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Child wellbeing Indicators for Social Development


with neither a TV nor a radio. Denominator = Total children. 2: The Employment Domain ... Living in a shack; With no pit latrine with ventilation or flush toilet; ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Child wellbeing Indicators for Social Development

Child wellbeing Indicators for Social Development
  • Andy Dawes

Child Youth, Family Social Development research
programme Human Sciences Research Council Cape
Town, South Africa ( Presented to the Department of
Health Social Development Limpopo 21 February
  • Who are we? The HSRC
  • ME quick review
  • Indicators
  • A rights-based approach to monitoring child
  • Some examples

Who are we?
  • Status Research Council established by Act of
    Parliament 1968 / 2007.
  • Structure 4 National Research Programmes (plus
    centres) offices in 3 Regions
  • Mandate
  • to undertake research in the human and social
  • to provide advice on social science research and
    the utilization of research to the benefit of the
  • to co-operate with national and international
    research counterparts as well as users of
  • to publish and disseminate research findings.

ME Review Programme Evaluation
  • The systematic collection of information about
    the activities, characteristics, and outcomes of
    programs in order to
  • evaluate the programmes effectiveness in
    achieving intended outcomes and goals.
  • improve effectiveness, and/or inform decisions
    about future programming.
  • Add to the data on what works (is effective) in a
    particular field.

Main Purposes of M E (1)
  • Internal
  • To assist programme staff to do a better job.
  • M E is a fundamental tool to improve practices
    and strengthen your programme.
  • M E helps you find out what works for which
    participants at what cost.
  • M E is therefore an ethical practice.

Main Purposes of M E (2)
  • External
  • To advance good practice through gathering
    evidence as to what works and what does not.
  • Allows us to ensure that what we only go to scale
    with what works.
  • To improve the state of knowledge on how to
    improve child / family / community outcomes.
  • Enables us to be accountable for what we do.

ME Review Monitoring
  • Refers to the systematic process of tracking all
    relevant aspects of an intervention. Used in
    process evaluation.
  • In order to enable one to judge both the quality
    of programme delivery (programme inputs) and the
    outcomes (effectiveness) we require
  • An effective information system for recording the
    goals, resources, inputs, activities outcomes
    of the programme.
  • The development of good indicators and simple
    measures of delivery (inputs integrity etc),
    outcomes and if possible, impacts.

Why have indicators?
  • The primary purposes of indicators are
  • To provide decision-makers with information to
    influence policy development, programme
    implementation, resource allocation and services
  • To raise public awareness about peoples needs
    and circumstances
  • To facilitate the monitoring and evaluation of
    social policies, services and programmes.

What are indicators?
  • Indicators provide information. Indicators point
    to something e.g. Childrens risk of injury.
  • Indicators are normally (but not always)
  • When measured across time, they point to changes
    (or consistencies) in the situation.
  • Indicators are derived from one or more measures.
  • These must be a reliable, and an accurate gauge
    of the specific phenomenon (child status service
    coverage etc).
  • Indicators are like the instruments on the

Child Indicators
  • Tell us how well our children are doing, whether
    our services are good enough and whether there
    are enough of them (coverage)
  • Assist us to develop and target policy and target
    interventions for children
  • Assist us to monitor whether our interventions
    make a difference to children
  • Tell us whether or not we are wasting our limited
  • Help us advocate for children and show why it is
    good to invest in children.

A rights-Based Approach to monitoring Child
  • Draws on local and international Child Rights
  • Specifies the rights assess delivery on rights
    assess child outcomes (monitor duty bearers as
    well as children)
  • Incorporates the childs present while using a
    developmental perspective (wellbeing well
  • Assesses both positive and negative outcomes for
  • Where possible uses public administrative data
    and surveys
  • Generates child-centered statistics
  • Documents the relationship between the quality of
    childrens environments and child outcomes, and
  • Considers the timing of measurement the cost of
    data collection and the availability of good
  • http//

What is a Child-centered Statistic?
  • It provides a view of the situation from the
    childs perspective!
  • Lets look at two ways of describing households
  • Adult-centered The proportion of workless
    households in the district.
  • Child-centered The proportion of children living
    in workless households in the district!

