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Women Empowerment in the Globalisation Context

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Women Empowerment in the Globalisation Context Dr. N.Manimekalai Director and Head Department of Women s Studies Bharathidasan University Tiruchirapalli -24 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Women Empowerment in the Globalisation Context


1
Women Empowerment in the Globalisation Context
  • Dr. N.Manimekalai Director and Head Department of
    Womens Studies Bharathidasan University Tiruchir
    apalli -24
  • Tamil Nadu
  • manimekalaidr_at_yahoo.com

2
Features of Economic Reforms Policy
  • Liberalisation
  • Privatization
  • Globalization Marketisation
  • Tertiarisation
  • Feminisation of Employment
  • Feminisation of poverty
  • Casualiastion
  • Informalistion
  • Modernization
  • Export led growth and productivity

3
Features of neo liberal policies
  • Reductions in public expenditure,
  • Devaluation ,
  • Cutting food and fertilizer subsidies,
  • Dismantling the public distribution system,
  • Reducing budgets for the social sector,
  • Promoting capital-intensive and high-tech'
    production,
  • Increasing bank rates and insurance charges,
  • Exit policy.

4
Differential impact
  • education,
  • race,
  • class,
  • Caste
  • Gender
  • religion,
  • age,
  • nationality
  • ethnicity

5
Results of Globalisation
  • Marketization,
  • It is the process that enables the state-owned
    enterprises to act like market-oriented firms.
    This is achieved through reduction of state
    subsidies, deregulation, organizational
    restructuring, decentralization and
    privatization.
  • The result of this process is marketization
  • The feminization of unemployment
  • The feminization of poverty
  • The feminization of hopelessness.

6
Women and Globalisation
  • Positive correlation between womens share of
    employment and export in countries such as
    Mauritius, Mexico, Peru, Philippines, and Sri
    Lanka (Nordas, 2003)
  • Broad trends based on cross-country analysis
    indicate that export promotion and trade
    liberalization policies have led to feminization
    of labour force in developing countries (Wood,
    1991 Cagatay and Ozler, 1995)
  • Support for this overall trend found in large
    number of country case studies that associate
    feminization of labour force in developing
    countries with spread of export-led
    industrialization (Cagatay and Berik, 1991)

7
Tertiarisation
  • Changing sectoral share skewed towards service
    sector
  • Technology replacing women in Agriculture,
    industry and other sectors.
  • Migration of women to factories, construction
    work without proper security and safety net.
  • Poor working conditions, informalisation,
    casualisation and feminisation of labour in the
    neo liberal market conditions.

8
Cont.
  • contractual employment -irregular, unstable
    employment
  • adverse economic implication on women.
  • Increase in low and exploitative type of jobs
    including child labour..
  • Curtailment of state provisions in child care,
    community care and social security.
  • Beginning in January 1992, subsidies for daycare,
    milk and other dairy products, and children's
    clothing were either sharply reduced or
    eliminated.

9
Increase in Flesh trade
  • women are sold as sex slaves
  • working as domestic workers or in sweatshops
    under horrible conditions
  • work as bar attendants (all jobs are of
    lower level with no respect and dignity ).
    Kampadoo (2001),
  • According to a CIA report in 1999, each year
    50,000 of women are brought into the U.S to work
    in sex industries.
  • With male migration on the increase from the
    rural to urban sectors, the women have to bear
    the triple burden of caring, farming and paid
    employment in the rural sector

10
Cont.
  • Inflation has pushed the poor into
    indebtedness-farmers suicides
  • Women - deal with family subsistence
  • have to cope up with such changes and
  • have to work hard and work for a low paid and
    exploitative jobs for sustaining in life as she
    is left with no options.
  • women have almost no control over their work
  • no chance for upward mobility because of the
    temporary and repetitive nature of the work
  • No control over resources

11
Cumulative impact
  • Women get affected
  • economically,
  • physically,
  • mentally,
  • Ethically,
  • Totally stressed out,
  • Play the role of her life ideally,
  • Multiple role, multi tasking
  • Responsibilities have reached heights,
  • Never a decision maker but a bread winner and
    earner.
  • Hardly resulted in empowerment

12
Cont.
  • No scope for traditional skills
  • cool drinks instead of butter milk, plastic
    chairs instead of stone benches, coir based cot
  • The micro enterprise activities, home based and
    value added lost significance

