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Child Abuse & Neglect: Three Questions, One Answer

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Title: Child Abuse & Neglect: Three Questions, One Answer


1
Child Abuse Neglect Three Questions, One Answer
  • Harold A. Johnson
  • Michigan State University
  • 3/2/2010 - EHDI National Convention
  • Chicago, IL

2
Presentation Outline
  • Three Question
  • What are we talking about?
  • Why do WE have to deal with this?
  • What is stopping us?
  • One Answer
  • Observe, Understand, Respond to OUR Children

3
What are we talking about?
http//www.dcmp.org/
http//www.childhelp.org/
Web site for video http//www.dcmp.org/FlashLandi
ng/SecureFlash.aspx?G31653p//
4
Why do WE have to deal with this?
  • Every State legally mandates that a wide range of
    professionals report suspected child abuse and
    neglect (Crosson-Tower, 2003).
  • State-by-state presentation of the law can be
    found at...

http//www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_polici
es/state/
5
Example Illinois
6
What is stopping us?
  • Barriers to reporting Child Abuse/Neglect (CA/N)
  • Belief that CA/N is not a common, or sufficiently
    important problem to warrant our attention.
    info
  • 2. Insufficient knowledge re....
  • ...the signs and symptoms of CA/N and
  • ...uncertainties re. CA/N reporting procedures
    info
  • 3. Perceived negative consequences of reporting
    CA/N, i.e., ...
  • ...make things worse for the child and
  • ...fear of disapproval from parents, parental
    denial, lack of administrative support and legal
    ramifications for false allegations. info

7
  • Barriers (cont.)
  • 4. Lessons learned from past reporting, e.g.,
    nothing happened.
  • 5. Negative attitude towards Child Protective
    Services. Info 4 5
  • 6. The lack of training, and ongoing support,
    concerning recognizing, reporting and responding
    to possible incidences of CA/N.
  • 7. The belief that someone else is dealing with
    this problem. info 6 7
  • Alvarex, Kenny, Donohue, Carpin, 2004 Bonner,
    Hensley, 1997 Kenny, 2001, 2004

8
Barriers (cont.)
  • In summary, we do not deal with CA/N because
    we...
  • ...think that it is not a significant problem
  • ...are uncertain how to recognize and report
  • ...are afraid of possible consequences
  • ...do not think anything positive will occur
  • ...think someone else is dealing with it
  • I would also suggest that we have not dealt with
    CA/N because it is such a controversial, and
    unpleasant topic to consider.

9
  • In reality, ...
  • ...EHDI gives us a unique opportunity to identify
    children who are d/hh and provide critical
    support to their families.
  • ...inherent within this opportunity is the need
    to effectively observe, understand and respond to
    the concerns and needs of families and their
    children.
  • ...I think, but do not yet know, that our most
    effective EHDI colleagues are those that not only
    know a LOT and communicate well, but they also
    have excellent observational skills.

10
  • In reality, ... (cont.)
  • ...given the increased risk for maltreatment
    experienced by children who are d/hh,
  • ...the legal requirements to be mandatory
    reporters, and
  • ...the impact of maltreatment upon health,
    learning, language and academic performance,
  • ...EHDI colleagues must be prepared to observe,
    understand, and respond to suspected cases of
    maltreatment.
  • This keynote address represents an initial
    challenge to meet this need.

11
One Answer
  • Observe, Understand, Respond to OUR Children
  • ...we can protect our children from the horrific
    realities of child abuse and neglect, or at the
    very least reduce the duration of such
    maltreatment, by
  • acknowledging our childrens increased risks for
    maltreatment
  • collaborating with colleagues to learn and share
    more information (deafed-childabuse-neglect-col.wi
    ki.educ.msu.edu/) and
  • urging EHDI to provided CA/N training and support
  • Observe, Understand, Respond to OUR Children
  • ...we can protect our children from the horrific
    realities of child abuse and neglect, or at the
    very least reduce the duration of such
    maltreatment, by

12
Where can you go for more information and help
when you need it?
  1. A Community of Learners has been established to
    address the issue of CA/N as experienced by
    children who are d/hh.

