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Jefferson Davis Vs. Lincoln

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Jefferson Davis Vs. Lincoln Jefferson Davis Abraham Lincoln Born in Todd Co. Kentucky; father moves family to Mississippi Loses son Joseph Evan during the war ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Jefferson Davis Vs. Lincoln


1
Jefferson Davis Vs. Lincoln
2
Jefferson Davis Abraham Lincoln
  • Born in Todd Co. Kentucky father moves family to
    Mississippi
  • Loses son Joseph Evan during the war
  • West Point Graduate
  • Serves at end of Black Hawk War (capture of Chief
    Black Hawk) serves in Mexican War-Hero of the
    Battle of Buena Vista
  • Served in Congress
  • Secretary of War under Franklin Pierce-camels,
    southern r-road route
  • Considered one of the leading spokesmen of the
    South by the mid-1850s
  • Born in Kentucky less than 50 miles from Davis,
    family moves north to Illinois
  • Loses son Tad during the war
  • Very little military experience
  • Served only three months in the Black Hawk War
  • Failed businessman (general store)
  • Served several terms in the Illinois state
    legislature, U.S. Senate-relatively
    undistinguished

3
Patriot Act-National Security Versus Civil Rights
  • Ability to search library/video rental records to
    see what books that you have checked out without
    permission from a federal judge
  • Cameras at stop signs, lights
  • Cell phone/internet activity can be monitored
    without approval from a Federal Judge
  • Detainment without Habeas Corpus (Guantanamo Bay)
  • Military tribunals for combatants and
    non-combatants
  • Investigations of groups opposed to Presidential
    policies
  • How many approve of the Patriot Act? Why or Why
    not?

4
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5
Lincoln and Civil Rights
  • The Law
  • Writ of Habeas Corpus-literally you have the
    body judicial mandate ordering that a prisoner
    be brought to court to see whether or not he has
    been unlawfully detained warrant from a
    magistrate stating why an individual is going to
    be arrested
  • What Lincoln did?
  • Suspends Habeas Corpus in Maryland to ensure that
    this state stayed in the Union-Plug Uglies
  • Ex Parte Merryman-1861
  • Chief Justice is Taney
  • Merryman accused of treason and military refuses
    to turn him over to the courts
  • Taney Court ruling 1) Only Congress can suspend
    habeas corpus 2) military officers have no right
    to arrest citizens not involved in the military
    for crimes against the state
  • Lincoln refuses to have Merryman returned to
    courts
  • Applied against political opponents-Copperheads
    (Democrats who sympathized with the
    South)-Vallandingham case in Wisconsin

6
Lincoln and the Constitution
  • Constitution-Art. 4, Sec. 3-New States may be
    admitted by the Congress into this Unionbut no
    new state shall be formed or erected within the
    jurisdiction of any other statedwithout the
    consent of the legislatures of the states
    concerned as well as of the Congress

7
West Virginia
                                                                      
  • http//www.vahistory.org/reconfiguring/1860notif.h
    tml

8
West Virginia (somebody actually wanted this area)
  • With Virginias decision to secede from the
    Union, representatives meet in Wheeling to form a
    new Virginia government
  • Vote for creation of new state had less than half
    of eligible voters cast their votes
  • Admitted into the Union in 1863 under the
    condition that their Constitution provides for
    the abolition of slavery Lincoln approves

9
Lincoln and Slavery
  • To William H. Seward February 1, 1861 I say now,
    however, as I have all the while said, that on
    the territorial question -- that is, the question
    of extending slavery under the national auspices,
    -- I am inflexible. I am for no compromise which
    assists or permits the extension of the
    institution on soil owned by the nation. And any
    trick by which the nation is to acquire
    territory, and then allow some local authority to
    spread slavery over it, is as obnoxious as any
    other.

10
Lincolns 1st Inaugural Address
  • I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to
    interfere with the institution of slavery in the
    States where it exists. I believe I have no
    lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination
    to do so

11
Frederick Douglas on Lincoln
  • He was preeminently the white mans president,
    entirely devoted to the welfare of white men. He
    was ready and willing at any time during the
    first years of his administration to deny,
    postpone, and sacrifice the rights of humanity in
    the colored people to promote the welfare of the
    white people of this countryHe came into the
    presidential chair upon one principle alone,
    namely, opposition to the extension of slavery

12
The Emancipation Proclamation
  • Frees no slaves (Has to control the territory of
    the south in order to implement)
  • Appeases Radical Republicans
  • Lessens chance of foreign involvement
  • Issued at this point because he has the first
    battle that he can claim to be the victor

13
African-Americans in the Army
  • Lincoln slow to admit them in the army
  • Afraid to lose support of the border states
  • At first served only in non-combat positions
  • First used by Benjamin Butler-contraband
  • blacks would serve only under white officers
  • Most famous unit-54th Mass. (Glory)
  • White soldiers-13 dollars per month, blacks-10
    dollars
  • Not until 1865 does Lincoln institute a policy of
    equal pay
  • No African-American soldiers receive C-M-H until
    1900

14
Lincolns Legacy
  • Given his violation of civil rights,his lack of
    taking an ardent stand on slavery, inability to
    act quickly on equal rights for African-American
    soldiers-is he deserving of the reputation that
    historians have given him?

