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The Indian Wars


... Custers army and it would later be known as CUSTER'S LAST STAND! ... Where was Custer's last stand? What group of Indians was Chief Joseph the leader of? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Indian Wars

The Indian Wars
Exlcudes pictures
War for the Plains
  • In 1874 Quannah Parker and 700 Indians attacked a
    group of hunters
  • The hunters had been killing thousands of buffalo
    for their hides
  • The hunters had superior weapons so they easily
    won the fight
  • Quannah Parker was wounded in the shoulder and
    his horse was killed
  • One of the many battles the Plains Indians would
    fight for their land

The Sand Creek Massacre
  • In 1859 100,000 miners were trespassing on land
    promised to the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians
  • What Treaty promised them land?
  • The government tried to negotiate a new treaty
    but the Indians knew better and refused to sell
    their land
  • Indians attacked wagon trains, stage coaches, and
    mining camps
  • Government put together a military force

Sandcreek Massacre Cont.
  • Nov. 1864 Col. John Chivington led his soldiers
    in a surprise attack on a peaceful Cheyenne
    village camped at Sand Creek
  • Chief Black Kettle waved an American flag and
    then a white flag of truce, but Chivington
  • More than 200 men, women, and children were killed

  • 1860s Indians continued to attack and settlers
    continued to ignore the established borders
  • 1867 Congress decided to end the attacks can you
    guess what they did?
  • Only way was to separate Indians and Settlers

You guessed it! RESERVATIONS!!!!!!! (areas of
land set aside for Indian nations.
  • Indians were forced to move on these plots of
  • This would totally change the Indians way of
    life. How?
  • Could no longer be nomads and hunt the buffalo
  • Had to learn how to raise crops
  • Learn the customs of settlers

Red Clouds War
  • 1863 Gold discovered in Montana miners flocked
  • Miners cut through on Teton Sioux land
  • Angry Teton Sioux attacked trespassing miners
  • Government built three forts in the area to
    protect the traveling miners
  • Red Cloud a strong chief was determined to
    protect the Teton Siouxs homeland

Red Clouds War Cont.
  • He and Crazy Horse led their warriors in repeated
    attacks on travelers along the trail
  • After months of fighting and 80 dead soldiers the
    government abandoned the forts
  • As soldiers left the forts Red Cloud signed a
    peace agreement-The Second Treaty of Ft. Laramie

Red Clouds War Continued
  • Although Red Clouds War was a victory for the
    Plains Indians the treaty he signed was not
  • It established a reservation for northern Plains
    Indians located in Montana, Wyoming, and the
    Dakotas-The Great Sioux Reserve

Red Clouds War Cont.
  • Red Cloud hated to move his people onto a
    reservation but he was happy with the thought
    that he had preserved his peoples homeland
  • Does that word forever ring a bell?
  • Do you think the treaty was observed by the

The Battle of Little Big Horn
  • The peace brought by the Second Treaty of Ft.
    Laramie was short lived
  • When miners found gold in South Dakota what do
    you think happened?
  • You guessed itthe miners invaded the boundaries
    of the Sioux and Cheyennes hunting ground
  • Angry warriors attacked mining camps and so the
    government sent the Army to fight

Battle of Little Bighorn Cont.
  • June 25 1876 General Custer led his men to war
  • He ignored his scout who said they were way
    outnumbered and pushed on
  • Sioux and Cheyenne warriors led by Sitting Bull,
    Crazy Horse, Two Moons, and Lame White Man
    defeated General Custers army and it would later
    be known as CUSTERS LAST STAND!