Hands Voices has been a partner in this effort
since 2007
http//deafed-childabuse-neglect-col.wiki.educ.msu
.edu/
13
2. Call and discuss your concerns with an
expert...
http//www.childhelp.org/hotline
14
3. Report your concerns...
http//www.childwelfare.gov/responding/reporting.c
fm
15
Thank You
  • I hope you will join the effort to Observe,
    Understand, and Respond to possible instances of
    CA/N experienced by our children

16
Contact Information
  • Harold A. Johnson/Professor
  • Deaf Education Teacher Preparation
  • 343A Erickson Hall
  • Michigan State University
  • East Lansing, MI 48824
  • 517 432-3926 office
  • 517 353-6393 fax
  • 35.8.171.220 video ph
  • Harold.a.johnson3 Skype
  • MSUE_H_Johnson iVisit
  • www.educ.msu.edu/deafed Web

17
What do we Know about Child Abuse and Neglect
(CA/N)?
18
Barrier 1 CA/N is not a big problem...
  • 2010 EHDI National Convention
  • 127 formal presentations
  • 1 concerning child abuse neglect (CA/N)
  • Child Maltreatment Report, 2007
  • In 2007, 1,760 children died of abuse, 73.5 of
    those children died by age 3 years.
  • Children in the age group of birth to one year
    have the highest rate of victimization
  • CA/N is experienced by 09 of children without
    disabilities vs. 31 of children with
    disabilities (Sullivan Knutson, 2000).

19
  • Consequences of Child Abuse Neglect (CA/N)
  • Melmed, 2004
  • Impact of CA/N greatest among the very young,
    i.e.,
  • Lower social competence
  • Show less empathy
  • Have difficulty recognizing the emotions of
    others
  • More likely to be insecurely attached to their
    parents
  • Demonstrate deficits in IQ scores, language
    abilities and school performance

20
  • Consequences of CA/N (cont.)
  • Child Welfare Information Gateway (2008)
  • Shaken baby syndrome...consequences may include
    bleeding in the eyes or brain, injury of the
    spinal cord and neck, rib/bone fracture, and
    death.
  • Depression and withdrawal symptoms were common
    among children as young as 3 who experienced
    emotional, physical, or environmental neglect.
    (Dubowitz, Papas, Black, Starr, 2002).

21
  • Consequences of CA/N (cont.)
  • Wang, Holton, 2007 (school aged children)
  • Poor physical health
  • chronic fatigue, altered immune function,
    hypertension, sexually transmitted diseases,
    obesity
  • Social difficulties
  • insecure attachments with caregivers, which may
    lead to difficulties in developing trusting
    relationships with peers and adults later in life
  • Cognitive dysfunctions
  • deficits in attention, abstract reasoning,
    language development, and problem-solving skills,
    which ultimately affect academic achievement and
    school performance
  • Behavioral problems
  • aggression, juvenile delinquency, adult
    criminality, abusive or violent behavior
    Back

22
Barrier 2...Insufficient knowledge...the signs
symptoms of CA/N.
  • Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2007b
  • Observe the child...
  • Shows sudden changes in behavior, or school
    performance
  • Has not received help for physical, or medical
    problems brought to the parents' attention
  • Is always watchful, as though preparing for
    something bad to happen
  • Is overly compliant, passive, or withdrawn
  • Comes to school or other activities early, stays
    late, and does not want to go home
  • See Appendix A for more information

23
Barrier 2... (cont.)
  • Observe the parent...
  • Shows little concern for the child
  • Denies the existence ofor blames the child
    forthe child's problems in school or at home
  • Asks teachers or other caregivers to use harsh
    physical discipline if the child misbehaves
  • Sees the child as entirely bad, worthless, or
    burdensome
  • Demands a level of physical or academic
    performance the child cannot achieve
  • Looks primarily to the child for care, attention,
    and satisfaction of emotional needs

