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CREATING A SAFETY PROGRAM for YOUR SMALL BUSINESS

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Title: CREATING A SAFETY PROGRAM for YOUR SMALL BUSINESS


1
CREATING A SAFETY PROGRAM forYOUR SMALL
BUSINESS
  • HCA

2
Pre Course Quiz
  1. What is an incident?______________________________
    _____________________________
  2. Power tools must be fitted with guards and safety
    switches. True or False
  3. Employees attitude may affect safety . True or
    False
  4. Fall protection is required any time you use a
    ladder over 6 feet. True or False
  5. Employees are must take personal responsibility
    for their safety, their co-workers and others on
    a jobsite. True or False
  6. MSDSs are required for most chemicals used at a
    worksite and should be kept locked up in the
    supervisors office for Safety. True or False
  7. Guard rails should be installed along all open
    sides and ends of platforms. True or False
  8. When setting up goals for safety on a worksite
    the acceptable number of incidents should be set
    at___________. (give a number)
  9. If a fatality happens on a jobsite due to
    negligence, unsafe conditions, etc. Who is
    usually responsible and held accountable?
    Owner of company, Supervisor, Co-worker. Circle
    one
  10. Safety rules and guidelines and must always be
    written. True or False
  11. It is OSHAs responsibility to establish and
    implement a written hazard communication program.
    True or False
  12. Approximately 32 million workers work with or are
    potentially exposed to chemical hazards. True or
    False
  13. MSDSs are printed on a mandatory standard OSHA
    form.
  14. PPE is usually an optional step for employees in
    dealing with hazardous chemicals. True or False
  15. HazCom is commonly referred to as Right to know
    True or False
  16. What is a Near Miss?_____________________________D
    o these need to be reported and investigated?
    True or False
  17. Employers are responsible to pay for all PPE for
    their employees. True or False
  18. Safety Inspections should be conducted on all
    sites at least yearly. True or False
  19. OSHA mandates First aid and CPR training for
    workers on sites. True or False

3
Four Elements Of a Workplace Safety Program
  • Element 1 - Management, Leadership and Employee
    Involvement.
  • Element 2, 3 Worksite Analysis and Hazard
    Prevention and Control.
  • Element 4 Safety and Health Training and
    Education.

4
ELEMENT 1Management/Leadership/Employee
Involvement
  • Employer and employee involvement and
    communication on workplace-safety and health
    issues are essential.
  • Post the companys written safety and health
    policy for all to see.
  • Involve all employees in policy making on safety
    and health issues.
  • Everyone must take an active part in Safety
    Activities.

5
Management/Leadership/Employee Involvement
  • What is Workplace Safety?
  • Definition The process of protecting employees
    from work related illness and injury. It starts
    by the development of a company Environmental,
    Safety and Health Policy statement and
    implementation of a work place safety plan and
    program.

6
Ac-ci-dent (ak-si-duhnt) noun
  • an unexpected
  • unplanned,
  • uncontrollable,
  • and undesirable
  • event.

7
Ac-ci-dent (ak-si-duhnt)
  • 2. an unexpected
  • unplanned,
  • and undesirable event.
  • accidents can be controlled

8
Basic Principles of Good Safety Management
  • Management Commitment
  • Documented Safety Philosophy
  • Safety Goals and Objectives
  • Committee Organization for Safety
  • Line Responsibility for Safety
  • Supportive Safety Staff
  • Rules and Procedures
  • Audits
  • Safety Communications
  • Safety Training
  • Accident Investigations
  • Motivation

9
Management/Leadership/Employee Involvement
  • We must promote the goal of ZERO INCIDENT
    PERFORMANCE through planning.
  • Safety Goals must be Communicated- They must be
    Realistic and they need to reflect the Safety
    Culture of your organization.
  • Your Safety Culture requires strong commitment
    from the top and Safety must truly be the 1
    priority. It must become an integral part of
    your business and Safety must become EVERYONEs
    responsibility.

10
Basic Safety Philosophy
  • Every Incident can be avoided.
  • No Job is worth getting hurt for.
  • Every job will be done safely.
  • Incidents can be managed.
  • Safety is Everyones Responsibility.
  • Safety/Best manufacturing practices
  • Safety standards, procedures and practices must
    be developed.
  • Training- Everyone must understand AND meet the
    requirements.
  • Working Safely is a Condition of Employment

11
Benefits of a Zero Incident Safety Policy
  • Safety standards are communicated to all
    employees.
  • Responsibilities for implementing standards are
    understood and accepted
  • Records will document how standards and Best
    Management Practices are met.
  • Internal management control
  • Cost Avoidance
  • Improved Quality
  • Better Productivity
  • Team Building
  • Unsafe behavior stands out
  • Unsafe behavior is Unacceptable
  • Safe Work is influenced through peer pressure
  • Consistent planning and task execution

12
Key Safety Principles
  • Working Safely is a condition of employment.
  • Each employee is expected to give consideration
    to the prevention of injury to self and
    co-workers.
  • Involvement and thinking of all people in the
    safety process is valued and expected.
  • Continual Improvement is the goal.
  • Individuals and teams must be recognized for
    their adherence to and advancement of safety.

13
Maintaining an Incident Free Environment
  • Shared Vision
  • Cultural Alignment
  • Focus on Incident Control
  • Upstream Systems
  • Feedback
  • Maintain the 4 As
  • Cultural Change
  • Commitment

14
What a Safety Statement might look like(This is
an EXERCISE)
  • It is the intent of XYZ Industries to provide a
    safe work environment for all our workers and the
    wellness of our people, families and communities.
    We embrace healthy habits and behaviors. It is
    also our intent to properly manage any incidents
    that occur so as to minimize injury and other
    forms of loss. A well managed workplace safety
    program can benefit our company in countless
    ways. In order for XYZ Industries to achieve our
    goals, we have developed a safety program
    outlining our policies and procedures regarding
    employee health and safety. Each and every
    individual must become familiar with the program,
    follow and enforce the procedures, and become an
    active participant in this workplace safety
    program.
  • While management (workplace safety officer and
    safety committee) will be responsible for
    developing and organizing this program, its
    success will depend on the
  • involvement of each
    employee. We look forward to your cooperation
  • and participation.

