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ADVANCED SURFACE COAL MINING TECHNOLOGIES Indian Coal Mining Scenario

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Title: ADVANCED SURFACE COAL MINING TECHNOLOGIES Indian Coal Mining Scenario


1
ADVANCED SURFACE COAL MINING TECHNOLOGIESIndian
Coal Mining Scenario
2
  • India is the 3rd largest coal producer in the
    world
  • With Geological Coal Resources of 2,93,497
    Million Ton, India holds 7th Position in the
    World.
  • Coal has the largest share of Indias power
    generation (about 55)
  • Coal production of India in FY 2011-12 539.79
    MT
  • Coal production from Surface Coal Mines is more
    than 80 of All India coal production figure with
    corresponding volume OB handling.
  • Existing Demand-Supply Gap (2011-12)- 110.08 MT
  • Estimated Coal demand in XII Plan (
    2016-17)980.5 MT
  • Demand-Supply Gap in XII Plan (2016-17)- 185.50
    MT


3
SOME LARGE SURFACE COAL MINES IN INDIA10.00 Mt
or more
Sl No Project Company Annual capacity
1 Gevra SECL 35.00
2 Dipka Expn. SECL 25.00
3 Bharatpur MCL 20.00
4 Bhubaneshwari. MCL 20.00
12 Rajmahal ECL 17.00
5 Lingraj MCL 16.00
6 Lakhanpur MCL 15.00
7 Hingula MCL 15.00
8 Ananta MCL 15.00
9 Dudhichua NCL 15.00
10 Nigahi NCL 15.00
11 Kusmunda SECL 15.00
13 Amlori NCL 10.00
14 Jayant NCL 10.00
4
UPCOMING MEGA COAL PROJECTS OF CIL
Project Company Target Capacity (Mty)
Macharkata MGCL 50.00
Kusmunda SECL 50.00
Siarmal MCL 40.00
5
  • Surface Mining Technology in Operation

6
  • Dragline
  • Largest in use in India 33m/70m
    (Krishnashila, NCL)
  • Largest available 168cum/94m
  • Electric Rope Shovel
  • Largest proposed in India 42 cum (Gevra,Dipka)
  • Largest available 63 cum

7
  • Hydraulic Excavator
  • Largest in use in India 34 cum

  • Rampur Agucha(HZL)

  • Provisioning- Samaleshwari(MCL)
  • Largest available 50 cum
  • Dump trucks
  • Largest in use in India 240 T
  • Largest available 400T

8
  • Bucket Wheel Excavator
  • Finds application in relatively softer rock
    (Lignite)
  • Largest size currently in use 1400 Lt.
  • Largest belt size in use with BWE 2400 mm
  • Surface miner
  • Some of the opencast coal mines of MCL, SECL
    CCL are using surface miners for extraction of
    coal.
  • Presently surface miner is used as cutting
    machine only and pay loader has been added for
    loading the coal into the tipping trucks.

    Contd.

9
  • Advantages of Surface Miner technology
  • - Elimination of drilling blasting
  • - Environmental problems of blasting, like, fly
    rock,
  • ground vibration etc. are eliminated.
  • - Selective mining.
  • - Less coal loss.
  • - No primary crushing required.
  • - Good fragmentation.

10
  • In-pit Crushing Conveying.
  • Mobile In-pit crushing and conveying in coal is
    in operation at Piparwar OCP of CCL
  • Mobile In-pit crushing and conveying in OB is in
    operation at Ramagundem-II OCP of SCCL
  • These technologies have been associated with high
    capital and operating cost
  • This technology is generally economical for large
    mines

11
  • Planning Design Capabilities
  • CMPDI is a wholly owned subsidiary of CIL to
    provide in-house consulting services to CIL and
    its subsidiaries as well as mining projects
    coming up in other sectors, in Coal Exploration,
    Mine Planning Design, Coal Beneficiation
    Utilization, allied engineering services, and
    Human Resource Development.
  • services were also expanded in environmental
    engineering, Geomatics, Information
    Communication Technology, Laboratory field
    services.
  • Certified as an ISO-90011994 company in March,
    1998 by BVQI (UK). Certificate was upgraded to
    ISO-9001 2000 in November, 2002.
  • CMPDI prepared over 950 mining project reports
    with individual project capacity up to 35 MTY.
  • Services provided by CMPDI have facilitated CIL
    and its subsidiaries to achieve a sustained
    growth in coal production from 79 MT in 1974-75
    to 431.33 MT in 2010-11.

