Strategies, Resources, & Research Opportunities in the Preparation of Teachers as Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse & Neglect - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Strategies, Resources, & Research Opportunities in the Preparation of Teachers as Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse & Neglect PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3deada-OTIzM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Strategies, Resources, & Research Opportunities in the Preparation of Teachers as Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse & Neglect

Description:

Strategies, Resources, & Research Opportunities in the Preparation of Teachers as Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse & Neglect Harold Johnson/MSU – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:34
Avg rating:3.0/5.0

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Strategies, Resources, & Research Opportunities in the Preparation of Teachers as Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse & Neglect


1
Strategies, Resources, Research Opportunities
in the Preparation of Teachers as Mandatory
Reporters of Child Abuse Neglect
  • Harold Johnson/MSU
  • 2/19/2010
  • ACE-D/HH 2010 Conference
  • Lexington, KY

2
Presentation Outline
  • What are we talking about?
  • Why do WE have to deal with this?
  • What is stopping us?
  • Where can we go for more information and help
    when we need it?
  • What can we realistically do?

3
What are we talking about?
http//www.dcmp.org/
http//www.childhelp.org/
http//www.dcmp.org/FlashLanding/SecureFlash.aspx?
G31653p//
4
Why do WE have to deal with this?
  • Every State legally mandates that educators
    report suspected child abuse and neglect
    (Crosson-Tower, 2003).

http//www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_polici
es/state/
5
Why do WE have to...(cont)
Example Kentucky
6
What is stopping us?
  • Barriers to reporting CA/N
  • 1. Belief that CA/N is not a common, or
    sufficiently important problem to warrant
    attention. info
  • 2. Insufficient knowledge re....
  • ...the signs and symptoms of CA/N and
  • ...CA/N reporting procedures and/or conflicting
    school policies. info
  • 3. Perceived negative consequences of reporting,
    i.e., ...
  • ...make things worse for the child and
  • ...fear of disapproval from parents, parental
    denial, lack of administrative support and legal
    ramifications for false allegations. info

7
Barriers...(cont.)
  • 4. Lessons learned from past reporting, e.g.,
    nothing happened.
  • 5. Negative attitude towards Child Protective
    Services. Info 4 5
  • 6. The lack of training, and ongoing support,
    concerning recognizing, reporting and responding
    to possible incidences of CA/N.
  • 7. The belief that someone else is dealing with
    this problem. info 6 7
  • Alvarex, Kenny, Donohue, Carpin, 2004 Bonner,
    Hensley, 1997 Kenny, 2001, 2004

8
Barriers (cont.)
  • In summary, we do not deal with CA/N because
    we...
  • ...think it is not a significant problem
  • ...are uncertain how to recognize, or report it
  • ...are afraid of the possible consequences
  • ...do not think anything positive will occur
  • ...think someone else is dealing with it
  • I would also suggest that we have not dealt with
    CA/N because it is such a controversial, and
    unpleasant topic to discuss and think about.

9
Barriers (cont.)
  • In reality, ...
  • ...30 of our students will experience CA/N
    prior to the 12th grade, with the greatest risk
    occurring from birth to age two years.
  • ...we are legally required to report possible
    instances of CA/N
  • ...yet we are neither prepared for, nor supported
    in, meeting our legal responsibility as mandatory
    reporters of CA/N.

10
Barriers (cont.)
  • In reality, ...
  • ...our lack of attention, preparation and support
    to Observe, Understand, and Respond serves to
    increase the duration and the impact of CA/N
  • ...all of our work to prepare the best possible
    teachers will be negated, if our students are not
    physically, or mentally able to learn.
  • ...WE can start to address the horrific realities
    of CA/N by enhancing out ability to observe,
    understand, and respond to children who are d/hh.

11
Where can we go for more information and help
when we need it?
  • A Community of Learners has been established to
    address the issue of CA/N as experienced by
    children who are d/hh.