15
Implementing Your Workplace Safety Program
  • Use of Inspections, surveillances, incident
    reporting, AHAs
  • Investigations, corrective actions, provide
    Safety leadership

16
Workplace Safety Program
  • Purpose- To reduce work-related injury illness
  • Content- The program should include any policy,
    procedure, training that protects workers from
    work-related injury and illness while on the job.
  • Concerns- Promote reward safe practices at
    work, reducing injuries illnesses at work and
    eliminating fatalities at work.

17
Co-Workers Affect Each others Safety
  • Employees health and safety are affected not
    only by their own actions but by those of their
    co-workers.
  • Senior management must
  • Help employees manage hazards associated with
    their work (tasks or responsibilities). They
    must determine that employees are fit for work.
    Fitness involves drug and alcohol issues,
    physical and emotional well being, and fatigue
    and stress.

18
Create Ownership of the program
  • Workers need to be involved in the creation and
    use of the workplace safety program for it to
    succeed.
  • For Example
  • Your company is responsible for supplying
    appropriate safety equipment, but employees are
    responsible for wearing personal protective
    equipment at the appropriate time and place.
  • Your company should provide training to help
    employees carry out their assignments, but
    workers are responsible for attending this
    training, asking questions and telling
    supervisors if they do not understand what is
    being explained.

19
Allow for Continuous Improvement
  • In workplace safety and health, continuous
    improvement is about
  • Seeking better ways to work
  • Measuring performance
  • Reporting against set targets
  • Evaluating compliance with procedures, standards
    and regulations
  • Understanding the causes of incidents and
    injuries and
  • Openly acknowledging and promptly correcting
    deficiencies.

20
Measuring Performance
  • Performance can be measured by
  • Reduction in frequency of lost-time injury
  • Reduction in frequency of medical treatment
    (beyond first-aid care) injury.
  • Reduction in number of sick days used
  • Lower workers compensation costs
  • Lower medical benefits payments ( doctors
    visits, prescription drugs)

21
OSHA (29 CFR,1970) covers nearly all employees
  • The general duty clause reads Each employer
    shall furnisha place of employment which is free
    from recognized hazards that are causing or are
    likely to cause death or serious physical harm to
    his employees.
  • Need to communicate employees rights under the
    OSHA Act, including the right to file a complaint
    free from discrimination and explain the
    elements of a valid complaint.

22
Employees Rights under OSHA Act
  • Get training from your employer on chemicals you
    are exposed to during your work and information
    on how to protect yourself from harm. Employers
    must establish a comprehensive, written hazard
    communication program (Chemical Hazard
    Communication) Your employer must label chemical
    containers, make material safety data sheets with
    detailed hazard information available to
    employees, and train you about the health effects
    of the chemicals you work with and what the
    employer is doing and what you can do to protect
    yourself from these hazards.
  • The program must list the hazardous chemicals in
    each work area, how the employer will inform
    employees of the hazards of non-routine tasks
    (for example, the cleaning of reactor vessels),
    and hazards associated with chemicals in
    unlabeled pipes and how the employer will inform
    other employers at a multi-employer worksite of
    the hazards to which their employees may be
    exposed.
  • Get training from your employer on a variety of
    other health and safety hazards and standards
    that your employer must follow. These include
    lockout-tagout, bloodborne pathogens, confined
    spaces, construction hazards and a variety of
    other subjects.
  • Access relevant exposure and medical records. (29
    CFR 1910.1020)

23
Employees Rights under OSHA Act
  • Request information from your employer on safety
    and health hazards in your workplace, chemicals
    used in your workplace, tests your employer has
    done to measure chemical, noise and radiation
    levels, precautions you should take and
    procedures to be followed if you or other
    employees are involved in an incident or are
    exposed to hazardous chemicals or other toxic
    substances.
  • Request copies of appropriate standards, rules,
    regulations and requirements that your employer
    should have available at the workplace.
  • Review the Log and Summary of Occupational
    Injuries and Illnesses (OSHA 300) at a reasonable
    time and in a reasonable manner or have an
    authorized representative do so for you. (29 CFR
    1904.7)
  • Access relevant exposure and medical records. (29
    CFR 1910.1020)

24
Employees Rights under OSHA Act
  • Employers must inform you of the existence,
    location and availability of your medical and
    exposure records when you first begin employment
    and at least annually thereafter. Employers also
    must provide these records to you or your
    designated representatives within 15 working days
    of your request.When an employer plans to stop
    doing business and there is no successor employer
    to receive and maintain these records, the
    employer must notify you of your right of access
    to records at least 3 months before the employer
    ceases to do business.
  • Observe any monitoring or measuring of toxic
    materials or chemicals, as well as harmful
    physical agents, such as noise, and see the
    resulting records. If the exposure levels are
    above the OSHA limit, the employer must tell you
    what will be done to reduce the exposure -- the
    right to observe monitoring exists only where
    monitoring is performed pursuant to a standard
    that provides employees with the right to
    observe.
  • REQUEST ACTION FROM YOUR EMPLOYER TO CORRECT
    HAZARDS OR VIOLATIONS.

25
Employees Rights under OSHA Act
  • You may ask your employer to correct hazards even
    if they are not violations of specific OSHA
    standards. Be sure to keep copies of any requests
    you make to your employer to correct hazards.
  • FILE A COMPLAINT WITH OSHA if you believe that
    there are either violations of OSHA standards or
    serious workplace hazards.
  • File a complaint and request OSHA to conduct an
    inspection if you believe serious workplace
    hazards or violations of standards exist in your
    workplace. You can file a complaint online, in
    writing, by telephone or fax. If you want an OSHA
    inspector to come inspect your workplace, put
    your complaint in writing and send it to the OSHA
    office nearest you. (OSH Act, Section 8), (29 CFR
    1903.11)
  • Request in your written complaint that OSHA keep
    your name confidential if you do not want your
    employer to know who filed the complaint. (OSH
    Act, Section 8)
  • BE INVOLVED IN OSHA'S INSPECTION of your
    workplace.

