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The Status of Early Childhood Care and Education


The Status of Early Childhood Care and Education By Tirussew Teferra et al. ... games and indigenous story telling-playing skills . – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Status of Early Childhood Care and Education

The Status of Early Childhood Care and Education
  • By
  • Tirussew Teferra et al.

Objectives of Research Project
  • Identify relevant policy issues on early
    childhood care, education and development in
  • Identify the current status of Early Childhood
    Education in Ethiopia in terms of resources,
    practices, strengths, and weaknesses.
  • Introduce cost-effective and cultural sensitive
    strategies of promoting early childhood care and
    education towards achieving the Millennium
    Development Goals.
  • Propose a framework of early childhood care and
    education having implications for policy

Research Method
  • Desk Research
  • Consulting literature focusing on available
    local literature and policy documents on ECCE in
  • Field Survey
  • Conducting a study to map-out the conditions of
    early childhood care and education across regions

Survey Sites Data Sources
  • All the 11 Regional States
  • Addis Ababa, Oromiya, Amhara, Tigray, Afar,
    Somali, Harari, Drie Dawa, Benishangul-Gumuz,
    Gambela and SNNP
  • Data Sources
  • Regional bureau
  • Experts and supervisors (FGDs)
  • ECCE Teacher training Institutes
  • Heads and teachers (FGDs)
  • Early Childhood Care and Education (65 centers)
  • Directors (36)
  • Teachers (250)
  • Parents (222)

Instruments of data ollection
  • Questionnaire
  • Focus Group Discussion
  • Interview
  • Participant Observation

  • Desk Research Study
  • Studies in early childhood care and education are
    scanty and fragmented
  • The importance of early childhood care and
    education was well pronounced back in the early
    17th Ethiopian philosophers
  • Policy analysis
  • Education and training policy
  • Health policy
  • Social policy
  • Family code policies and
  • the Ethiopian constitution

Survey Result
  • Early child care and upbringing practices
  • Harmful practices
  • Milk teeth extraction, uvuloctomy, tonsillectomy,
    female genital mutilation, mutilation of the skin
    in the forehead and eyebrow of their babies.
  • Prevalence of corporal punishment at home and
    in schools
  • Employing approaches such as yelling
    ,deploring, cursing, terrifying chastising for
    shaping childrens behaviors
  • In most of the Ethiopian cultures, young children
    are not encouraged to discuss with adults even
    about their own matters.
  • Limited role of fathers in in early child

Survey Result cont
  • Useful practices
  • Breastfeeding is widely practice even during
    the time of toddlerhood
  • Strong emotional attachment/physical contact
    with the mother
  • The involvement of the neighborhood in child
  • Availability of stories, games and indigenous
    story telling-playing skills .
  • The role of the extended family in sharing
    child care
  • Prevalence of useful/educative proverbs for
    early care and education

Survey Result cont
  • Early Childhood Education (ECE)
  • Types ECE
  • Private (middle and upper class families )
  • Public ( middle class families)
  • Faith-based ( middle and upper class families )
  • NGO-based (low income families orphans)
  • Community-based (middle class)
  • Accessibility location
  • 2.7 of the age cohort have accesses
  • Children with disabilities dont have access
  • Urban based most of them are expensive

Survey Result cont
  • Nature of Teaching-Learning in ECEs
  • Curriculum (reading, writing, adding ,
    counting etc.l ack of standard guide line)
  • Teaching methodology ( teacher centered, play p
  • Second language (undermines mother tongue)
  • Teaching-learning materials (England, India,
    Kenya etc.)
  • Teachers profile (diversified)

Survey Result cont
  • ECCE Teacher Training Institutes
  • Profiles of trainers
  • Quality of training
  • Graduates employability salary
  • Career track development opportunity

Implications of the Study
  • Suggested a holistic policy framework of Early
    Childhood Care and Education in Ethiopia., which
    among others focuses on
  • Integrated efforts by sector ministries
    including Education, Health, Labor Social
    Affairs , Ministry of Women Affairs.
  • The set-up ECCE- Integrated National Office at
    National, Regional and District "Woreda" levels.
  • ECCE program that addresses the cognitive,
    psychosocial, cognitive health and safety of
    young children.

Specific recommendations
  • The Ministry of Education should coordinate
    operational standards and ensures that every
    child has the opportunity to have access to early
    childhood education before he or she joins formal
    education. In order to realize this the
    following measures are suggested
  • Open early childhood education programs under
    the premises of all the primary school s
    across regions compounds .
  • Encourage and support the community to open
    or reopen Kebele-level preschools .
  • Neighbourhood Childcare Centres (NCC) rural
  • Undertaking to collect, document and disseminate
    the indigenous useful practices of educating and
    caring young children. As well as augment the
    absence of culturally relevant storybooks,
    children games, etc in our preschools

  • Todays investment in children is tomorrows
    peace, stability, security, democracy and
    sustainable development
  • Africa Fit for Children, May 2001
  • Thank you !!