Hands Voices has been a partner in this effort
since 2007
http//deafed-childabuse-neglect-col.wiki.educ.msu
.edu/
12
Go for more info...
Call and discuss your concerns with an expert...
http//www.childhelp.org/hotline
13
Report your concerns...
http//www.childwelfare.gov/responding/reporting.c
fm
14
What can we realistically do?
  • We can...
  • 1. ...recognize CA/N as a frequent and
    significant barrier to the physical, emotional
    and academic success of OUR students who are
    d/hh.
  • 2. ...find the local CA/N experts and begin a
    conversation about OUR students who are d/hh.

15
What can we do...(cont.)
  • We can...
  • 3. ...provide learning opportunities for our
    college students and support our colleagues as
    they learn how to Observe, Understand, and
    Respond to possible instances of CA/N.
  • 4. ...join the Deaf Education Community of
    Learners (http//deafed-childabuse-neglect-col.wik
    i.educ.msu.edu/) to identify, document, and
    recognize those early intervention and K-12
    programs that have established effective CA/N
    prevention and response programs, while we
    challenge those who have yet to do so.

16
Thank You
  • I hope you will join with me in an effort to
    Observe, Understand, and Respond to possible
    instances of CA/N.
  • Together we CAN make a difference!

17
Contact Information
  • Harold A. Johnson/Professor
  • Deaf Education Teacher Preparation
  • 343A Erickson Hall
  • Michigan State University
  • East Lansing, MI 48824
  • 517 432-3926 office
  • 517 353-6393 fax
  • 35.8.171.220 video ph
  • Harold.a.johnson3 Skype
  • MSUE_H_Johnson iVisit
  • www.educ.msu.edu/deafed Web

18
What do we Know about Child Abuse and Neglect
(CA/N)?
19
Barrier 1 CA/N not a big problem...
  • CA/N is experienced by 09 of children w/o
    disabilities vs. 31 of children w/ disabilities
    (Sullivan Knutson, 2000).
  • Existent research indicates that while 10 of
    hearing boys and 25 of hearing girls report
    sexual abuse, vs. 54 of boys who are d/hh and
    50 of girls who are d/hh report sexual abuse
    (Sullivan, Vernon, Scanlan, John, 1987).
  • It is estimated that 83 of women with
    disabilities will be sexually assaulted during
    their life times (Obinna, Krueger, Osterbaan,
    Sadusky, DeVore, 2005).

20
Barrier 1 Belief CA/N is not important...
(cont.)
  • Consequences of CA/N
  • Wang, Holton, 2007
  • Poor physical health
  • chronic fatigue, altered immune function,
    hypertension, sexually transmitted diseases,
    obesity
  • Social difficulties
  • insecure attachments with caregivers, which may
    lead to difficulties in developing trusting
    relationships with peers and adults later in life
  • Cognitive dysfunctions
  • deficits in attention, abstract reasoning,
    language development, and problem-solving skills,
    which ultimately affect academic achievement and
    school performance

21
Barrier 1 Belief CA/N is uncommon... (cont.)
  • Consequences of CA/N (cont.)
  • Wang, Holton, 2007
  • Behavioral problems, e.g. aggression, juvenile
    delinquency, adult criminality, abusive or
    violent behavior
  • Willis Vernon, 2002
  • Emotional disturbance
  • Shakeshaft, 2004
  • Lose trust in adults and authority figures
  • Sullivan Knutson, 2000
  • Running away from home
  • Back

22
Barrier 2...Insufficient knowledge...the signs
symptoms of CA/N.
  • Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2007b
  • Observe the child...
  • Shows sudden changes in behavior or school
    performance
  • Has not received help for physical or medical
    problems brought to the parents' attention
  • Is always watchful, as though preparing for
    something bad to happen
  • Is overly compliant, passive, or withdrawn
  • Comes to school or other activities early, stays
    late, and does not want to go home
  • See Appendix A for definitions of CA/N
    Appendix B for signs for specific types of abuse