26
Employees Rights under OSHA Act
  • Have an authorized employee representative (such
    as a union representative) accompany the OSHA
    compliance officer during the inspection tour.
    (OSH Act, Section 8), (29 CFR 1903.8)The
    authorized employee representative has a right to
    accompany an OSHA compliance officer (also
    referred to as a compliance safety and health
    officer (CSHO) or inspector) during an
    inspection. Under no circumstances may the
    employer choose the workers' representative.Wher
    e there is no union or employee representative,
    the OSHA inspector must talk confidentially with
    a reasonable number of workers during the course
    of the investigation.Respond to questions from
    the compliance officer and tell the compliance
    officer about workplace hazards, particularly if
    there is no authorized employee representative
    accompanying the compliance officer on the
    inspection "walkaround." (OSH Act, Section 8)

27
Employees Rights under OSHA Act
  • You and your coworkers have a right to talk
    privately and confidentially to the compliance
    officer whether or not a workers' representative
    has been chosen.You may point out hazards,
    describe injuries or illnesses or near misses
    that resulted from those hazards and describe
    past complaints about hazards. Inform the
    inspector if working conditions are not normal
    during the inspection. Make sure that the
    inspector is aware if equipment has been shut
    down, windows opened or other conditions changed
    from normal.
  • FIND OUT RESULTS OF AN OSHA INSPECTION.Find out
    the results of OSHA inspections and request a
    review if OSHA decides not to issue a
    citation.If health hazards are present in your
    workplace, a special OSHA health inspection may
    be conducted by an industrial hygienist. This
    OSHA inspector may take samples to measure levels
    of chemicals or other hazardous materials.OSHA
    will let the employee representative know whether
    your employer is in compliance. The inspector
    also will gather detailed information about your
    employer's efforts to control health hazards,
    including results of tests your employer may have
    conducted.

28
Employees Rights under OSHA Act
  • GET INVOLVED in any meetings or hearings to
    discuss any objections your employer has to
    OSHA's citations or to changes in abatement
    deadlines.File a discrimination complaint
    (under Section 11(c) of the OSH Act) within 30
    days if you are punished or discriminated against
    for exercising your safety and health rights or
    for refusing to work (not guaranteed by the OSH
    Act) when faced with an imminent danger of death
    or serious injury and there is insufficient time
    for OSHA to inspect.
  • REQUEST A RESEARCH INVESTIGATION ON POSSIBLE
    WORKPLACE HEALTH HAZARDS.
  • Contact the National Institute for Occupational
    Safety and Health (NIOSH) to request a health
    hazard evaluation if you are concerned about
    toxic effects of a substance in the
    workplace.PROVIDE COMMENTS AND TESTIMONY TO OSHA
    during rulemaking on new standards.

29
Employees Rights under OSHA Act
  • File an appeal of the deadlines that OSHA sets
    for your employer to correct any violation in the
    citation issued to the employer. Write to the
    OSHA Area Director within 15 working days from
    the date the employer posts the notice requesting
    on extension of the abatement deadline if you
    feel the time is too long. (29 CFR 1903.17)
  • FILE A DISCRIMINATION COMPLAINT.File a
    discrimination complaint (under Section 11(c) of
    the OSH Act) within 30 days if you are punished
    or discriminated against for exercising your
    safety and health rights or for refusing to work
    (not guaranteed by the OSH Act) when faced with
    an imminent danger of death or serious injury and
    there is insufficient time for OSHA to inspect.
  • REQUEST A RESEARCH INVESTIGATION ON POSSIBLE
    WORKPLACE HEALTH HAZARDS.
  • Contact the National Institute for Occupational
    Safety and Health (NIOSH) to request a health
    hazard evaluation if you are concerned about
    toxic effects of a substance in the workplace.
  • PROVIDE COMMENTS AND TESTIMONY TO OSHA during
    rulemaking on new standards.

30
Occupational Safety and Health Program Includes
  • COMPLIANCE WITH STANDARDS
  • ANNUAL OSH INSPECTIONS
  • ABATEMENT OF HAZARDS
  • PROCEDURES TO REPORT HAZARDS WITHOUT FEAR OF
    REPRISAL
  • OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY HEALTH TRAINING
  • ACCIDENT REPORTING INVESTIGATIONS
  • HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMS
  • PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS

31
Management Leadership and Employee Involvement in
SH Issues
  • Your plan should include statements on the value
    of workplace safety and why management is
    committed to it.
  • A list of locations where written safety and
    health policies are posted for all employees to
    see.
  • A schedule of when and where regular meetings are
    held that address employee safety and health
    issues.
  • A stipulation that abiding by all safety and
    health rules is a condition of employment.

32
Workplace Safety Training
  • Staff member training and education about safety
    rules and their responsibilities in the workplace
    will pay off in a safer and healthier workforce.
  • Remember the health and safety of employees are
    affected not only by their own actions but by
    those of co-workers.
  • Ensure that everyone in the workplace is properly
    trained managers, supervisors all full and part
    time and temporary workers.
  • Make sure no one does any job that appears
    unsafe.

33
Workplace Safety Training
  • Hold emergency preparedness drills for workers.
    Include nature of drill and expectations for
    employees during the drill.
  • Pay close attention to employees learning new
    operations to make sure they have the proper job
    skills and awareness of the hazards.
    Expectations must be provided in the trainings.
  • Supervisors and managers must be trained to
    recognize hazards and understand their
    responsibilities. Provide them with guidelines
    for reporting and correcting hazards.

34
Workplace Safety Training
  • Supervisors and managers are
  • Responsible for daily monitoring of workplace
    safety practices.
  • Accountable for mentoring, advising and
    counseling staff members who are not performing
    up to written policies and expectations.
  • Authorized to recommend a staff member for
    remedial training in a skill or on a machine or
    in attitude, as required.