Battle of Little Big Horn Cont.
  • It was a great victory for the Indians however it
    would be their last
  • Before a year had past most of the Sioux and
    Cheyennes had been defeated in battle or had
    moved onto reservations
  • Crazy Horse was captured and murdered
  • Sitting Bull escaped to Canada with a few

Chief Josephs Retreat
  • Nez Perce Indians-French for Pierced Noses
  • They were under pressure from settlers to leave
    their land
  • Most signed a treaty and moved to a reservation
  • Four young Nez Perce refused to go and killed
    four white settlers
  • Their Chief, Chief Joseph, wanted to avoid war at
    all costs

Chief Josephs Retreat
  • He led 800 men, women, and children on an amazing
    retreat for 3 and a 1/2 months and almost 2,000
  • Their goal was to reach Canada and join Sitting
  • Traveled with honor they paid for supplies and
    did little harm to settlers

Do you think that they made it????
Chief Josephs Retreat Cont.
  • They might have made it all the way had they not
    stopped to rest 40 miles from the border
  • Federal troops caught up with them
  • On a bitterly cold day Chief Joseph, surrendered.
    He told the soldiers
  • I am tired of fighting. My heart is sick and
    sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight
    no more forever.
  • The Nez Perce were
  • sent to Oklahoma

  • By 1881 most Indians were living on reservations
  • Except for a small group of Apaches who were
    determined to hold onto their freedom
  • Led by Geronimo the band roamed the mountains of
    Arizona and New Mexico
  • Government soldiers tracked the group closely but
    it took them five long years to capture the group
  • By 1886 Geronimos group had declined from about
    150 to a few dozen men, women, and children.

The End of the Indian Wars
  • When Geronimos group finally surrendered in
    1886, a generation of Indian wars ended.
  • The group moved onto a reservation and Geronimo
    was imprisoned for two years and lived the rest
    of his life in exile in Florida and Oklahoma

The Ghost Dance Religion
  • Indians feeling defeated and depressed
  • Living on reservations and in poverty
  • Forced to accept a new way of life
  • Looking for a miracleNew Religion
  • Danced, chanted, and prayed
  • Wanted relatives, friends, and buffalo to come
    back to life

Death of Sitting Bull
  • Do you remember where he fled to?
  • Came back and joined Ghost Dance Rel
  • Govt. tried to talk him into banning the religion
    but he refused
  • So they arrest him
  • Police surrounded his house in ND and told him he
    was under arrest
  • At first he agreed to go with them but changed
    his mind
  • A scuffle followed and he was killed along with 7
    followers and 6 policemen

Massacre at Wounded Knee
  • Alarmed by the death of their Chief Sitting
    Bulls followers fled
  • Near Wounded Knee Creak they met the Seventh
  • Troops decided to disarm the Indians when all of
    a sudden someone fired and nervous soldiers fired
    into the group
  • 150 Indian men, women, and children and 25
    soldiers lost their lives

It was much like this massacre. Do you remember
this one?
  • People were finally waking up to the tragic
    situation of the Native Americans
  • The govt kept on breaking promises
  • Eventually both Indians and whites began to call
    for reform
  • Helen Hunt Jackson was a huge reformer who wrote
    books and spoke out to try to stop the injustice

The Dawes Act
  • Some believed that the only way to help the
    Plains Indians was to convince them to adapt to
    American culture
  • So congress passed the Dawes Act
  • Ended tribal ownership of land and gave each
    family a plot of land

Do you think the Indians liked this? Why or why
Failure of the Dawes Act
  • Families assigned plots of land but
    they didnt want to farm
  • What did they want to do?
  • Plus they were given the poorest farmland
    available so they had to rely on weekly food
    rations from the govt
  • Because they had never had land before they did
    not realize how much it was really worth
  • Settlers cheated them out of money by buying it
    for less

Changes on the Great Plains
  • Indians confined to reservations
  • Buffalo nearly extinct
  • Railroads reach westward across the continent
  • Cattle ranchers and farmers are soon to come and
    with them came new ways of life

Ghost Town in Montana
Do you remember why this became a ghost town?
The Machine Invasion
The Invasion of the Settler
Answer the following questions using your notes
  • Define reservations.
  • What was the Dawes Act?
  • What happened at the Sand Creek Massacre?
  • Who won Red Cloud or the Government?
  • Where was Custers last stand?
  • What group of Indians was Chief Joseph the leader
  • What Chief led his people on a huge retreat and
    was later captured?
  • In what religion do they dance and chant in order
    to bring back the dead?
  • What act gave the Plains Indians individual plots
    of land?