12
  • CMPDI has undertaken over 500 integrated coal
    exploration projects in varying geological and
    terrain conditions.
  • There has been an overall increase of 240 in
    National Coal Inventory as compared to 1976 and
    an increase of nearly 443 in case of proven
    reserves. Quantum jump in proved coal resources
    is mainly due to CMPDI systematic detailed
    exploration of coal resources.
  • About 18-fold increase in production from OC
    mines of CIL to a level of about 391 million
    tonnes in 2010-11 from a meagre 20.8 million
    tonnes in 1974-75 has been made possible through
    CMPDI sustained efforts in providing complete
    range of services
  • CMPDI also expanded its services to external
    clients viz. SAIL, SCCL, NLC, TISCO, IREL,
    Reliance Coal Resources Ltd., M/s Adani
    Enterprises Ltd., UCM Coal Co. Ltd., UPBSNL, CEA,
    NTPC, CPCB, DGH, etc., not only in coal lignite
    but also in other minerals viz. iron ore, rock
    phosphate, manganese, CBM, etc.

13
  • TECHNOLOGY UPGRADATION

14
  • HIGH CAPACITY HEMM
  • Draglines - 55 cum Radius of over 100 m,
  • Rope Shovels - 53 cum ,(Kusmunda, SECL)
  • Rear Dumpers 400 T,
  • Hydraulic Shovels gt 34 cum
  • FrontEndLoaders(FEL) 40 cum (Reliance, Moher)
  • Graders - 530 HP,
  • Water Sprinklers - 70 KL or more.

15
MATERIAL HANDLING
  • High Angle Conveyors as special case of In Pit
    Crushing and Conveying for deep coal mines.
  • Mobile Crushing system with direct loading from
    Trucks i.e. Dual Truck Mobile Sizer (DTMS)
  • Capital cost can be decreased by indigenizing
    crushing equipment, spreaders and higher capacity
    drives for conveyor system.

16
DRILLING BLASTING TECHNIQUES
  • CMPDI is developing an indigenous MWD
    (Monitoring While Drilling) tool supported by
    user friendly backend application software, for
    blast hole drill machines. The tool would
    determine the rock mass characteristics for
    effective utilization of explosive during
    blasting causing better blast in terms of post
    blast results and overall blast performance. The
    system should also optimise explosive-rock
    interaction for Shovel Benches Dragline Benches
    in opencast mines.

  • Contd.

17
  • The objective is to capture rock characteristics
    while drilling, by installing various sensors on
    the drill machine, online capturing sensor data
    analysing the field data to arrive at different
    type of rock mass as drilling progresses and
    guiding the explosive charging into the blast
    holes. This will result into techno economic
    selection of explosives for any rock mass.

18
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19
APPLICATION OF GEOMATICS
  • Topographical Survey
  • Airborne/Space borne 3D remote sensing data can
    be used for preparation of topographical map,
  • Updation of maps with remote sensing data,
  • Topographical maps being in electronic form, can
    easily be correlated and updated as and when
    required,
  • Land use plan,

20
  • Excavation Monitoring
  • Rapid and accurate measurement of OBR,
  • Airborne Laser Terrain Mapping (ALTM) for rapid
    and accurate mapping of opencast mines and
    measurement of excavation volume.
  • Dump Management
  • Remote Sensing, GPS and Digital Photogrammetry
    techniques may find application for effective
    dump management.

21
QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
  • Surface Miner and Dozer with Ripper attachment,
  • For new mines of 2.5 mty or more, coal washeries
    are being proposed.
  • Preparation of quality grids (Maps) at planning
    stage by application of modern software.

22
MINE SAFETY
  • Regular monitoring of OB dump through non-contact
    survey using laser profiler or laser scanner to
    predict likely dump failure. For inaccessible
    dragline dumps, a reflector-less equipment based
    on laser technology for surveying dump toe and
    crest to monitor any movement of dump.
  • Application of Radar technology for Monitoring
    slope Stability.
  • Special emphasis on mine illumination.