35
Supervisors Responsibilities
  • SET EXAMPLE
  • KNOW, COMMUNICATE, AND ENFORCE STANDARDS
  • OBSERVE EMPLOYEES WORKING
  • ANALYZE DISCUSS SAFETY HAZARDS
  • COMMUNICATE WITH YOUR EMPLOYEES
  • FOLLOW UP WITH YOUR EMPLOYEES
  • TRAIN ALL EMPLOYEES ON RULES PROCEDURES
  • CONDUCT INSPECTIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGE SAFETY BEHAVIOR
  • INVESTIGATE REPORT ACCIDENTS
  • CORRECT UNSAFE UNHEALTHFUL CONDITIONS

36
Supervisors Responsibilities
  • INFORM ALL EMPLOYEES BEFORE THEIR INITIAL
    ASSIGNMENT OR WHEN A NEW HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL IS
    INTRODUCED INTO THEIR WORK AREA- (Hazardous
    Communication Standard)
  • TRAIN EMPLOYEES HOW TO
  • IDENTIFY AND PROTECT THEMSELVES FROM CHEMICAL
    HAZARDS
  • RECOGNIZE THE PHYSICAL AND HEALTH HAZARDS OF
    CHEMICALS IN THEIR AREA
  • OBTAIN AND USE THE MSDS
  • DOCUMENT ALL TRAINING!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

37
8 BASIC HAZARD COMMUNICATION REQUIREMENTS
  • LABEL CONTAINERS
  • DO NOT REMOVE OR DEFACE LABELS
  • INFORM AND TRAIN EMPLOYEES
  • WRITTEN HAZCOM PROGRAM
  • DETERMINE HAZARDS
  • COMPOSE MSDS
  • PROVIDE CUSTOMERS WITH MSDS AND WARNING LABELS
  • KEEP MSDS ON FILE AND ACCESSIBLE

38
Take an Active part in Safety Activities
  • COMPLY WITH Occupational Safety Health
    STANDARDS
  • REPORT WORKPLACE HAZARDS
  • REPORT TO SUPERVISOR ILLNESSES/ INJURIES OR
    PROPERTY DAMAGE RESULTING FROM INCIDENT
    IMMEDIATELY!!

39
Take an Active part in Safety Activities
  • Actively participate in the daily safety
    meetings.
  • Supervision should encourage employees to lead in
    regular safety meetings.
  • Provide input in the development, review and
    suggestions of improvements to safe work
    procedures, AHAs, SOPs, and in incident report
    investigations, corrective actions and lessons
    learned, safety committee.

40
Take an Active part in Safety Activities
  • Safety must be everyones concern. In most small
    companies the role of a workplace safety
    coordinator can be incorporated into someones
    job description. In larger groups a safety
    director, officer or manager is usually in charge
    of the workplace safety program and appoints or
    sets up a safety committee to assist in
    implementing the safety program.
  • Committees can be made up of many different
    people with different resources and abilities.

41
Take an Active part in Safety Activities
  • Encourage employees to lead and participate in
    the Daily Safety Meetings.
  • Taking personal actions and working directly with
    supervisors to identify, control, or eliminate
    potential safety hazards.
  • Reporting of all injuries, near misses or
    accidents immediately.
  • Involvement in incident/accident investigations
    corrective actions and sharing Lessons Learned.

42
Accident/Incident InvestigationsToday we want to
look at
  • Goals of Accident Investigation
  • Securing the Accident Scene
  • Root-Cause Analysis
  • The importance of Investigative Interviews
  • Assisting in Accident Investigations
  • Reporting Near Misses
  • The Role of Policies, equipment and training on
    Accident Prevention.

43
REVIEW
  • All injuries can be prevented
  • Management is responsible for preventing injuries
  • Working safely is a condition of employment
  • Training employees to work safely is essential
    and everyone must be involved.
  • Prevention of personal injuries is good business
    (and good science!)

44
Four Elements Of a Workplace Safety Program
  • Element 1 - Management, Leadership and Employee
    Involvement.
  • Element 2, 3 Worksite Analysis and Hazard
    Prevention and Control.
  • Element 4 Safety and Health Training and
    Education

45
Element 2 - Worksite Analysis
  • Analyze all workplace conditions to identify and
    eliminate existing or potential hazards.
  • An outline of the procedure for reporting hazards
  • Perform analysis on a regular and timely basis.
  • Make certain all employees know and understand
    current hazard analysis for all jobs and
    processes.
  • Focus workplace design on all physical aspects of
    the work environment, including the following
  • Size and arrangement of work space
  • Physical demands of the tasks to be performed
  • Design of tools and other devices people use
  • The fundamental goal of a workplace design is to
    improve peoples ability to be productive,
    without error or accident, for extended time
    periods. Proper workplace design improves both
    safety and productivity.
  • We want to eliminate hazards during the design or
    planning stages of a project
  • Review incident causes, inspection results to
    help identify trends
  • Knowledge of Emergency Response Plans and
    procedures and participation in drills

46
Identifying and Evaluating Potential Hazards
SAFETY AUDITS / INSPECTIONS
  • Purpose - Inspection of work areas and audits of
    safety programs are tools that can be used to
    identify problems and hazards before these
    conditions result in accidents or injuries.
    Audits also help to identify the effectiveness of
    safety program management and can be used as a
    guide to assure regulatory compliance and a safe
    workplace.

  • Responsibilities
  • Management
  • Design and schedule audit and inspection
    procedures for all work areas, processes and
    procedures.
  • Conduct routine audits and inspections
  • Ensure audits are conducted by employees who
    understand the various safety programs and
    policies
  • Supervisors
  • conduct informal daily safety inspections and
    ensure all unsafe conditions are corrected
  • conduct documented weekly inspections and ensure
    all unsafe conditions are corrected

  • Corrections
  • All safety deficiencies found during audits and
    inspections should be corrected as soon as
    possible. Documentation of corrections should be
    made on the audit or inspection sheet. And
    conditions that present a hazards are to be
    corrected or controlled immediately.

47
Identifying and Evaluating Potential Hazards
SAFETY AUDITS / INSPECTIONS
  • Types of Inspections
  • Supervisor Management Daily Walk-through this
    is an undocumented inspection that is made daily
    prior to startup and shift change to ensure the
    facility and equipment are in safe conditions for
    Employees. All noted unsafe areas are placed in a
    safe condition prior to Employees working in the
    area.
  • Weekly Supervisor Inspections are conducted and
    recorded with a Employee. This documented
    inspection provides a focus to ensure current
    hazard controls are still effective, equipment is
    in safe condition and safe work practices are in
    use. Discrepancies are listed on the inspection
    sheet, recorded on work orders for correction.
    The inspection sheet is forwarded to the Safety
    Manager for review and logging to track
    discrepancy correction.
  • Monthly Safety Committee Inspection. Each month
    members of the Safety Committee will tour the
    entire facility with the Safety Manager. This
    tour is to ensure Safety Committee Members are
    familiar with all areas of the operation. Record
    of problem areas, committee recommendations and
    deficiencies will be recorded and provided to
    management.
  • Noise Surveys are conducted at least annually, or
    whenever facility modifications are made that
    impact the ambient or specific work area noise
    levels,  Noise surveys are conducted by qualified
    persons with calibrated instruments

