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CHAPTER 18: THE MILITARY, WAR, AND TERRORISM

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CHAPTER 18: THE MILITARY, WAR, AND TERRORISM * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Chemical terrorism refers to using manufactured gases or liquids ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHAPTER 18: THE MILITARY, WAR, AND TERRORISM


1
CHAPTER 18 THE MILITARY, WAR, AND TERRORISM
2
THE MILITARY
  • Many Americans are involved with the military.
  • Three million are military personnel.
  • Veterans make up 13 of the U.S. population.

1
3
Functions of the Military
  • Manifest functions
  • defending citizens
  • maintaining peace
  • Latent functions
  • creating jobs and revenue
  • enabling upward mobility

1
4
Military Budget and Spending
  • In 2007, worldwide military spending was over
    1.3.
  • The U.S. accounted for 45 of the world total.
  • Military spending constitutes the largest
    category of U.S. expenditures.

1
5
Militarism
  • Militarismvirtues, values, and ideals that exalt
    the armed forces
  • Militarism is promoted through
  • Toys and games
  • Films and TV
  • Holidays
  • Education
  • Interlocking directorates

1
6
The Military-Industrial Complex
  • An alliance between the federal government, the
    armed forces, and defense industries
  • First identified by President Eisenhower in 1961
  • Scandals have involved bribery, kickbacks, and
    fraud.

1
7
The Military-Industrial Complex
  • Advantages of the complex include dual use
    technologyresearch and development that can
    benefit many people in their everyday lives.
  • Criticisms include enormous profits for defense
    industries and the close relationship between
    defense industries and government.

1
8
Discussion
  • Why is the close relationship between the defense
    industry and the government a cause for concern?

1
9
Social changes in the Military
  • Women in the Military
  • The number of women in the military has increased
    dramatically.
  • Sexual assaults and harassment continue to be
    problemsmost incidents are not reported.

1
10
Discussion
  • Should women be allowed to pursue any job in the
    military?
  • Why do sexual assaults and harassment go
    unreported?

1
11
Social changes in the Military
  • Minority Men in the Military
  • Minorities make up over 34 of enlisted males.
  • Minorities have served in every U.S. war, but
    discrimination was not banned until 1948.
  • Currently Latinos are heavily recruited.

1
12
Social changes in the Military
  • Gay Men and Lesbians in the Military
  • The "don't ask, don't tell" policy was a
    compromise allowing gays and lesbians to serve as
    long as they didn't disclose their sexual
    orientation.
  • An estimated 2.5 of active duty personnel are
    gay.
  • Americans are becoming increasingly accepting of
    gays in the military.

1
13
Discussion
  • Why has the U.S. military been slow to accept
    women, minorities, and gays and lesbians?

1
14
WAR
  • How Common is War?
  • Fighting and aggression have characterized all
    known societies, but war has not.
  • Since the dawn of history there have been few
    periods of world peace.
  • In 2008 there were 14 ongoing significant armed
    conflicts and 21 "hot spots."

2
15
Causes of War
  • Conquest, power, and wealthfighting to obtain
    territories, slaves, and resources
  • Land and other natural resourcesdisputes over
    who owns what land
  • Self-defense and securityprotection against
    current or future threats

2
16
Causes
  • Nationalism, ideology, and politics
  • Nationalismbeliefs and values that express love,
    pride, and identification with a national
    community
  • Racial, ethnic, and religious antagonisms

Ethnic cleansingviolence against a population
that has a distinct history, customs, religious
traditions, or other cultural traits.
2
17
Application
  • Which of the identified causes of war fits the
    example?
  • In the early 1990s, Serb soldiers systematically
    killed, raped, and intimidated Bosnian Muslims to
    create Serb-only districts.
  • During the 4th century, the Huns invaded and
    lived off the countries they ravaged.

18
The Social Cost of War
  • Variations by social class, ethnicity, gender,
    and age.
  • The U.S. all volunteer military is drawn
    disproportionately from blue-collar homes.
  • In almost every country, the affluent can avoid
    military duty.
  • Women are much less likely than men to serve and
    die in the military.

2
19
The Social Cost of War
  • Death, displacement, disability, and
    dehumanization
  • Modern warfare reduces the number of military
    deaths.
  • Civilian casualties have increased in recent
    wars.
  • War creates refugees and internally displaced
    persons.
  • Surviving soldiers often have life-long problems.
  • Rape victims are often treated as outcasts.

2
20
The Social Cost of War
  • Biological Costs
  • Defoliants create health problems.
  • Relocation of large segments of population cause
    increased risk of infections, epidemics, and
    inadequate diets.

2
21
The Social Cost of War
  • Economic costs
  • Wars usually cost much more than originally
    estimated.
  • Direct costs depend on the length of the war and
    the number of troops.
  • Supplies are often wasted.

2
22
The Social Cost of War
  • Environmental costs
  • Long-term effects include the destruction of land
    and resources.
  • Chemicals and unexploded ammunition
  • Destruction of canals and forests
  • Sewage-contaminated drinking water

2
23
The Social Cost of War
  • Loss of international prestige
  • Countries at war lose the respect of other
    nations.
  • U.S. has lost prestige during the Iraq War.