15
Lincoln and His Generals
  • Army of the Potomac-
  • 1861-1st Bull Run
  • 1862- 7 Days
  • 1862- 2nd Bull Run
  • 1862- Antietam
  • 1862- Fredericksburg
  • 1863-Chancellorsville
  • 1863-Gettysburg
  • Overland Campaign-1864
  • Commanding officer
  • McDowell
  • McClellan
  • Pope
  • McClellan
  • Burnside
  • Hooker
  • Meade
  • Grant

16
Lincoln and his Generals
  • Nov. 13, 1861-the president, governor Seward, and
    I went over to McClellans house tonight. the
    servant said the general would soon return. We
    waited an hour when General McClellan came in and
    went upstairs. We waited another half an hour
    when the answer came that the general had gone to
    bed

17
Lincoln and his Generals
  • McClellan to Lincoln after 7 Days-
  • I have seen too many dead and wounded comrades
    to feel otherwise than that the government has
    not sustained this army. If you do not do so now
    then the game is lost.
  • If I save the army now then I tell you plainly
    that I owe no thanks to youyou have done your
    best to sacrifice this army

18
Lincoln and his generals
  • Anaconda Plan-control the Mississippi and
    blockade the coast of the Confederacy-devised by
    Gen. Winfield Scott
  • Will eventually strangle the Confederacy into
    submission
  • Lincoln realizes that it will take too long to
    take effect
  • However, the plan does make him understand the
    importance of economic warfare

19
Monitor-A cheesebox on a raft
20
Monitor V. Merrimack
  • Merrimack first ironclad built by the Confederacy
  • Destroys several Union ships in the Hampton Roads
    area that were part of the blockade
  • Monitor-build by a Swede
  • Monitor and Merrimack fight to a draw, but saves
    the Union blockade

21
Lincoln and Fort Sumter

                                                                              
22
Lincoln and Fort Sumter
  • 1861-Fort Sumter is in the Middle of Charleston
    Harbor, S.C.
  • Union troops move to fort to avoid land fort that
    is vulnerable to attack
  • Waiting on supplies when Confederates under
    Beauregard fire on the fort
  • Lincoln now has stronger moral ground to issue
    call for troops Confederates fired first

23
Davis and his Generals A.S. Johnston, R.E. Lee,
P.G.T. Beauregard, J. Johnston
24
Ranking of Generals
  • Lt. General-Head of a corps (2-3 divisions)
  • Major General-Head of a Division (2-3 brigades)
  • Brigadier General-Head of a Brigade (4-6
    regiments)
  • Colonel or Lieutenant Colonel-head of a regiment
    (1,000 men)

25
Problems with Joseph Johnston
  • Initial appointments
  • Dispute over failure to take D.C. after 1st Bull
    Run
  • Fair Oaks/7 Pines 1862- The shot that wounded me
    was the best shot fired for the Confederacy for I
    did not have the trust of the government, but Lee
    did
  • Johnston fails to relieve Vicksburg (1863)
  • Johnston removed from Atlanta, replaced by John
    Bell Hood (1864)
  • Election of 1864-McClellan V. Lincoln

26
Davis and the governors
  • Joseph Brown of Georgia
  • Zebulon Vance of North Carolina
  • Limited supplies of the Confederacy?
  • Poor Starving Confederates?
  • Negro enlistment Act approved March 13th, 1865
  • Here Lies the Confederacy, Died of a Theory

27
Davis and his subordinates
  • Only Judah Benjamin remains in his cabinet for
    the duration of the war
  • Every other cabinet position has to be filled at
    least twice
  • Vice President Alexander Hamilton Stephens
    refuses to work with Davis, leaves Richmond after
    the first year of the war and returns to Georgia
    doing very little work
  • Davis Considered to be a micromanager, unwilling
    to delegate authority

28
Problems that Davis faced
  • Illnesses
  • Malarial fevers
  • Facial nueralgia
  • Herpes in his eye
  • Condition worsened by Mercury treatments
  • Dyspepsia
  • Back problems
  • Insomniac

29
Bad Judgment
                                                          

30
Spying
  • Crazy Bet-Elizabeth Van Lew
  • Big Belly
  • Siren of the Shenandoah

31
Military Campaigns
  • 1st Bull Run-1861
  • Hammer and Anvil
  • Ends the thought that the war would be short
  • Confederate victory

32
Antietam
  • Confederate Battle Plans are discovered by Union
    soldiers
  • Mclellan-I now have information within my
    possession that if I cant whip Bobby Lee then I
    will retire
  • Lee-38,000 Men Mclellan-70,000 men

33
Battle of Antietam
  • Lee hopes to relieve Virginia of constant warfare
  • Armies live off the north
  • Hopes to draw in foreign powers

34
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35
Vicksburg
36
Gettysburg
  • Why invade the North?
  • Allow his army to feed off of the Northern
    countryside
  • Wants to deliver a knockout punch (Lee follows
    Napoleonic tactics and a belief in total victory)

37
Why does the Battle occur at Gettysburg?
  • Lees army is divided into three wings
  • Spy informs Lee that the Union army is on the
    march
  • Gettysburg is the hub of several roads that lead
    to Gettysburg (the town itself was not of
    importance)

38
It took a great many mistakes to lose this
battle
  • What mistakes does the Confederacy make leading
    up through the first day of fighting?
  • Heth (Confed) leads attack against Lees orders
    belieiving that he is confronting only a militia
    unit
  • JEB Stuart is not there to inform Lee of the
    Union army advancement
  • Ewell does not take the hills around Gettysburg

39
It took a Great many mistakes to lose this
Battle
  • The confederate Battle Plan on the second
    day-what does Longstreet want to do? What does
    Lee do?
  • Longstreet is slow to attack attack on Union
    right does not occur at same time as attack on
    Little Round Top

40
Grant takes Command
  • War of attrition
  • Shermans March to the Sea (total warfare)
  • Siege of Petersburg
  • Appomattox Court House

41
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