48
Identifying and Evaluating Potential Hazards
SAFETY AUDITS / INSPECTIONS
  • Equipment Inspections
  • Are conducted to ensure specific safety equipment
    is in good working order and will function when
    needed. Examples and frequencies are
  • All construction equipment - Daily prior to use
    (use form and file)
  • Sprinkler Inspection - Monthly
  • Boiler Checks- Daily, Weekly , Monthly, Yearly
  • Emergency Lighting Test - Monthly
  • Fire Extinguisher Inspections - Monthly
  • Safety Equipment Inventories - Monthly
  • Emergency Lighting 90 Min. Test - Semiannually
  • Respirator Inspections- Before / After Use
    (Monthly at a minimum)
  • Hand tools Daily
  • Scaffolding Daily

49
Regularly and thoroughly maintain equipment and
vehicles.
50
Fire Extinguisher INSPECTIONS
51
Daily Hand Tool - INSPECTIONS
52
Identifying and Evaluating Potential Hazards
SAFETY AUDITS / INSPECTIONS
  • Program Audits are conducted to check the
    administration of specific safety and health
    programs. Program Audits of the following shall
    be conducted annually.
  • Accident Prevention
  • Fire Prevention
  • Material Handling
  • Flammable Material Storage
  • Lockout-Tagout
  • Hazard Communication
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • Confined Space Entry
  • Asbestos Controls
  • Boiler Safety
  • Bloodborne Pathogens
  • Contractor Safety
  • Electrical Safety
  • Tool Safety
  • Hot Work
  • Respiratory Protection

53
Site Safety Inspections
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISOR SAFETY INSPECTION CHECKLIST CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISOR SAFETY INSPECTION CHECKLIST CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISOR SAFETY INSPECTION CHECKLIST CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISOR SAFETY INSPECTION CHECKLIST CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISOR SAFETY INSPECTION CHECKLIST
Date       Job No.(s) Job No.(s)      
Location       Crew Member Crew Member      
Supervisor                        
         
ITEM ITEM ITEM COMMENTS/CORRECTIVE ACTION COMMENTS/CORRECTIVE ACTION
Housekeeping (Garbage, cleanliness, electrical cords, ladders) Housekeeping (Garbage, cleanliness, electrical cords, ladders) Housekeeping (Garbage, cleanliness, electrical cords, ladders)            
Drinking water/ sanitation requirements/first aid kit Drinking water/ sanitation requirements/first aid kit Drinking water/ sanitation requirements/first aid kit            
Electrical (such as proper grounding, lock tag and GFCI good condition, inspected) Electrical (such as proper grounding, lock tag and GFCI good condition, inspected) Electrical (such as proper grounding, lock tag and GFCI good condition, inspected)            
Proper personal protective equipment (PPE) Proper personal protective equipment (PPE) Proper personal protective equipment (PPE)            
Walking/working surfaces (tripping hazards, slippery surfaces, floor holes) Walking/working surfaces (tripping hazards, slippery surfaces, floor holes) Walking/working surfaces (tripping hazards, slippery surfaces, floor holes)            
Electrical tools (guards in place good condition, stored properly) Electrical tools (guards in place good condition, stored properly) Electrical tools (guards in place good condition, stored properly)            
Cranes/ rigging equipment (for example slings, properly stored and inspected) Cranes/ rigging equipment (for example slings, properly stored and inspected) Cranes/ rigging equipment (for example slings, properly stored and inspected)            
Excavation (properly sloped or shored permits inspections barricaded daily) Excavation (properly sloped or shored permits inspections barricaded daily) Excavation (properly sloped or shored permits inspections barricaded daily)            
54
Site Safety Inspections
Flammables/combustibles (fire extinguishers, welding and cutting equipment)      
Hot work (Personal Protective Equipment, permit, combustibles, flammables protected)      
Material Safety Data Sheets onsite with containers labeled      
Scaffold system fully assembled tags inspections fully planked guardrails      
Proper barricading/ warning signs (trenches, fuel areas, storage construction sites)      
Fire extinguishers (monthly inspection, accessible, on mechanized equipment)      
COMMENTS           COMMENTS          
55
Identifying and Evaluating Potential Hazards
SAFETY AUDITS / INSPECTIONS
  • It is every employees responsibility to be on the
    lookout for possible hazards. Report
    Immediately
  • Slippery floors and walkways open holes in
    floors
  • Tripping hazards, such as hose links, piping,
    extension cords, etc.
  • Missing (or inoperative) entrance and exit signs
    and lighting
  • Poorly lighted stairs
  • Loose handrails or guard rails
  • Open, loose or broken windows
  • Dangerously piled supplies or equipment
    (HOUSEKEEPING), OILY RAGS
  • Unlocked doors and gates
  • Electrical equipment left operating, frayed
    cords, no LOTO, Panel doors left open, blocked
    access to electrical panels
  • Leaks of steam, water, oil other liquids, Roof
    leaks
  • Blocked aisles Blocked fire doors
  • Blocked fire extinguishers, sprinkler heads,
    Evidence of smoking in non-smoking areas
  • Evidence of any equipment running hot or
    overheating
  • Safety devices not operating properly Warning
    Signs Not In Place
  • Machine, power transmission, or drive guards
    missing, damaged, loose or improperly placed

56
Work Place Analysis thru Hazardous Commmunication
Identification and Training
  • The OSHA Standard
  • 32 million workers work with or are exposed to
    one or more chemical hazards.
  • Are an estimated 650,000 existing chemical
    products and this poses a serious problem for
    exposed workers.
  • OSHA issued the Hazard Communication standard 29
    CFR 1910.1200, to address this issue.
  • Hazardous Communication standard is based on a
    simple concept that employees have both a need
    and a RIGHT TO KNOW the hazards and identities of
    the chemicals they are exposed to when working.