24
Barrier 2... (cont.)
  • Observe Parent/Child Interactions
  • Rarely touch or look at each other
  • Consider their relationship entirely negative
  • State that they do not like each other
  • There is insufficient data concerning the
    patterns of parent/child interactions with a
    child who is d/hh to further inform our
    observations of possible maltreatment.
  • Back

25
Barrier 2... (cont.)
  • ...Insufficient knowledge re...the reporting
    procedures.
  • Most (58) instances of CA/N are reported by
    professionals, with teachers representing the
    single largest (17) category of professionals.
  • While protocols have been established to guide
    educators reporting of CA/N (Crosson-Tower,
    2003), most (87) educators submit reports to
    school officials vs. Child Protective Services
    (CPS), with less than 30 of suspected cases
    subsequently shared with CPS.

26
Barrier 3. Perceived negative consequences of
reporting
  • ...perception that reporting make things worse
    for the child
  • In the majority of cases, maltreatment does not
    increase as a result of reporting and in less
    than 3 of reported cases result in children
    being removed from the home (Alvarex, et al, 2004)

27
Barrier 3. (cont.)
  • ...fear of disapproval from parents, parental
    denial, lack of administrative support and legal
    ramifications for false allegations.
  • Most (76) educators do not think that their
    administrators will support them if they made a
    CA/N report (Kenny, 2004).
  • All states provide immunity to those
    professionals who report CA/N in good faith
    (Alvarex, et al, 2004)
  • What support and directions have you been
    provided in relation to reporting CA/N?
  • Back

28
Barriers 4 5
  • Barriers 4 5. Lessons learned from past
    reporting, e.g., nothing happened, and Negative
    attitude towards Child Protective Services (CPS).
  • Interactions between mandatory reporters and CPS
    are often difficult (Alvarex, et al, 2004)
  • CPS services are underfunded and overwhelmed,
    with most of the available funds being used to
    respond to, vs. prevent CA/N (Freundlich, 2007)

29
Barriers 4 5 (cont.)
  • Insufficient CPS data collection and training
    concerning the documentation, recognition and
    response to CA/N as experienced by children with
    disabilities (Alvarex et al, 2004
    Horner-Johnson, Drum, 2006 Kendall-Tackett,
    Lyon, Tallaferro, Little, 2005).
  • In relation to instances of sexual abuse,
    educational systems frequently disbelieve
    victims, and fail to effectively deal with
    perpetrators (Shakeshaft, 2004)
  • Back

30
Barriers 6 7
  • Barriers 6 7. The lack of training, and
    ongoing support, concerning recognizing,
    reporting and responding to possible incidences
    of CA/N The belief that someone else is dealing
    with this problem.
  • Who in Deaf Education is providing leadership,
    training, support and services re. CA/N?
  • Recent proposal to the Council on the Education
    of the Deaf (Appendix C)

31
Barriers 6 7 (cont.)
  • EHDI programs are characterized by three main
    components
  • Screening (the initial test of infants for
    hearing loss) 
  • Audiologic evaluation (to confirm hearing loss)
  • Early intervention (including medical treatment,
    early intervention services and family support)
    to enhance communication, thinking, and
    behavioral skills needed to achieve academic and
    social success.

http//www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/ehdi/default.htm
No mention of CA/N...why?
32
Barriers 6 7 (cont.)
  • Survey Results the literature base
  • Kenny (2001 2004) indicates...
  • ...that less than 30 of suspected CA/N cases
    known to school personnel are formally reported.
  • ...teachers need more training re. legal mandates
    of reporting, how to recognize and how to report
    suspected instances of CA/N.
  • ...training should be ongoing and include
    experientially exercises and hypothetical
    situations.
  • ...the better the CA/N training, the more
    cognizant teachers became of the difficulty in
    recognizing the signs and systems of CA/N

33
Barriers 6 7 (cont.)
  • Implications
  • Children who are d/hh are three times more likely
    to experience CA/N than their hearing peers
  • Professionals who work with children who are d/hh
    are not well prepared to recognize, report, or
    respond to possible instances of CA/N
  • With a few notable exceptions, CA/N has largely
    been ignored by the major organizations within
    the field of Deaf Education.
  • Ignoring CA/N increase the length and impact of
    the abuse.