23
Barrier 2... (cont.)
  • Observe the parent...
  • Shows little concern for the child
  • Denies the existence ofor blames the child
    forthe child's problems in school or at home
  • Asks teachers or other caregivers to use harsh
    physical discipline if the child misbehaves
  • Sees the child as entirely bad, worthless, or
    burdensome
  • Demands a level of physical or academic
    performance the child cannot achieve
  • Looks primarily to the child for care, attention,
    and satisfaction of emotional needs

24
Barrier 2... (cont.)
  • Observe Parent/Child Interactions
  • Rarely touch or look at each other
  • Consider their relationship entirely negative
  • State that they do not like each other
  • Back

25
Barrier 2... (cont.)
  • ...Insufficient knowledge re...the reporting
    procedures.
  • Most (58) instances of CA/N are reported by
    professionals, with teachers representing the
    single largest (17) category of professionals.
  • While protocols have been established to guide
    educators reporting of CA/N (Crosson-Tower,
    2003), most (87) educators submit reports to
    school officials vs. Child Protective Services
    (CPS), with less than 30 of suspected cases
    subsequently shared with CPS.

26
Barrier 3. Perceived negative consequences of
reporting
  • ...make things worse for the child
  • In the majority of cases, maltreatment does not
    increase as a result of reporting and in less
    than 3 of reported cases result in children
    being removed from the home (Alvarex, et al, 2004)

27
Barrier 3. (cont.)
  • ...fear of disapproval from parents, parental
    denial, lack of administrative support and legal
    ramifications for false allegations.
  • Most (76) educators do not think that their
    school administrators will support them if they
    made a CA/N report (Kenny, 2004).
  • All states provide immunity to those
    professionals who report CA/N in good faith
    (Alvarex, et al, 2004)
  • Back

28
Barriers 4 5
  • Barriers 4 5. Lessons learned from past
    reporting, e.g., nothing happened, and Negative
    attitude towards Child Protective Services (CPS).
  • Interactions between mandatory reporters and CPS
    are often difficult (Alvarex, et al, 2004)
  • CPS services are underfunded and overwhelmed,
    with most of the available funds being used to
    respond to, vs. prevent CA/N (Freundlich, 2007)

29
Barriers 4 5 (cont.)
  • Insufficient CPS data collection and training
    concerning the documentation, recognition and
    response to CA/N as experienced by children with
    disabilities (Alvarex et al, 2004
    Horner-Johnson, Drum, 2006 Kendall-Tackett,
    Lyon, Tallaferro, Little, 2005).
  • In relation to instances of sexual abuse,
    educational systems frequently disbelieve
    victims, and fail to effectively deal with
    perpetrators (Shakeshaft, 2004)
  • Back

30
Barriers 6 7
  • Barriers 6 7. The lack of training, and
    ongoing support, concerning recognizing,
    reporting and responding to possible incidences
    of CA/N The belief that someone else is dealing
    with this problem.
  • Who in Deaf Education is providing leadership,
    training, support and services re. CA/N?
  • Ed Shroyer (200?) briefly funded a center
    concerning CA/N as experienced by children who
    d/hh

31
Barriers 6 7 (cont.)
  • Who in Deaf Education is providing
    leadership...(cont.)
  • CEASD has a 2002 position paper entitled Safe
    Schools for all deaf hard of hearing children
    a range of existing programs concerning both
    bullying and CA/N
  • NAD has a 2008 position statement on Mental
    health services for deaf children that notes a
    higher rate of sexual abuse.
  • DOVE Advocacy Services for Abused Deaf Women and
    Children has established a multi state program of
    services and training
  • http//www.deafdove.org/

32
Barriers 6 7 (cont.)
  • Who in Deaf Education is providing
    leadership...(cont.)
  • Hands Voices has been providing presentations
    and piloting parent/professional information
    programs
  • http//www.handsandvoices.org/
  • ACE-D/HH?
  • AGBell?
  • ASDC?
  • CAID?
  • CEC/DCDD?
  • CED?
  • EHDI?