57
Hazard CommunicationSafety Training
  • OSHAs Hazard Communication standard gives
    employees the right to know about chemical
    hazards in the workplace. Employers have an
    obligation to provide employees with training,
    information, Personal Protective Equipment and
    other safety measures dealing with chemical
    hazards.
  • Employees need to remember to
  • Take training seriously and pay attention
  • Read labels and Material Safety Data Sheets
  • Know where to find the Material Safety Data
    Sheets
  • Use appropriate Personal Protective Equipment
  • Know correct emergency procedures
  • Use safe work Habits

58
Element 3 - Hazard Prevention and Control
  • Regularly and thoroughly maintain equipment and
    vehicles. (we just looked at equipment
    Inspections)
  • Ensure that employees know how to use and
    maintain personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • Train employees in proper procedures for handling
    specific situations
  • Monitoring for air quality, heat stress, noise,
    ergonomics and other job hazards
  • Emergency Action Plans and procedures - Fire,
    life safety and first aid issues

59
Standard Operating Procedures
60
Standard Operating Procedures
  • Drug Free workplace
  • Recognition and Awards
  • Audits and Surveillances
  • Incident Reporting Investigation
  • Lessons Learned
  • General Safety SOPs- Lets discuss

61
Ensure that employees know how to use and
maintain personal protective equipment (PPE)
62
Protecting Employeesfrom Workplace Hazards
  • Employers must protect employees from hazards
    such as falling objects, harmful substances, and
    noise exposures that can cause injury.
  • Employers must
  • Use all feasible engineering and work practice
    controls to eliminate and reduce hazards.
  • Use personal protective equipment (PPE) if the
    controls dont eliminate the hazards.
  • PPE is the last level of control!

63
Engineering Controls
  • If . . .
  • The work environment can be physically changed to
    prevent employee exposure to the potential
    hazard,
  • Then . . .
  • The hazard can be eliminated with an engineering
    control.

64
Work Practice/ Administrative Controls
  • If . . .
  • Employees can change the way they do their jobs
    and the exposure to the potential hazard is
    removed,
  • Then . . .
  • The hazard can be eliminated with a work practice
    or administrative control.
  • Remember PPE is the last level of control!

65

66
Examples of PPE
Body Part Protection
67
1926 Subpart E, Personal protective and life
saving equipment
  • 1926.95, Criteria for personal protective
    equipment
  • 1926.96, Occupational foot protection
  • 1926.100, Head protection
  • 1926.101, Hearing protection
  • 1926.102, Eye and face protection
  • 1926.103, Respiratory protection
  • 1926.104, Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards
  • 1926.105, Safety nets
  • 1926.106, Working over or near water

68

P.P.E. COMPLIANCE
  • IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE
  • EMPLOYEE,
  • SUPERVISOR AND
  • HEALTH AND SAFETY REPRESENTATIVE
  • TO ENSURE THAT PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT IS
    CORRECTLY CHECKED, STORED AND MAINTAINED!

69

P.P.E. COMPLIANCE
  • Employer
  • Assess workplace for hazards
  • Provide PPE
  • Determine when to use
  • Provide PPE training for employees and
    instruction in proper use
  • Employee
  • - Use PPE in accordance with training
  • received and other instructions.
  • - Inspect daily and maintain in a clean and
  • reliable condition.

70
Establishing a PPE Program
  • Procedures for selecting, providing, training,
    and using PPE as part of an employers routine
    operation
  • Assess the workplace to determine if hazards are
    present, or are likely to be present, which
    necessitate the use of PPE
  • Select the proper PPE
  • Train employees who are required to use the PPE

71
Training
  • Employees required to use PPE must be trained to
    know at least the following
  • Why training is necessary?
  • When PPE is necessary
  • How will it protect them?
  • What are its limitations?
  • What type of PPE is necessary?
  • How to properly put on, take off, adjust and wear
    the PPE

72
Training
  • Proper care and maintenance of the PPE
  • How to clean and disinfect?
  • How to identify signs of wear?
  • What is its useful life how is it disposed?

73
Who Pays for PPE?
  • On November 14, 2007, OSHA announced a new rule
    requiring employers to pay for almost all
    personal protective equipment that is required by
    OSHAs general industry, construction, and
    maritime standards.
  • Many employers already pay for approximately 95
    of the employees PPE.

74
Who Pays for PPE?
  • Employee-owner PPE and replacement PPE
  • When an employee provides his/her own PPE, the
    employer must ensure that the equipment is
    adequate to protect the employee from hazards at
    the workplace.
  • The employer is required to pay for replacement
    PPE used to comply with OSHA standards.
  • However, when an employee has lost or
    intentionally damaged PPE, the employer is not
    required to pay for its replacement.

75
PPE Summary
  • Employers must implement a PPE program where
    they
  • Assess the workplace for hazards.
  • Use engineering and work practice controls to
    eliminate or reduce hazards before using PPE.
  • Select appropriate PPE to protect employees from
    hazards that cannot be eliminated.
  • Inform employees why the PPE is necessary, how
    and when it must be worn.
  • Train employees how to use and care for their
    PPE, including how to recognize deterioration and
    failure.
  • Require employees to wear selected PPE.

76
Emergency Action Plans and Procedures - Fire,
life safety and first aid issues
  • CONTIGENCY PLAN FOR SEVERE WEATHER OTHER
    EMERGENCY RESPONSE SITUATIONS
  • An emergency response plan is a living document
    and will be changed as conditions and personnel
    change. It will be the responsibility of the HS
    manager to update the Emergency plan and to keep
    the material current.
  •  
  • I. INTRODUCTION
  • This plan provides guidance to employees at the
    MECT 34 site and future buildings concerning
    emergency actions and provides a clear statement
    of required employee responses during an
    emergency.
  • II. REPORTING AN EMERGENCY
  • The person who discovers an emergency should use
    any of the following methods for prompt
    notification
  • 1. Telephone (554-4713) or 911 and then (Dave
    Wells 383-7051 ECC HS)
  • 2. Sound blast horn - 3 blasts to notify
    evacuation to Rally point by the
  • III. PROTECTIVE ACTIONS
  • 1. Sheltering-in-place. Sheltering-in-place is
    the primary protective action in response to most
    hazardous material releases. Notification of
    sheltering-in-place normally will be announced
    over the emergency notification system.
    Sheltering-in-place requires employees to
  • Go indoors immediately.
  • Close all windows and doors.
  • Turn off all sources of outdoor air (fans, air
    conditioners, ventilation system).