Back
34
Reference List
35
  • Alvarex, K.M., Kenny, M.C., Donohue, B.,
    Carpin, K. M. (2004). Why are professionals
    failing to initiate mandated reports of child
    maltreatment, and are there any empirically based
    training programs to assist professionals in the
    reporting process? Aggression and Violent
    Behavior, 9, 563-578.
  • Bonner, B.L. Hensley, L.D. (1997). State
    efforts to identify maltreated children with
    disabilities A follow-up study. Child
    Maltreatment, 2(1), 52-60.
  • CEASD (2002). Safe schools for all deaf hard
    of hearing children. Retrieved on 2/15/2010
    from http//www.ceasd.org/acrobat/CEASD_safe_scho
    ols.pdf
  • Child Welfare Information Gateway (2008).
    Long-term consequences of child abuse and
    neglect. Retrieved on February 23, 2010 from
    http//www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/long_t
    erm_consequences.cfm
  • Child Maltreatment Report (2007). Retrieved on
    6/7/09 from http//www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pu
    bs/cm07/index.htm
  • Child Welfare Information Gateway (2007a).
    Definitions of child abuse and neglect.
    Retrieved on 1/25/2010 from http//www.childwelfa
    re.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/statutes/define.cf
    m
  • Child Welfare Information Gateway (2007b).
    Recognizing child abuse and neglect Signs and
    Symptoms. Retrieved on 1/25/2010 from
    http//www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/signs.
    cfm

36
  • Child Welfare Information Gateway (2006).
    Long-term consequences of child abuse and
    neglect fact sheet. Retrieved on 2/3/2008 from
    http//www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/long_
    term_consequences.cfm
  • Crosson-Tower, Cynthia (2003). The Role of
    Educators in Preventing and Responding to Child
    Abuse and Neglect. Office on Child Abuse and
    Neglect., Caliber Associates, Retrieved on
    5/13/2009 from http//www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/us
    ermanuals/educator/index.cfm
  • DePanfilis, D. (2006). Child neglect A guide
    for prevention, assessment, and intervention.
    Retrieved on February 8, 2008 from
    http//www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/negle
    ct/index.cfm
  • Freundlich, M. (2007). Time for reform
    Investing in prevention Keeping children save at
    home. Retrieved from http//www.preventchildabus
    e.org/about_us/media_releases/pew_kaw_prevention_r
    eport_final.pdf
  • Horner-Johnson, W., Drum, C.E. (2006).
    Prevalence of maltreatment of people with
    intellectual disabilities A review of the
    recently published research. Mental Retardation
    and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews,
    12(1), 57-69.
  • Kendall-Tackett, K., Lyon, T., Tallaferro, G.,
    Little, L. (2005). Why child maltreatment
    researchers should include childrens disability
    status in their maltreatment studies. Child
    Abuse Neglect, 29(2), 147-151.

37
  • Kenny, M. C. (2001). Child abuse reporting
    Teachers perceived deterrents. Child Abuse
    Neglect, 25, 81-92.
  • Kenny, M. (2004). Teachers attitudes toward and
    knowledge of child maltreatment. Child Abuse
    Neglect, 28, 1311-1319.
  • Melmed, M.E. (2004). Statement of Matthew E.
    Melmed executive director zero to three National
    center for infants, toddlers and families Before
    the house committee on ways and means
    subcommittee on human resources. Retriieved
    February 23, 2010 from http//www.zerotothree.org/
    site/DocServer/cw_testimony_04_final.pdf?docID128
    4
  • NAD (2008). Position statement on mental health
    services for deaf children. Retrieved February
    15, 2008 from http//www.nad.org/issues/health-car
    e/mental-health-services/for-deaf-children