33
Barriers 6 7 (cont.)
  • In light of this lack of information, in 2008 I
    conducted a survey of extent to which parents and
    professionals are aware, informed and prepared to
    recognize and respond to possible incidences of
    CA/N as experienced by children who are d/hh.
  • 322 respondents
  • Demographic Overview
  • Most (60) were between the ages of 35-54.
  • Most (80) had greater than a B.A./B.S. degree.
  • Most (90) were female
  • Most (88) were professionals
  • Most (82) were hearing

34
Barriers 6 7 (cont.)
  • Survey results...
  • Demographic Overview (cont.)
  • Most (70) had 11 years of experience in
    interacting with individuals who were d/hh
  • Most (82) had daily interactions with
    individuals who were d/hh
  • A majority (51) used speech sign in those
    interactions, with the rest using speech (25),
    or sign (18)
  • Training re. CA/N
  • Most (64) had formal training re. CA/N, but only
    in a minority (29) of cases, was the training
    specific to children who were d/hh

35
Barriers 6 7 (cont.)
  • Survey results...
  • Training re. CA/N (cont.)
  • Training resulted in mixed results, i.e.,
  • In response to the question How well prepared do
    you now consider yourself to be in relation to
    recognizing and reporting possible cases of child
    abuse and neglect?
  • 48 indicated that they were well, or
    sufficiently prepared vs. 49 indicated that they
    were somewhat, or unprepared
  • In contrast, a majority (55) indicated that
    well/sufficiently confident they could find
    accurate information concerning CA/N

36
Barriers 6 7 (cont.)
  • Survey results...
  • Training re. CA/N (cont.)
  • A minority (09) indicated that they were very
    confident that they could recognize if a child
    who is d/hh was experiencing CA/N
  • A majority (53) indicated that they were
    very/sufficiently confident in their knowledge of
    how to report possible incidences of CA/N as
    experienced by a child who is d/hh.

37
Barriers 6 7 (cont.)
  • Survey results...
  • Training re. CA/N (cont.)
  • A minority (15) indicated they were
    very/sufficiently (27) confident in their
    knowledge regarding how to respond to a child who
    is d/hh and possible the victim of CA/N
  • Most (87) wanted to learn more about the
    prevention of CA/N as experienced by children who
    were d/hh

38
Barriers 6 7 (cont.)
  • Survey results...
  • Resulting knowledge
  • Most have had some general, formal training re.
    CA/N, few in relation to students who are d/hh
  • CA/N training resulted in mixed results, i.e.,
  • while a majority thought they could find accurate
    information, and knew how to make a report,
  • few thought they could effectively recognize, or
    respond to a child who is d/hh and who may have
    experienced CA/N
  • Most would like learn more re. how to prevent
    CA/N as experienced by children who are d/hh

39
Barriers 6 7 (cont.)
  • Survey Results the literature base
  • Kenny (2001 2004) indicates...
  • ...that less than 30 of suspected CA/N cases
    known to school personnel are formally reported.
  • ...teachers need more training re. legal mandates
    of reporting, how to recognize and how to report
    suspected instances of CA/N.
  • ...training should be ongoing and include
    experientially exercises and hypothetical
    situations.
  • ...the better the CA/N training, the more
    cognizant teachers became of the difficulty in
    recognizing the signs and systems of CA/N

40
Barriers 6 7 (cont.)
  • Survey Results the literature base
  • Kenny (2001 2004) indicates...(cont.)
  • ...SPED teaches made more reports of CA/N, but
    did not receive any better training

41
Barriers 6 7 (cont.)
  • Implications
  • Children who are d/hh are three times more likely
    to experience CA/N than their hearing peers
  • Deaf Education professionals are not well
    prepared to recognize, report, or respond to
    possible instances of CA/N
  • With a few notable exceptions, CA/N has largely
    been ignored by the major organizations within
    the field of Deaf Education.
  • Ignoring CA/N increase the length and impact of
    the abuse.

