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The Impact of the Mongols

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Mongol conquests much greater than Arab conquests, but short-lived ... Resisted Mongol expeditions. Expanded empire to South (2nd capital) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Impact of the Mongols


1
The Impact of the Mongols
  • Carl Ernst
  • Introduction to Islamic Civilization

2
General remarks
  • Mongol conquests much greater than Arab
    conquests, but short-lived
  • Christian fantasies of Prester John, Christian
    king of the East (who would attack Muslims)
  • Destruction of cities followed by rebuilding,
    flourishing long-distance trade (Marco Polo), and
    even an expansion and flourishing of Islamic
    civilization

3
Outline
  • Mongol khanates
  • Qipchaq
  • Il-Khans
  • Chaghatay
  • New centers of Islamic culture
  • Mamluks (Egypt)
  • Delhi Sultanate
  • Ottomans
  • Scourges (plague, Timur)

4
1. After Chingiz Khan (d. 1227)4 Mongol Khanates
  • Qipchaq Khanate (Golden Horde), on Eurasian
    steppes
  • Il-khanate (Persia)
  • Chaghatay Khanate (Central Asia)
  • Great Khanate or Yuan Dynasty (Mongolia, China)

5
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6

7

8
Qipchaq khanate (Golden Horde)
  • Collected tribute from Russians without
    integrating into Russian society
  • Like most Mongols, tolerated religious
    missionaries of various types (insurance policy?)
  • Gradual Islamization

9
Il-khans (Persia)
  • Hulagu rebuilds destroyed cities, astronomical
    observatory at Maragha
  • Devastation of northern Iran and Iraq
  • First successors leaned towards Buddhism and
    Christianity
  • In 1295, Ghazan converts to Islam
  • Thriving culture and art

10
Ceramic prayer niche (Iran, 14th-century)
11
Tent mosque Quran page
12
Circular Royal tapestry
13
Chaghatay Khanate (later known as Uzbeks)
  • Remained nomadic
  • A coalition of Mongols, Turks, and Uighurs
  • In 1326, Tarmashirin converts to Islam and orders
    all others to follow
  • Empire collapses shortly afterward

14
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15
2. New Centers of Islamic Culture Mamluk Egypt
  • Defeated Mongols in 1260 in Palestine
  • Occupied Syria, Arabia
  • Import of slaves for military leadership
  • Loyalty to Amirs as core virtue, distance from
    local society, need for replacements
  • Political instability
  • Good relations with Byzantines, Italians

16
Mosque and madrasa of Sultan Hasan (Cairo, 14th
century)
17
Delhi Sultanate
  • Ghurids conquered Punjab and Delhi 1193,
    expanding into Ganges region
  • Turkish Sultans with military slave background,
    Persian culture
  • Resisted Mongol expeditions
  • Expanded empire to South (2nd capital)
  • Delhi a magnet for scholars and artisans
  • Coexistence with vast Hindu majority

18
Expansion and decline of Delhi Sultanate
19
Qutb Minar
20
Ottoman Sultanate
21
Rise of Ottomans
  • Succeed Saljuqs, who established Persian culture
    in Konya, though they remained subject to Mongols
  • Ghazi raiders against Byzantines eventually
    establish state, expand into Balkans
  • Recruitment of Christian knights (siege of Kosovo
    in 1389 Serbian national myth)
  • Forcible enrollment of Christian youths in
    military and bureaucracy (devshirme)

22
Konya
Tomb of Rumi (d. 1273)
23
3. Scourges
  • Black plague causes massive devastation
  • Timur (Tamerlane) creates a neo-Mongol empire,
    causing great destruction.

24
Final thoughts
  • Why did the Mongols not have a longer-lasting
    civilization?
  • Confrontations with Christian powers in name of
    God (Tenggri) who gave authority to Chingiz Khan
  • Confrontations with Turkish rulers of Delhi
    Sultanate Mongol law (yasa) stronger than
    Islamic sharia?
  • Weakness of non-textual cultures
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