38
  • Shakeshaft, Charol (2004). Educator Sexual
    Misconduct A synthesis of existing literature.
    U.S. Dept of Education (purchase order
    ED-02-PO-3281) Policy and Program Studies
    Service. Retrieved January 11, 2009 from
    http//www.ed.gov/rschstat/research/pubs/misconduc
    treview/report.pdf
  • Sullivan, P.M., Knutson, J.F. (2000).
    Maltreatment and disabilities A population-based
    epidemiological study. Child Abuse Neglect,
    24(10), 1257-1273.
  • Wang, C-T., Holton, J. (2007). Total estimated
    cost of child abuse and neglect in the United
    States. Retrieved on 2/3/2008 from
    http//www.preventchildabuse.org/about_us/media_re
    leases/pcaa_pew_economic_impact_study_final.pdf
  • Willis, Richard G., Vernon, McCay (2002).
    Residential psychiatric treatment of emotionally
    disturbed deaf youth. American Annals of the
    Deaf, 147(1), pp 31-37.

39
Bibliography
40
  • Do? Tell! Kids Against Child Abuse DVD (n.d.).
    Information presented in ASL, English, Spanish.
    Retrieved on February 8, 2008 from
    http//www.kidsagainstchildabuse.org/
  • Durity, Richard Oxman, Amy (2006). Addressing
    the Trauma Treatment Needs of Children Who Are
    Deaf or Hard of Hearing and the Hearing Children
    of Deaf Parents. Retrieved January 11, 2009,
    from http//www.nctsnet.org/nctsn_assets/pdfs/edu_
    materials/Trauma_Deaf_Hard-of-Hearing_Children.pdf
  • Horner-Johnson, W., Drum, C.E. (2006).
    Prevalence of maltreatment of people with
    intellectual disabilities A review of the
    recently published research. Mental Retardation
    and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews,
    12(1), 57-69.
  • Obinna, Jennifer, Krueger, Sarah, Osterbaan,
    Constance, Sadusky, Jane M, DeVore, Wendy
    (2005). Understanding the Needs of the Victims
    of Sexual Assault in the Deaf Community A Needs
    Assessment and Audit. Retrieved January 11, 2009
    from http//www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/212
    867.pdf

41
  • Sullivan, Patricia M., Vernon, McCay, Scanlan,
    John, M. (1987). Sexual abuse of deaf youth.
    American Annals of the Deaf, 32(4), 256-262

42
Appendixes
  • Appendix A Definitions of CA/H
  • Appendix B Recognizing Child Abuse and
    Neglect Signs and Symptoms
  • Appendix C Collaboration Proposal

43
Appendix A Definitions of CA/N
  • Child Welfare Information Gateway (2007a).
    Definitions of child abuse and neglect.
    Retrieved on 1/25/2010 from http//www.childwelfa
    re.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/statutes/define.cf
    m

44
Definitions
  • Definitions (Child Welfare Information Gateway,
    2007)
  • Broad Definitions
  • Child abuse and neglect are defined by Federal
    and State laws. The Child Abuse Prevention and
    Treatment Act (CAPTA) is the Federal legislation
    that provides minimum standards that States must
    incorporate in their statutory definitions of
    child abuse and neglect. The CAPTA definition of
    "child abuse and neglect" refers to
  • "Any recent act or failure to act on the part of
    a parent or caretaker, which results in death,
    serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse,
    or exploitation, or an act or failure to act
    which presents an imminent risk of serious harm"
  • Note for state specific definitions, go to
    http//www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_polici
    es/state/