77
Emergency Action Plans and Procedures - Fire,
life safety and first aid issues
  • In addition to Fires, and medical emergencies we
    also need to address
  • Different severe weather conditions Tornadoes,
    Hurricanes, lightning, earthquake, floods, etc.
  • Bomb Threats
  • Violent Employee or Site Shooter

78
Four Elements Of a Workplace Safety Program
  • Element 1 - Management, Leadership and Employee
    Involvement.
  • Element 2, 3 Worksite Analysis and Hazard
    Prevention and Control.
  • Element 4 Safety and Health Training and
    Education

79
Establishing a Safety and Health Training Program
  • Today we are going to
    look at
  • New Employee Orientation View an actual
    Orientation film
  • Activity Hazard Analysis for every task performed
    and how to write them.
  • A Written Safety Program What it should look
    like.
  • Trade or equipment specific safety training.
  • OSHA 10 -30 hour Training Classes
  • First Aid /CPR/AED/Blood Borne Pathogen

80
New Employee Orientation
  • Needs to include
  • Emergency Contacts- emergency plan, evacuation
    procedures, meeting places
  • When where daily safety meetings are held
  • Deal w/ Harassment, Fighting, Horseplay Zero
    Tolerance- Removal from site
  • Firearms, weapons, drugs or alcohol prohibited
    site testing policies
  • Hazard Communications
  • Employee Responsibilities- Report ALL Accidents,
    no matter how slight - this allows for prompt
    medical attention, and investigation and
    elimination of the cause that may place others in
    harm's way.
  • Accidents must be reported to Employee's
    immediate supervisor and ECC personnel.
  • Immediately correct or report any unsafe
    condition or hazard noted in the workplace.
  • Employees must support the Zero Accident
    philosophy to assist us to provide an injury free
    workplace.
  • Employees are responsible to ask questions when
    they do not understand. Lack of knowledge is the
    greatest cause of accidents in the workplace.
  • Report to work "FIT FOR DUTY"
  • Report the use of prescription medication that
    may have an effect on their ability to safely
    perform tasks or operate equipment.

81
New Employee Orientation
  • Needs to include
  • Personal Protective Equipment Requirements
  • Required Work Clothing
  • Rigging
  • Fall Protection 100 at all times when there is
    fall potential of 6 feet or more
  • Scaffolding
  • Fork Lift, Scissor and Boom Lift Operation
    requirements
  • LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PROCEDURES
  • Ladder Safety
  • Electrical Safety
  • Housekeeping
  • Fire Protection
  • Floor Openings
  • Overhead Hazards
  • Heavy Equipment
  • Other Hazards Controls- No cell phones while
    operating equipment
  • Activity Hazard Analysis
  • Quality Control Issues
  • Any other site specific rules Smoking, eating,
    radios, Phones, visitors

82
What have we learned so far?
  • Must first establish a Safety Statement, work on
    developing a Safety Culture by following key
    safety principles, set goals and maintain a
    commitment for maintaining an Incident Free
    Environment.
  • Implementation of the Safety Program involves all
    workers, from top management to all workers and
    Supervisors are a key component to making it
    work. A supervisor or other individual can be
    assigned Specific responsibilities and can head
    up a company safety committee that works on
    developing the safety plans and programs. The
    safety committee also reviews all incidents,
    accidents, near misses to determine contributing
    factors. While focusing on determining causes,
    it must always be remembered that the overall
    GOAL is to prevent similar Accidents from
    happening again.
  • Worksite Analysis are frequently needed and
    Audits and Inspections help us identify issues
    and corrective actions can be made prior to an
    incident happening. We must develop Standard
    Operating Procedures to give workers a plan to
    guide their work.

83
What have we learned so far?
  • A big part of the work place analysis comes thru
    education of all workers to the hazards of
    chemicals and is addressed thru training
    employees on Hazardous Communication Standards
  • Understanding the Hierarchy of controls
    Engineering Management Personal Protective
    Equipment . We have learned that when exposure
    to hazards cannot be engineered out of normal
    operations and when safe work practices and
    administrative controls dont provide sufficient
    protection .then Personal Protective Equipment
    (PPE) may be required to keep our workers safe.
  • We just looked at the essential need for New
    Employee Safety Orientations.

84

SAFETY on Department of Defense CONSTRUCTION
PROJECTS
Most government contracts incorporate by
reference a number of federal acquisition
regulation (FAR) clauses that describe a variety
of routine requirements. The clause that is most
significant with respect to construction safety
is FAR clause 52.236-13(c), which states that "if
this contract is for construction or dismantling,
demolition or removal of improvements with any
Department of Defense agency or component, the
contractor shall comply with all pertinent
provisions of the latest version U.S. Army Corps
of Engineers Safety and Health Requirements
Manual EM 385-1-1 in effect on the date of the
solicitation."
85

SAFETY on Department of Defense CONSTRUCTION
PROJECTS
  • While many of the requirements of EM 385 closely
    parallel OSHA's requirements, there are 2 notable
    differences
  • 1. Specific requirements for a written
    site-specific accident prevention plan.
  • 2. The development of activity hazard
    analyses that identify potential hazards by each
    phase of a construction project identify the
    precautions the contractor will take to control
    those hazards
  • These two things will drive and guide all work on
    a DOD Project.

86
Written Accident Prevention Plans
  • The accident prevention plan required by EM 385
    is not some vague, generic document typical of
    many construction companies that lists general
    safety rules such as prohibiting horseplay, or
    possession of firearms, alcoholic beverages or
    illicit drugs on the job, and mandatory wearing
    of long-sleeved shirts, hard hats and safety
    glasses.
  • Rather, it must be a detailed, site-specific
    written plan that describes the management
    processes that will be used to prevent accidents
    from occurring on a specific construction
    project.

87
Written Accident Prevention Plans

It is a written plan that explains how a
contractor intends to prevent accidents from
occurring on a specific construction project.
88
Written Accident Prevention Plans
  • Unlike OSHA requirements, EM 385 requires that
    company officials responsible for specific
    aspects of the plan be identified.
  • For example, note that element 1, the signature
    sheet, requires the title, signature and phone
    number of the person who prepared the plan, the
    person who approved the plan and any individuals
    who concurred with the plan.
  • Such information would allow DoD contracting
    officers, project managers or safety specialists
    to identify specific company personnel that could
    answer questions concerning the plan or, more
    importantly, discuss problems concerning its
    implementation.