How it works The Rights Component
  • Identify the rights held by children (e.g. The
    2006 Childrens Act)
  • Measure achievement of the rights (e.g. to
    survival, development, protection) by monitoring
    the status of children.
  • Identify who is responsible for ensuring the
    delivery of rights (e.g. access to school
    health quality of services quality of housing
    neighbourhoods) so as to monitor duty bearer
    performance in regard to delivery.

How it works The Well-being component
  • The Rights approach is combined with a Well-being
    approach which
  • Emphasises the whole child
  • Covers a range of domains of functioning (e.g.
    Health education protection)
  • Is informed by evidence on factors that influence
    the course of child development and can be
    addressed in policy and intervention.

What is child well-being?
  • 5 broad outcome areas really matter to childrens
  • Economic well being having sufficient income and
    material comfort to be able to take advantage of
  • Being healthy enjoying good physical and mental
    health and living a healthy lifestyle
  • Staying safe being protected from harm and
    neglect and growing up able to look after
  • Enjoying and achieving getting the most out of
    life and developing broad skills for adulthood
  • Making a positive contribution developing the
    skills and attitudes to contribute to the society
    in which they live

Rights-based Child Wellbeing Monitoring
How does our model apply to policy and
interventions? Five indicator Types
  • Child status Who are the vulnerable children you
    want to assist (and from which population)? What
    outcomes do you want to promote your indicators
    of wellbeing / realisation of rights.
  • Home Contexts What is their living context? Do
    you intervene a this level? If so what changes do
    you want?
  • Surrounding environment What community level
    risks exist? What inputs do you want to see?
  • Access to services What of children have
    access to grants health services ECD etc?
  • Service quality. And what is the quality of the
    service rendered?

Indicators developed for
  • Childrens Contexts The home and neighbourhood
  • Child Poverty (mapped at small area level)
  • Child Survival and Health (including HIV AIDS)
  • Education Development (including ECD
  • Child Protection (maltreatment juvenile justice
    street children trafficking commercial sexual
  • OutputTechnical volume plus user friendly Core

  • Child Protection (CP)
  • What is it you want to measure (the issue of
  • Where is the data?
  • Can one get it regularly?
  • Is the quality OK?

Child Abuse data The Tip of the Iceberg
Reported Cases
Unsubstantiated Reports
Substantiated Investigations Child Court
Unreported Cases
Unknown Cases
Thanks to Peter Dudding Child Welfare Canada for
the graphic
Child Protection (CP) indicators
  • Indicator Child Maltreatment Incidence Rate
  • Measure
  • Denominator The proportion of children in a
    specific area (province or admin. District)
    referred to a Childrens Court Inquiry in a
    specific year.
  • Numerator Child population of the province or
  • Rate Report per 1000 of the child population
    within each DoJ district and province.
  • Source Department of Justice.
  • Period Annual Statistics

CCI Data Incidence of Probable Maltreatment per
1000 children by selected districts
Child Protection (CP) indicators
  • Data Quality is really important!!!!!
  • Is SAPS data useful for telling you whether or
    not the risk of sexual assault on children is
    going up or down?
  • In a Western Cape study we found that for SAPS
    crime data, the age of the rape victim was
    unknown in
  • 60 of cases for 2003
  • 82 of cases 2004 ..!

Next Step Admin Data Local Geography Using
court maltreatment data to plan Protective
Services for children
Risk Areas
Risk Areas
Areas where young children are at most at risk
Mapping and Tracking Child Poverty The South
African Index of Multiple Deprivation 2001
(SAIMDC) Team Oxford Noble, Wright, Barnes
HSRC/UCT Dawes http//
A Model of Child Poverty
Key Features of the Multi-dimensional Approach to
Child Poverty
  • A multidimensional absolute poverty core (the
  • A multidimensional relative poverty component
    that addresses the childs capacity to
    participate in society (poverty relative to
    others in society)
  • Appropriate domains of deprivation (risks to
  • Take into account access to quality services
  • Be child-centred the child is the unit of
    analysis the poverty that is measured must be
    relevant to the life of the child, and children
    should be involved in defining poverty
  • Be adjusted for different age groups of children.