45
Definitions...(cont.)
  • Specific Definitions
  • Physical Abuse
  • Physical abuse is generally defined as "any
    non-accidental physical injury to the child" and
    can include striking, kicking, burning, or biting
    the child, or any action that results in a
    physical impairment of the child.
  • Neglect
  • Neglect is frequently defined in terms of
    deprivation of adequate food, clothing, shelter,
    medical care, or supervision.
  • Sexual Abuse/Exploitation
  • "The employment, use, persuasion, inducement,
    enticement, or coercion of any child to engage
    in, or assist any other person to engage in, any
    sexually explicit conduct or simulation of such
    conduct for the purpose of producing a visual
    depiction of such conduct or
  • The rape, and in cases of caretaker or
    interfamilial relationships, statutory rape,
    molestation, prostitution, or other form of
    sexual exploitation of children, or incest with
    children"

46
Definitions...(cont.)
  • Emotional Abuse
  • All States and territories except Georgia and
    Washington include emotional maltreatment as part
    of their definitions of abuse or neglect.
  • Parental Substance Abuse
  • Parental substance abuse is an element of the
    definition of child abuse or neglect in some
    States. Circumstances that are considered abuse
    or neglect in some States include
  • Prenatal exposure of a child to harm due to the
    mother's use of an illegal drug or other
    substance
  • Manufacture of a controlled substance in the
    presence of a child or on the premises occupied
    by a child
  • Allowing a child to be present where the
    chemicals or equipment for the manufacture of
    controlled substances are used or stored
  • Selling, distributing, or giving drugs or alcohol
    to a child
  • Use of a controlled substance by a caregiver that
    impairs the caregiver's ability to adequately
    care for the child
  • Abandonment
  • ... it is considered abandonment of the child
    when the parent's identity or whereabouts are
    unknown, the child has been left by the parent in
    circumstances in which the child suffers serious
    harm, or the parent has failed to maintain
    contact with the child or to provide reasonable
    support for a specified period of time.

47
Appendix B Recognizing Child Abuse and Neglect
Signs and Symptoms
  • Child Welfare Information Gateway (2007b).
    Recognizing child abuse and neglect Signs and
    Symptoms. Retrieved on 1/25/2010 from
    http//www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/signs.
    cfm

48
Signs Symptoms
  • Signs of Physical Abuse
  • Consider the possibility of physical abuse when
    the child
  • Has unexplained burns, bites, bruises, broken
    bones, or black eyes
  • Has fading bruises or other marks noticeable
    after an absence from school
  • Seems frightened of the parents and protests or
    cries when it is time to go home
  • Shrinks at the approach of adults
  • Reports injury by a parent or another adult
    caregiver
  • Consider the possibility of physical abuse when
    the parent or other adult caregiver
  • Offers conflicting, unconvincing, or no
    explanation for the child's injury
  • Describes the child as "evil," or in some other
    very negative way
  • Uses harsh physical discipline with the child
  • Has a history of abuse as a child

49
Signs...(cont.)
  • Signs of Neglect
  • Consider the possibility of neglect when the
    child
  • Is frequently absent from school
  • Begs or steals food or money
  • Lacks needed medical or dental care,
    immunizations, or glasses
  • Is consistently dirty and has severe body odor
  • Lacks sufficient clothing for the weather
  • Abuses alcohol or other drugs
  • States that there is no one at home to provide
    care
  • Consider the possibility of neglect when the
    parent or other adult caregiver
  • Appears to be indifferent to the child
  • Seems apathetic or depressed
  • Behaves irrationally or in a bizarre manner
  • Is abusing alcohol or other drugs

50
Signs...(cont.)
  • Signs of Sexual Abuse
  • Consider the possibility of sexual abuse when the
    child
  • Has difficulty walking or sitting
  • Suddenly refuses to change for gym or to
    participate in physical activities
  • Reports nightmares or bedwetting
  • Experiences a sudden change in appetite
  • Demonstrates bizarre, sophisticated, or unusual
    sexual knowledge or behavior
  • Becomes pregnant or contracts a venereal disease,
    particularly if under age 14
  • Runs away
  • Reports sexual abuse by a parent or another adult
    caregiver
  • Consider the possibility of sexual abuse when the
    parent or other adult caregiver
  • Is unduly protective of the child or severely
    limits the child's contact with other children,
    especially of the opposite sex
  • Is secretive and isolated
  • Is jealous or controlling with family members