Back
42
Reference List
43
  • Alvarex, K.M., Kenny, M.C., Donohue, B.,
    Carpin, K. M. (2004). Why are professionals
    failing to initiate mandated reports of child
    maltreatment, and are there any empirically based
    training programs to assist professionals in the
    reporting process? Aggression and Violent
    Behavior, 9, 563-578.
  • Bonner, B.L. Hensley, L.D. (1997). State
    efforts to identify maltreated children with
    disabilities A follow-up study. Child
    Maltreatment, 2(1), 52-60.
  • CEASD (2002). Safe schools for all deaf hard
    of hearing children. Retrieved on 2/15/2010
    from http//www.ceasd.org/acrobat/CEASD_safe_scho
    ols.pdf
  • Child Maltreatment Report (2007). Retrieved on
    6/7/09 from http//www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pu
    bs/cm07/index.htm
  • Child Welfare Information Gateway (2007a).
    Definitions of child abuse and neglect.
    Retrieved on 1/25/2010 from http//www.childwelfa
    re.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/statutes/define.cf
    m
  • Child Welfare Information Gateway (2007b).
    Recognizing child abuse and neglect Signs and
    Symptoms. Retrieved on 1/25/2010 from
    http//www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/signs.
    cfm

44
  • Child Welfare Information Gateway (2006).
    Long-term consequences of child abuse and
    neglect fact sheet. Retrieved on 2/3/2008 from
    http//www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/long_
    term_consequences.cfm
  • Crosson-Tower, Cynthia (2003). The Role of
    Educators in Preventing and Responding to Child
    Abuse and Neglect. Office on Child Abuse and
    Neglect., Caliber Associates, Retrieved on
    5/13/2009 from http//www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/us
    ermanuals/educator/index.cfm
  • DePanfilis, D. (2006). Child neglect A guide
    for prevention, assessment, and intervention.
    Retrieved on February 8, 2008 from
    http//www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/negle
    ct/index.cfm
  • Freundlich, M. (2007). Time for reform
    Investing in prevention Keeping children save at
    home. Retrieved from http//www.preventchildabus
    e.org/about_us/media_releases/pew_kaw_prevention_r
    eport_final.pdf
  • Horner-Johnson, W., Drum, C.E. (2006).
    Prevalence of maltreatment of people with
    intellectual disabilities A review of the
    recently published research. Mental Retardation
    and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews,
    12(1), 57-69.

45
  • Kendall-Tackett, K., Lyon, T., Tallaferro, G.,
    Little, L. (2005). Why child maltreatment
    researchers should include childrens disability
    status in their maltreatment studies. Child
    Abuse Neglect, 29(2), 147-151
  • Kenny, M. C. (2001). Child abuse reporting
    Teachers perceived deterrents. Child Abuse
    Neglect, 25, 81-92.
  • Kenny, M. (2004). Teachers attitudes toward and
    knowledge of child maltreatment. Child Abuse
    Neglect, 28, 1311-1319.
  • NAD (2008). Position statement on mental health
    services for deaf children. Retrieved February
    15, 2008 from http//www.nad.org/issues/health-car
    e/mental-health-services/for-deaf-children
  • Obinna, Jennifer, Krueger, Sarah, Osterbaan,
    Constance, Sadusky, Jane M, DeVore, Wendy
    (2005). Understanding the Needs of the Victims
    of Sexual Assault in the Deaf Community A Needs
    Assessment and Audit. Retrieved January 11, 2009
    from http//www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/212
    867.pdf