23
Truck Dispatch System
  • TRUCK DESPATCH SYSTEM (TDS)
  • Truck Dispatch System (TDS) has been working in
    Rajmahal (ECL) Jayant (NCL) successfully.
  • TDS offers a viable solution to improve
    communication, monitoring, dynamic allocation of
    trucks to shovels avoiding idle times of shovels
    and dumpers both and helps to achieve maximum
    utilization of shovel-dumper combination system
    working in the mine.

24
Enterprise Resource Planning
  • Today, existing opencast mining operations have
    little real-time visibility into their production
    and maintenance information.
  • For large mines better access to consistent
    information can be achieved through
    implementation of an effective Enterprise
    Resource Planning solution.
  • Through an ERP in a large Open pit operation, one
    can
  • make reduction in costs of maintenance.
  • improve equipment productivity.
  • greatly reduced breakdowns.

25
  • integrate maintenance processes with production
    with new tools for reliability-based equipment
    monitoring viz. VSMS etc.
  • deliver inventory analysis to maintenance and
    production managers in real time, so that
    informed and immediate decisions can be taken.
  • Integration for various functions like
    production, maintenance, stores, despatch,
    personnel payroll, finance marketing through
    enterprise asset management solutions from ERP,
    mining companies can optimize asset condition and
    performance at the lowest possible cost.
    Companies can manage capital expenditure, reduce
    operating costs, improve asset utilization, and
    collaborate with engineering and maintenance
    contractors.

26
Future Scenario Green Mining
27
  • Introduction of Surface Miners for coal
    exploitation with interlocked water spraying
    arrangement.
  • In-pit belt conveying system eliminating coal
    transport by trucks in big opencast projects
  • Transportation of coal by covered conveyor belts
    in CHPs
  • Wagon loading through silos in big opencast
    projects

28
  • Setting-up of more coal washeries to reduce coal
    consumption per unit of power generated resulting
    in reduction in greenhouse gas emission.
  • All washeries will have Fluidized Bed Combustion
    (FBC)/ Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion
    (PFBC) plants to use washery rejects for power
    generation.
  • Disposal of fly-ash in backfilling of opencast
    projects as well as in underground mines with due
    regard to ground water quality
  • Identification of go area and no go area
    (forest area / eco-sensitive area) through
    satellite imagery technique.

29
  • Reclamation for post-mining land-use to generate
    revenue as social asset for future generations of
    the local community.
  • Introduction of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
    i.e., Coalbed Methane (CBM), Coal Mine Methane
    (CMM), Abandoned Mine Methane (AMM), Ventilation
    Air Methane (VAM), Coal-to-Liquid (CTL), and CO2
    sequestration.
  • CCS Carbon capture and storage.

30
Conclusion
31
  • The sustainability of large deep opencast
    operations in India will depend on
  • Technological Issues
  • Most of the technological issues relating to the
    large scale opencast mining are being
    continuously addressed with the technology
    keeping pace with the requirements.
  • Development of suitable method for extraction of
    coal standing on pillars in multi section i.e.
    Jharia coalfield.
  • Steep seams in North East region, Western
    Coalfields require innovative bulk material
    handling techniques for Overburden removal as
    land is scarce.
  • The problem of finding a cost effective
    alternative to diesel fuel needs to be addressed
    with more research with greater vigor.

32
  • Environmental Socio-Political Issues
  • Opencast mining results in conservation of coal
    which is a non-renewable energy source and
    opencast mining invariably involves large scale
    resettlement of population.
  • It is necessary to arrive at a concensus
    regarding socio-political issues particularly in
    a country like India in the form of a pragmatic
    resettlement rehabilitation policy.

33
  • Infrastructural Issues
  • Infrastructural issues which need immediate
    attention are enhancement of manufacturing base
    of major HEMM and of Off Highway Tyres in the
    country.
  • It is also essential to considerably augment the
    railway evacuation capacity from certain
    coalfields like IB Valley, Talcher, Korba,
    Rajmahal and North Karanpura from where the bulk
    of the opencast production will be obtained in
    future.

34
THANK YOU
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