as an integral part of
    the staff change process. Integrate training
    into staff requirements through individual
    training plan (taking a proactive and strategic
    approach to supervision and staff training).
    Delivering targeted and timely training
    interventions will provide the greatest long-term
    benefit to the organization, the community, and
    the clients.
  • Questions to Ask
  • How do we manage staff assessed as highly
  • Does our personnel assessment tool assess for
    necessary skills?
  • How are cognitive skills and training needs
    incorporated into training plans?
  • How are staff matched to training resources?
  • How structured are training plans for staff,
    especially during the first 6 months in the
  • How are supervisors held accountable for using
    assessment information to develop a training
    plan and then subsequently using that plan to
    develop staff?

Principles of Effective Intervention(Leadership-S
  • 4) Staff Train with Directed Practice (using
    cognitive-behavioral methods).
  • Provide evidence-based programming that
    emphasizes cognitive
  • behavioral strategies and is delivered by well
    trained staff, preferably supervisors.
  • To successfully deliver this training to staff,
    supervisors must understand thinking, social
    learning, and appropriate communication
    techniques. Skills are not just taught to staff,
    but are practiced (modeled) or role-played and
    the resulting
  • pro-social attitudes and behaviors are positively
    reinforced by supervisors. Organizations should
    prioritize, plan, and budget to predominantly
    implement staff training that have been
    scientifically proven to impact behavior.
  • Questions to Ask
  • How are social learning techniques incorporated
    into the training programs we deliver?
  • How do we ensure that our staff trainings are
    delivered in alignment with social learning
  • Are the staff trainings we deliver and contract
    for based on scientific evidence proven to impact

Principles of Effective Intervention(Leadership-S
  • 5) Increase Positive Reinforcement.
  • When learning new skills and making behavioral
    changes, human beings appear to respond
  • better and maintain learned behaviors for longer
    periods of time, when approached with
  • carrots rather than sticks. Behaviorists
    recommend applying a much higher ratio of
  • reinforcements to negative reinforcements in
    order to better achieve sustained behavioral
  • change. Research indicates that a ratio of four
    positive to every one negative reinforcement
  • is optimal for promoting behavior changes. These
    rewards do not have to be applied
  • consistently to be effective (as negative
    reinforcement does) but can be applied randomly.
  • Increasing positive reinforcement should not be
    done at the expense of or undermine
  • administering swift, certain, and real responses
    for negative and unacceptable behavior.
  • Staff having problems respond positively to
    reasonable and reliable additional structure and
  • boundaries. Staff may initially overreact to new
    demands for accountability, seek to evade
  • detection or consequences, and fail to recognize
    any personal responsibility. However,
  • with exposure to clear rules that are
    consistently (and swiftly) enforced with
  • graduated consequences, all staff and people in
    general, will tend to comply in the
  • direction of the most rewards and least
    punishments. This type of extrinsic motivation
  • can often be useful for beginning the process of
    behavior change.

Principles of Effective Intervention(Leadership-S
  • 6) Engage On-going Support within the
  • Realign and actively engage pro-social supports
    for staff
  • within the Organizational structure (The Big O
    and the
  • Big MO). Research indicates that supervision
    and peer
  • interventions with staff result in positive
    change by
  • improving bonds and developing informal ties to
    pro social
  • interaction.
  • Questions to Ask
  • Do we engage the organization for staff as a
    regular part
  • of the training plan?
  • How do we measure our supervisor and peer
    interactions as they relate to staff change?

Principles of Effective Intervention(Leadership-S
  • 7) Measure Relevant Processes/Practices.
  • Accurate and detailed documentation of training
    plan, along
  • with a formal and valid mechanism for measuring
    outcomes, is the
  • foundation of evidence-based practice.
    Organizations must routinely
  • assess staff change in cognitive and skill
    development, and
  • evaluate effectiveness, if training is to remain
  • In addition to routinely measuring and
    documenting staff change,
  • staff performance should also be regularly
    assessed. Staff that are
  • periodically evaluated for performance achieve
    greater fidelity to
  • program design, service delivery principles, and
    outcomes. Staff
  • whose performance is not consistently monitored,
    measured, and
  • subsequently reinforced work less cohesively,
    more frequently at
  • cross-purposes and provide less support to

Principles of Effective Intervention(Leadership-S
  • 8) Provide Measurement Feedback.
  • Once a method for measuring relevant processes /
    practices is in
  • place (principle seven), the information must be
    used to monitor
  • process and change. Providing feedback to staff
  • their progress builds accountability and is
    associated with enhanced
  • motivation for change, lower staff turn over, and
  • outcomes.
  • The same is true within an organization.
    Monitoring delivery of
  • training and fidelity to procedures helps build
    accountability and
  • maintain integrity to the organizational mission.
  • performance audits and planning with an eye
    toward improved
  • outcomes, keep staff focused on the ultimate goal
    of increased
  • performance through the use of evidence-based

Principles of Effective Intervention(Leadership-S
  • Questions to Ask
  • What data do we collect regarding staff
    assessments and Training plans?
  • How do we measure staff change while they are
    under supervision?
  • What are our staff outcome measures and how do
    we track them?
  • How do we measure staff performance? What data
    do we use? How is that data collected?
  • Questions to Ask
  • How is information regarding staff change and
    outcomes shared with the organization? With staff
    in general?
  • With whom do we share information regarding
    outcome measures?
  • How is staff performance data used in the
    performance evaluation process?

Principles of Effective Intervention(Leadership-S
  • Questions?

Principles of Effective Intervention(Leadership-S
  • Sources
  • Color site (http//
    ors-Personality-Test.html) Free True Colors Test.
    Harvards Learning Organization Survey .
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http// Manager Tools
  • Motivational Enhancement (http//www.motivationali
  • Motivational Assessment-Supervisory Tools for
    enhancing proficiency An MI guide for
    supervisors, specifically. (http//www.attcnetwork
  • http// Implementing
    Evidence-Based Practices in Community
    Corrections Principles of Effective
  • Evidence Based Correctional Practices
  • Implementing Evidence-Based Policy and Practice
    in Community Corrections Second Edition

Principles of Effective Intervention(Leadership-S
  • Employee incentive Basics (http//www.sendcoffee.c
    om/gifts/programs.htmlpick) A list of possible
  • 84 employees reward ideas (http//
    9/11/21-ways-to-reward-employees/ and
  • Target Intervention/Skill Training with Directed
    Practice http//
  • Carey Guides (http//
    areyguides.htm) These guides can assist
    supervisors in providing tangible examples, when
    coaching employees however, they require
  • Center for Effective Public Policy
    (http// The Center
    synthesizes its work in writing for the criminal
    justice field so others can learn from the
    Centers efforts. You can find training
  • Leadership Coaching, Tony Stoltzfus
  • Leading Change, John P. Kotter
  • http//
  • http//
  • http// Promoting Public
    Safety Using Effective Interventions with
  • Effective Communication/Motivational Strategies
    in Assessing and Overcoming Resistance to Change
  • Program Planning and Design NIC e-Learning
    Program http//