46
  • Shakeshaft, Charol (2004). Educator Sexual
    Misconduct A synthesis of existing literature.
    U.S. Dept of Education (purchase order
    ED-02-PO-3281) Policy and Program Studies
    Service. Retrieved January 11, 2009 from
    http//www.ed.gov/rschstat/research/pubs/misconduc
    treview/report.pdf
  • Sullivan, P.M., Knutson, J.F. (2000).
    Maltreatment and disabilities A population-based
    epidemiological study. Child Abuse Neglect,
    24(10), 1257-1273.
  • Sullivan, Patricia M., Vernon, McCay, Scanlan,
    John, M. (1987). Sexual abuse of deaf youth.
    American Annals of the Deaf, 32(4), 256-262
  • Wang, C-T., Holton, J. (2007). Total estimated
    cost of child abuse and neglect in the United
    States. Retrieved on 2/3/2008 from
    http//www.preventchildabuse.org/about_us/media_re
    leases/pcaa_pew_economic_impact_study_final.pdf
  • Willis, Richard G., Vernon, McCay (2002).
    Residential psychiatric treatment of emotionally
    disturbed deaf youth. American Annals of the
    Deaf, 147(1), pp 31-37.

47
Bibliography
48
  • Do? Tell! Kids Against Child Abuse DVD (n.d.).
    Information presented in ASL, English, Spanish.
    Retrieved on February 8, 2008 from
    http//www.kidsagainstchildabuse.org/
  • Durity, Richard Oxman, Amy (2006). Addressing
    the Trauma Treatment Needs of Children Who Are
    Deaf or Hard of Hearing and the Hearing Children
    of Deaf Parents. Retrieved January 11, 2009,
    from http//www.nctsnet.org/nctsn_assets/pdfs/edu_
    materials/Trauma_Deaf_Hard-of-Hearing_Children.pdf
  • Horner-Johnson, W., Drum, C.E. (2006).
    Prevalence of maltreatment of people with
    intellectual disabilities A review of the
    recently published research. Mental Retardation
    and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews,
    12(1), 57-69.

49
Appendixes
  • Appendix A Definitions of CA/H
  • Appendix B Recognizing Child Abuse and
    Neglect Signs and Symptoms

50
Appendix A Definitions of CA/N
  • Child Welfare Information Gateway (2007a).
    Definitions of child abuse and neglect.
    Retrieved on 1/25/2010 from http//www.childwelfa
    re.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/statutes/define.cf
    m

51
Definitions
  • Definitions (Child Welfare Information Gateway,
    2007)
  • Broad Definitions
  • Child abuse and neglect are defined by Federal
    and State laws. The Child Abuse Prevention and
    Treatment Act (CAPTA) is the Federal legislation
    that provides minimum standards that States must
    incorporate in their statutory definitions of
    child abuse and neglect. The CAPTA definition of
    "child abuse and neglect" refers to
  • "Any recent act or failure to act on the part of
    a parent or caretaker, which results in death,
    serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse,
    or exploitation, or an act or failure to act
    which presents an imminent risk of serious harm"
  • Note for state specific definitions, go to
    http//www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_polici
    es/state/

52
Definitions...(cont.)
  • Specific Definitions
  • Physical Abuse
  • Physical abuse is generally defined as "any
    non-accidental physical injury to the child" and
    can include striking, kicking, burning, or biting
    the child, or any action that results in a
    physical impairment of the child.
  • Neglect
  • Neglect is frequently defined in terms of
    deprivation of adequate food, clothing, shelter,
    medical care, or supervision.
  • Sexual Abuse/Exploitation
  • "The employment, use, persuasion, inducement,
    enticement, or coercion of any child to engage
    in, or assist any other person to engage in, any
    sexually explicit conduct or simulation of such
    conduct for the purpose of producing a visual
    depiction of such conduct or
  • The rape, and in cases of caretaker or
    interfamilial relationships, statutory rape,
    molestation, prostitution, or other form of
    sexual exploitation of children, or incest with
    children"