13
Cont.
  • Improvement in vital statistics for many nations
    in terms of decreased infant mortality, longer
    life spans, better nutrition, but also large
    numbers of people thrown into abject poverty and
    displaced from subsistence agriculture or forced
    into
  • Volatile and very unstable labor markets.
  • No job security,
  • Terrible working conditions,
  • Demise of state welfare systems
  • great disparities in wages
  • increased migration flows,
  • human trafficking,
  • sex slavery

14
Globalisation and Environment
  • Declining Forest Cover
  • MNCs occupying the tribal land,
  • Converting fertile land into buildings,
    industries
  • Polluting industries in rural areas, dislocating
    rural mass
  • Introduction of car manufacturing industries
    questions the ground water table and drinking
    water shortage for rural mass
  • Adds drudgery of women
  • Selling of lands and laws related to reserve
    forest affect the eco systems, and women are
    forced to give up minor forest produce sale and
    other forest products on which the women were
    depending.

15
Positive Impacts of Globalisation on Women
  • Increasing employment opportunities and economic
    independence
  • Increasing availability and variety of goods and
    services
  • globalization has given women a power they lacked
    in the past--the power to end the system that
    breeds poverty, exploitation and oppression to
    some extent to the elite group where they chose
    to management and other professional, IT areas
    where the crossed the boundaries and proving
    their potential capabilities.
  • prospects of higher and quality education -women
    who can afford them, economically and socially.
  • Employment in technological and other advanced
    sectors,

16
Cont.
  • With changing attitude towards women, -more
    egalitarian set of gender relationship.
  • Reduction in gender inequalities-
  • positive effect on womens empowerment of women
  • strengthening of their networks to offer mutual
    support and resources.
  • new information and communications technology
    (ICT) have improved the access of women to micro
    credit, employment opportunities and information
    in general

17
Cont.
  • Attitudinal changes
  • good education,
  • benefits of family planning and health care,
  • child care, good job opportunities etc.
  • Positive approach to economic and cultural
    migration will facilitate women to be exposed to
    better prospects at the international level.

18
Policies and Interventions
  • More Inclusive policy towards women empowerment
  • Gender Mainstreaming policies and Gender
    Budgeting provisions.
  • Increased awareness and institutionalization of
    interventions by government
  • New legal provisions to safeguard the interest of
    women, including land rights, protection of women
    from domestic violence, etc.
  • Separate Ministry on Women and Child Development

19
Cont.
  • economic literacy trainings for women advocates,
  • Capacity building of Women
  • Awareness programme on the rights of women and
    the impact of policies on women
  • Gender Sensitive policies taking needs,
    priorities and demands, concers of women.
  • Encourage womens participation in decision
    making committees including political
    participation.
  • Gender disaggregated data and need to identify
    and address gaps in information, including
    unpaid work
  • Networking of womens groups across all
    levelsnational, regional, and global

20
Cont.
  • Need to develop a comprehensive, gender-aware
    framework for gender-balanced representation and
    participation of civil society, including womens
    groups and networks

21
Novel Initiatives
  • Women Entrepreneurs Association of Tamil Nadu
  • Various skill training with marketing support
  • Non-Traditional areas including
  • Engineering and Fabrication
  • Areca nut plate
  • Ready Made Garments
  • BPO services
  • Banana Fibre extraction
  • Baniyan Cloth waste processing

22
Cont.
  • Menstrual Hygiene Management and Sanitary Napkin
    Production by SHG and Women Micro Entrepreneurs
  • Jute based utility articles
  • Training of mentally retarded, visually
    challenging, physically challenging, prison
    women, HIV positive women
  • Counseling programme for women in distress
  • Awareness programme for women on their rights,
    support systems etc.
  • Free training with stipend for youth on sewing
    operation
  • Embroidery training, soft toys

23
Cont.
  • Innovative marketing in college campuses,
    University campus
  • Support from Banks for various training and fair.
  • MDP, EDP for women
  • Regular Womens Entrepreneurs Meeting every
    fortnight and a conference every year
  • Supportive networking and support of all media.,
    University, Government, NGOs, Industrial
    Department, Education Department, District
    Administration, etc.
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