The SAIMDC-2001Domains
  • Income and Material deprivation
  • Employment deprivation
  • Education deprivation
  • Adequate Care Deprivation
  • Living Environment deprivation

1 The Income/Material Deprivation Domain
  • This domain aims to capture the proportions of
    children experiencing income/material deprivation
    in an area.
  • Numerator Number of children living in
    households where
  • household equivalent income below 40 of the
    national mean (ltR850 per month)
  • without a refrigerator
  • with neither a TV nor a radio.
  • Denominator Total children

2 The Employment Domain
  • This domain measures the proportion of children
    living in workless households in an area
  • Numerator Number of children living in
    households where no adults aged 18 or over are in
  • Denominator Total children

3 The Education Domain
  • The purpose of the domain is to capture the
    extent of childrens deprivation in education in
    an area
  • Numerator
  • Number of children (aged 9-15 inclusive) who are
    in the wrong grade for their age, or
  • Number of children (aged 7-15 inclusive) who are
    not in school.
  • Denominator Number of children of the relevant
    age bands.

4 The Living Environment Domain
  • The purpose of this domain is to identify
    children in poor quality living environments.
  • Numerator Number of children living in
  • With no piped water inside their dwelling or in
    their yard
  • With no use of electricity for lighting
  • Living in a shack
  • With no pit latrine with ventilation or flush
  • With no access to a telephone
  • That are crowded (Canadian National Occupancy
  • Denominator Total children

5 Adequate Care Domain
  • The purpose of the domain is to capture
    children who lack adequate care in an area
  • Numerator
  • Number of children (aged 0-17 inclusive) whose
    mother and father are no longer alive or not
    living in the household
  • Number of children (aged 0-17 inclusive) living
    in a child-headed household (HH with 0 gt 18yrs).
  • Denominator Number of children

(No Transcript)
Evaluating the outcomes and impact of
interventions to improve early childhood health
and psychological development
Evidence Investing in ECD promotes well-being
and well-becoming
Optimal Investment Levels
Post School
Source Heckman Carneiro Human Social Policy,
2003, Voices for America and the Child and Family
Policy Center. Early Learning Left out An
Examination of Public Investment in Education and
Development by Child Age, 2004
TheChallenge! E.G Improving ECD

Programme Goals 1 More Jobs for ECD 2 Better
child Outcomes
Programme Outcomes A Centres
Programme Activities
Desired Programme Outcomes Improved Child
  • A
  • Facility Examples
  • Education training for various job levels
  • Strengthening service integration

  • Examples
  • Increased Access to integrated quality ECD
  • More ECD Jobs

Possible Target Groups / Sites A ECD Centre
Staff B Family programme staff
  • Examples
  • Improved
  • Nutritional Status
  • Language Dev.
  • Cognitive Dev.
  • Early Literacy
  • Desired Impact
  • Grade R
  • Readiness to learn

Programme Outcomes B Families-Caregivers
Demonstration Programme Training and Jobs for
B Family Programme Examples Caregiver
support Education for stimulation Parenting
skills HBC interventions

  • Examples
  • Improved caregiver wellbeing
  • Improved parenting skills and stimulation of the
    childs development

Impact Child Caregiver Outcomes
  • Child IMR and lt5MR
  • Child Hunger Under Weight Stunting Rates
  • Child under 2 years with moderate and severe
  • Child Motor, language, cognitive, social and
    emotional developmental outcomes assessed in
    Grade R Grade 3 (outcome data linked to
    assessments of ECD site quality)
  • Caregiver Caregiver behaviour outcomes following
    programmes designed to improve their care and
    stimulation of children in the home environment
    (e.g. home visiting).

Supports for Early Development in the household
  • Caregiver health status HIV caregivers on
    Anti-Retroviral Therapy
  • Caregiver literacy rate (ABET cover)
  • Home stimulation of language numeracy
  • Children living in households without
  • food security
  • access to potable water
  • in households without access to adequate
  • access to electricity
  • access to adequate housing or shelter.
  • Neighbourhood safety (violent crime patterns).

Thank You