53
Definitions...(cont.)
  • Emotional Abuse
  • All States and territories except Georgia and
    Washington include emotional maltreatment as part
    of their definitions of abuse or neglect.
  • Parental Substance Abuse
  • Parental substance abuse is an element of the
    definition of child abuse or neglect in some
    States. Circumstances that are considered abuse
    or neglect in some States include
  • Prenatal exposure of a child to harm due to the
    mother's use of an illegal drug or other
    substance
  • Manufacture of a controlled substance in the
    presence of a child or on the premises occupied
    by a child
  • Allowing a child to be present where the
    chemicals or equipment for the manufacture of
    controlled substances are used or stored
  • Selling, distributing, or giving drugs or alcohol
    to a child
  • Use of a controlled substance by a caregiver that
    impairs the caregiver's ability to adequately
    care for the child
  • Abandonment
  • ... it is considered abandonment of the child
    when the parent's identity or whereabouts are
    unknown, the child has been left by the parent in
    circumstances in which the child suffers serious
    harm, or the parent has failed to maintain
    contact with the child or to provide reasonable
    support for a specified period of time.

54
Appendix B Recognizing Child Abuse and Neglect
Signs and Symptoms
  • Child Welfare Information Gateway (2007b).
    Recognizing child abuse and neglect Signs and
    Symptoms. Retrieved on 1/25/2010 from
    http//www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/signs.
    cfm

55
Signs Symptoms
  • Signs of Physical Abuse
  • Consider the possibility of physical abuse when
    the child
  • Has unexplained burns, bites, bruises, broken
    bones, or black eyes
  • Has fading bruises or other marks noticeable
    after an absence from school
  • Seems frightened of the parents and protests or
    cries when it is time to go home
  • Shrinks at the approach of adults
  • Reports injury by a parent or another adult
    caregiver
  • Consider the possibility of physical abuse when
    the parent or other adult caregiver
  • Offers conflicting, unconvincing, or no
    explanation for the child's injury
  • Describes the child as "evil," or in some other
    very negative way
  • Uses harsh physical discipline with the child
  • Has a history of abuse as a child

56
Signs...(cont.)
  • Signs of Neglect
  • Consider the possibility of neglect when the
    child
  • Is frequently absent from school
  • Begs or steals food or money
  • Lacks needed medical or dental care,
    immunizations, or glasses
  • Is consistently dirty and has severe body odor
  • Lacks sufficient clothing for the weather
  • Abuses alcohol or other drugs
  • States that there is no one at home to provide
    care
  • Consider the possibility of neglect when the
    parent or other adult caregiver
  • Appears to be indifferent to the child
  • Seems apathetic or depressed
  • Behaves irrationally or in a bizarre manner
  • Is abusing alcohol or other drugs

57
Signs...(cont.)
  • Signs of Sexual Abuse
  • Consider the possibility of sexual abuse when the
    child
  • Has difficulty walking or sitting
  • Suddenly refuses to change for gym or to
    participate in physical activities
  • Reports nightmares or bedwetting
  • Experiences a sudden change in appetite
  • Demonstrates bizarre, sophisticated, or unusual
    sexual knowledge or behavior
  • Becomes pregnant or contracts a venereal disease,
    particularly if under age 14
  • Runs away
  • Reports sexual abuse by a parent or another adult
    caregiver
  • Consider the possibility of sexual abuse when the
    parent or other adult caregiver
  • Is unduly protective of the child or severely
    limits the child's contact with other children,
    especially of the opposite sex
  • Is secretive and isolated
  • Is jealous or controlling with family members

58
Signs...(cont.)
  • Signs of Emotional Maltreatment
  • Consider the possibility of emotional
    maltreatment when the child
  • Shows extremes in behavior, such as overly
    compliant or demanding behavior, extreme
    passivity, or aggression
  • Is either inappropriately adult (parenting other
    children, for example) or inappropriately
    infantile (frequently rocking or head-banging,
    for example)
  • Is delayed in physical or emotional development
  • Has attempted suicide
  • Reports a lack of attachment to the parent
  • Consider the possibility of emotional
    maltreatment when the parent or other adult
    caregiver
  • Constantly blames, belittles, or berates the
    child
  • Is unconcerned about the child and refuses to
    consider offers of help for the child's problems
  • Overtly rejects the child
About PowerShow.com