89
Written Accident Prevention Plans
  • Accident reporting, must address who, how and
    when information will be provided on exposure
    data such as man hours worked that can be used to
    evaluate safety performance, how major accidents
    will be reported, who will conduct accident
    investigations, and how and when reports and logs
    will be completed.

90
Written Accident Prevention Plans
Vague generic safety and health programs will not
meet the job-specific requirements of EM 385 1-1

91
Conducting An Effective
Activity Hazard Analysis

An introduction to the Five Step Process of
Activity Hazard Analysis (AHA)
92
Activity Hazard Analysis
If the accident prevention plan is viewed as the
strategic guide for accident prevention.. Activi
ty Hazard Analysis might be seen as the tactical
guide. Section 01.A.09 of EM 385 1-1 states
that "activity hazard analyses shall be prepared
by the contractors performing the work activity."

93
Activity Hazard Analysis
  • Activity hazard analysis requires contractors to
    be proactive in aggressively identifying hazards
    that can be anticipated and controlling them
    rather than looking back with 20/20 hindsight.

94
Activity Hazard Analysis - Key Terms
  • Whats the Job or Activity?
  • What are the Hazards?
  • Whats an exposure?
  • What is Analysis?

95
Activity
  • Workers in their first year with their employer
    account for more than 50 of disabling claims.
  • Why?
  • ( list three possible explanations )

96
AHA Purpose
  • Effective AHAs help the employer recognize and
    control hazards and exposures in the workplace.
  • How might the employees perception of a
    hazard differ from that of the employer or
    supervisor?

97
Activity
  • Why is an AHA more effective than walk-around
    inspections in reducing accidents in the
    workplace?

98
Probability
  • Probability is defined as the chance that a
    given event will occur.
  • We need to determine if Probability of an
    accident is low-medium or high and if HIGH- the
    chances are very likely that an accident could
    occur.

99
Activity Hazard Analysis STEP 1
  • Step One - Watch the work being done
  • What are some
    effective methods
  • to watch the
    work being done?

100
Activity Hazard Analysis STEP 1
  • Step One - Watch the work being done
  • Why is it
  • important
  • to involve
  • the employee?

101
AHA Step Two - Break the job down into steps
COE EM 385-1-1 para 01.A.13.b Work will not
begin until the hazard analysis for the work
activity has been accepted by the Governments
designated authority and discussed with all
engaged in the activity, including the
contractor, subcontractor(s), and Government
on-site representative.
Principle Steps column identify Sequences of
Work Distribution, etc. Contractor
Construction Schedule or Construction Progress
Chart is a good guide to identify Sequences of
Work
102
AHA Step 3
  • Step Three - Describe the hazards in each step of
    the task.
  • One of the primary purposes of the AHA is to make
    the job safer.
  • The information gathered in this step will be
    valuable in helping to eliminate and/or reduce
    hazards associated with the job, and improve the
    system weaknesses that produced them.

103
AHA Step 3
PRINCIPAL STEPS POTENTIAL SAFETY / HEALTH HAZARDS RECOMMENDED CONTROLS (Note Standard PPE required for this activity includes Hard Hat, Safety glasses with side protection, and safety-toe footwear. Additional PPE requirements are listed in this column depending on the hazard. This constitutes the Workplace Hazard Assessment per 29 CFR 1910.132. Additional assessments and PPE selection when needed will be documented on a JSA or daily briefing sign-in form and signed by the SSHO in accordance with ECC SOP ESQ 6.1. Hazard assessment and respirator selection for inhalation hazards are documented in the site Respiratory Protection Plan.)
Slinging, lifting and landing loads Load shifts, crushing. Ensure proper rigging is used Ensure employees are clear of load Ensure a tag-line is used Make sure lifting gear (wire rope chokers, nylon straps, shackles) are all of adequate capacity for loads and that slings and attachments are stored correctly. All rigging equipment must be tagged. If not tagged, must be taken out of service.
Any power or electrical work Contact with or Exposure to electricity Electric shock Electrocution GFCIs are mandatory in the use of any and all electrical tools and/or equipment. Electric power tools and equipment will be grounded or double insulated. Inspect all power tools and electric flexible cords daily prior to use to ensure insulation and plug connections are intact. Do not use damaged or defective power tools. Power tools with spliced or tapped cords will be tagged Do Not Use and removed from site immediately.
Deck Installation Falls, Pinch Points, Drops 100 Tie off while decking if parapet wall is under 42 inches. Never walk backwards with deck to avoid falling in the hole Always keep hands on decking and set down, no slinging of deck
Grinding Eye protection, hand protection Use face shield and gloves while grinding to avoid sparks or small pieces of metal from getting in the eye or striking the face or hand Hot work permit required for all spark producing tools daily with fire watch.
Operate welding and cutting machines Injury to eyes Burns Shock Inhalation of fumes Starting fire Distractions Pollution to the environment Obtain fire permit-If not already on existing HOT permit, obtain new fire permit. Follow all conditions of permit (fire watch, fire extinguisher, etc.) Inspect your equipment and ensure it is working properly and in good condition. Use proper PPE (eye shields/welding helmets/clothing/gloves) Ensure enough ventilation. Use smoke extractors if necessary. Use barricades/barricade tape to prevent vehicle or pedestrian traffic through work area Only personnel trained and qualified to operate welding equipment should do so. Properly dispose of cutting and welding spoils.
  • Potential Hazard column can have General
    Safety as a potential hazard to include minimal
    PPE . General Safety should be identified for
    every phase of work.

104
Identifying types of hazards
  • Acceleration When we speed up or slow down too
    quickly
  • Toxic Toxic to skin and internal organs.
  • Radiation Non-ionizing - burns, Ionizing -
    destroys tissue.

105
Identifying types of hazards
  • Ergonomics Eight risk factors
  • 1. High Frequency
  • 2. High Duration
  • 3. High Force
  • 4. Posture
  • 5. Point of Operation
  • 6. Mechanical Pressure
  • 7. Vibration
  • 8. Environmental Exposure.

106
Identifying types of hazards
  • Pressure Increased pressure in hydraulic and
    pneumatic systems.
  • Mechanical Pinch points, sharp points and
    edges, weight, rotating parts, stability, ejected
    parts and materials, impact.
  • Flammability/
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