51
Signs...(cont.)
  • Signs of Emotional Maltreatment
  • Consider the possibility of emotional
    maltreatment when the child
  • Shows extremes in behavior, such as overly
    compliant or demanding behavior, extreme
    passivity, or aggression
  • Is either inappropriately adult (parenting other
    children, for example) or inappropriately
    infantile (frequently rocking or head-banging,
    for example)
  • Is delayed in physical or emotional development
  • Has attempted suicide
  • Reports a lack of attachment to the parent
  • Consider the possibility of emotional
    maltreatment when the parent or other adult
    caregiver
  • Constantly blames, belittles, or berates the
    child
  • Is unconcerned about the child and refuses to
    consider offers of help for the child's problems
  • Overtly rejects the child

52
Appendix C Collaboration Proposal
53
  • CED Board Member Organizations
  • Proposal O.U.R. Children
  • 2/17/2001
  • Harold Johnson/Michigan State University
  • Problem
  • Children with disabilities are more than three
    times more likely to experience child abuse and
    neglect (CA/N) than their nondisabled peers,
    i.e., 31 vs. 11. While all educators are
    legally mandated to report suspected instances of
    CA/N, they are not prepared to meet this
    obligation.

54
  • Background
  • During the course of the past three years, Harold
    Johnson, in collaboration with key individuals
    from the Hands Voices organization, have
    researched the topic of CA/N as experienced by
    children who are deaf/hard of hearing (d/hh). A
    summary of the resulting knowledge base can be
    found at http//deafed-childabuse-neglect-col.w
    iki.educ.msu.edu/
  • Note the first time that you go to this web
    site, you will need to establish a logon and
    password.

55
  • Proposal
  • CED Board agree to include the topic of CA/N, as
    experienced by children who are d/hh, as an
    agenda item, for one Board meeting a year, for
    the next three years.
  • Each CED member organizations task one individual
    to work with Harold Johnson for the next three
    years concerning the topic of CA/N, as
    experienced by children who are d/hh.

56
  • Proposal (cont.)
  • Harold Johnson, in collaboration Hands Voices
    and designated individuals from CED member
    organization will
  • Year 1 document how each CED member organization
    has/is/plans to address CA/N in relation to
    informing parents and preparing professionals,
    plus, resulting lessons learned, questions,
    concerns and suggestions. Synthesis of the
    resulting information to be presented at a CED
    Board meeting.
  • Year 2 design, implement, and evaluate a pilot
    study to inform parents of children who are d/hh
    and prepare the professionals who work with them
    how to Observe, Understand, and Respond to
    possible incidences of CA/N as experienced by
    children who are d/hh. Synthesis of the
    resulting information to be presented at a CED
    Board meeting.

57
  • Proposal (cont.)
  • Harold Johnson, ...will
  • Year 3 offer CED member organizations a program
    to effectively and efficiently inform parents of
    children who are d/hh, and prepare the
    professionals who work with them, how to Observe,
    Understand, and Respond to possible incidences of
    CA/N as experienced by children who are d/hh.
    Synthesis of the resulting information to be
    presented at a CED Board meeting.

58
  • Outcomes
  • The following outcomes are projected to occur if
    CED and its member organization accept this
    proposal
  • CED visibility will be increased as it works to
    proactively address a horrific problem that has
    been largely ignored by the field of Deaf
    Education.
  • CED member organizations will be
  • recognized for the CA/N related work they have
    already carried out
  • assisted in the design, piloting, and possible
    implementation of programs to inform, and when
    appropriate, prepare their members to Observe,
    Understand, and Respond to possible incidences of
    CA/N as experienced by children who are d/hh and
  • CED, its member organizations and Hands Voices
    will be both prepared and positioned to seek
    additional Federal/foundation funds to support
    collaboratively efforts to reduce the incidence,
    duration, and impact of CA/N as experienced by
    children who are d/hh.
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