2
24
Discussion
  • Why do countries at war lose prestige rather than
    gain it?

2
25
TERRORISM
  • Terrorismthe planned threat or use of violence,
    often against the civilian population, to achieve
    political or social ends, to intimidate
    opponents, or to publicize grievances.
  • Terrorist is a pejorative term with the
    interpretation differing according to side in the
    conflict.
  • Soft targets are civilians and other undefended
    groups.

3
26
Types of Terrorism
  • Domestic terrorism
  • involves violent armed attacks against the
    people of one's own country.
  • Domestic terrorists usually disagree with
    mainstream values.
  • Terrorists are intolerant, rely on moral
    absolutes and broad conclusions.

3
27
Types of Terrorism
  • International terrorism refers to
    politically-motivated violent armed attacks
    against people in another country.
  • Reasons for terrorism
  • Ideologicalseeing Western nations as
    economically exploiting
  • Practicalbelieving that terrorism works
  • Tacticalterrorists communicate while living in
    various places
  • Historicalterrorism traditionally seen as
    effective

3
28
Types of Terrorism
  • State-sponsored terrorism is a government's use
    of violence against its own people or in support
    of international violence.
  • Varies from death squads to providing safe havens
  • Cyberterrorism is any premeditated, politically
    motivated attack against computer and information
    systems
  • Includes computer worms and viruses

3
29
Application
  • Identify the type of terrorism.
  • Syria has been accused of providing shelter for
    terrorists.
  • Anti-government individuals bombed the federal
    building in Oklahoma City.
  • Al Qaeda claimed responsibility for the 9/11
    attacks.

30
How Common is Terrorism?
  • Terrorism has a long history, extending back to
    biblical times.
  • The State Department has identified 44 active
    foreign terrorist organizations.
  • Terrorist groups operate in at least 60
    countries.
  • The number of terrorist attacks were highest in
    the 1980s.

3
31
Terrorist Strategies
  • Weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) involve
    nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons.
  • Nuclear terrorism refers to weapons powered by
    atomic processes.
  • Nuclear proliferation refers to the ability of
    more nations to develop nuclear weapons.

3
32
Terrorist Strategies
  • Nuclear bombs can create massive destruction.
  • The components can stay active for thousands of
    years.
  • Nuclear arsenals are vulnerable to saboteurs,
    smugglers, and terrorists.

3
33
Terrorist Strategies
  • Biological terrorism
  • the intentional release
  • of potentially lethal viruses or bacteria into
    the air, food, or water supply.
  • The CDC has identified 36 biological agents that
    could threaten a population.
  • Contamination is fairly easy to accomplish.

3
34
Terrorist Strategies
  • Chemical terrorism refers to using manufactured
    gases or liquids that are highly toxic, can enter
    the body through the lungs or skin, and cause
    death within hours.
  • Chemical weapons are easier to make and deploy
    than germ warfare.
  • Many American facilities already use hazardous
    chemicals.

3
35
Causes of Terrorism
  • Economic reasonsPoverty increases the likelihood
    of terrorism, but the world's poorest countries
    have little terrorism.
  • Political reasons
  • Countries with a very high
  • or very low degree of
  • political rights experience
  • much lower risks of terrorism
  • than countries in the middle.

3
36
Causes of Terrorism
  • Religious reasonsSome terrorists argue that they
    are fighting for religious freedom.
  • Social, cultural, and personal reasonsThose who
    feel oppressed, desperate, or cheated and have no
    other way of fighting may resort to terrorism.

37
SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES ON THE MILITARY, WAR,
AND TERRORISM
  • The functionalist perspective considers the
    purposes of the military, war, and terrorism.
  • Get or regain freedom and autonomy
  • Increase employment and stimulate the economy
  • Inspire new inventions and technologies
  • Improve some groups' social mobility

4
38
Conflict Perspective
  • Conflict theorists emphasize
  • negative characteristics and consequences.
  • War and terrorism
  • Create social and economic
  • costs
  • Violate human rights and civil
  • liberties
  • Benefit the power elite
  • Divide a population

4
39
Feminist Perspective
  • Feminist scholars point to the profound negative
    impact on women.
  • Militarism reinforces gender and sexual
    orientation inequality.
  • Wars reinforce a patriarchal system of male
    domination.
  • War results in violence against women and
    children.

4
40
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
  • Symbolic interactionists examine the cultural
    meaning and construction of war and terrorism as
    social artifacts.
  • Most countries denounce terrorism but legitimize
    war and conflict.
  • Phrases and symbols define war as acceptable,
    necessary, and heroic.
  • Language validates war and conflict.
  • Government controls our images of war.

4
41
Discussion
  • How do symbols legitimize war?

4
42
Application
  • Identify the theoretical perspective.
  • Soldiers in warring countries often rape civilian
    women.
  • Civilian deaths are referred to as "collateral
    damage."
  • Funneling money into defense industries means
    that social programs suffer.
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