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Elusive Eden: A New History of California, fourth edition CHAPTER FOUR: ESTANISLAO’S REBELLION, 1829

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Title: Elusive Eden: A New History of California, fourth edition CHAPTER FOUR: ESTANISLAO’S REBELLION, 1829


1
Elusive Eden A New History of California, fourth
edition CHAPTER FOUR ESTANISLAOS REBELLION,
1829
2
  • Estanislao's Challenge
  • February 1829 neophytes Macario and Benigno
    tending Mission San Jose cattle
  • Taken hostage by 7 mission renegades
  • Leader former mission Indian, Estanislao
  • Took neophytes horses, clothes
  • Sent Macario back with challenge to Father
    Narciso Durán
  • Threatened missions, towns, ranchos

3
  • Estanislao's World
  • Estanislao born around 1800, a Lakisami, tribelet
    of Northern Valley Yokuts
  • Yokuts lived throughout valley, San Joaquin
    riverbanks
  • Hunted, gathered, fished
  • Valley crisscrossed by rivers, streams, marshes

4
  • Riverbanks covered in oak, poplar, willow
  • Plant, wildlife abundant
  • Population density 10 persons/square mile,
    rivaled Chumash
  • Traded with interior tribes, coastal groups

5
  • Spanish Incursions
  • Pedro Fages explored Valley in 1772
  • Spanish slow to explore interior valleys
  • Spanish settled missions, presidios, pueblos
    along coast
  • Mission most important colonial institution
  • Spaniards intended to assimilate Natives to
    Spanish culture, religion

6
  • 1776 Franciscans founded mission at San Francisco
  • --Protected by handful of Spanish soldiers
  • --Settlement located just over coast range from
    Yokuts' territory
  • 1777 pueblo established at San Jose
  • --Mission founded 1779

7
  • Contact between Spaniards, Yokuts, interior
    tribes increased after 1800
  • --Deserting soldiers attacked villages
  • --Assaulted Native women
  • --Runaway neophytes escaped to live with interior
    tribes
  • --Authorizes decided to establish new missions
    among interior tribes

8
  • Mission San José
  • Mission well situated at southern tip of San
    Francisco Bay
  • large population of Costanoans nearby to perform
    mission labor
  • first 30 years baptized 5600 neophytes
  • by 1820 Mission San José one of California's most
    productive missions
  • commanded labor of 1,700 neophytes tending grain
    crops, gardens, orchards

9
  • Indian vaqueros tended thousands of sheep,
    cattle, horses
  • Mission compound included flour mill, tannery,
    soap factory, winery, shops for weaving,
    blacksmith, tailor, harness, pottery,
    candle-making
  • Neophytes built large church, rectory, shops,
    tannery, warehouses, schoolrooms, guesthouses,
    Indian barracks

10
  • Missionaries traded with American, English
    merchant ships in San Francisco bay
  • --Located thirty miles north
  • --Traded mission cattle hides, tallow, beaver
    pelts, olive oil, wheat, barley, beans, honey,
    figs, wool, cotton, tobacco

11
  • Mission Problems
  • 1000s neophytes maintained native languages,
    religious practices
  • --Durán blamed Natives' "extreme and notorious
    stupidity"
  • --Missionaries forced Natives to participate in
    worship services
  • Problems with drought, runaways created labor
    shortages

12
  • Political problems Mexico declared independence
    from Spain 1811
  • --Revolution 1811-1821
  • --Mexico ignored California, withheld funds,
    supplies
  • --Local Mexicans diverted majority of mission
    crops
  • --Missionaries forced to ration food for Natives

13
  • Missionaries ambivalent towards Indians
  • --Narciso Durán replaced Serra as
    father-presidente
  • --devoted to Christianizing Natives
  • --defended native interests against soldiers,
    townspeople
  • --assumed Natives morally, culturally inferior to
    Spaniards
  • --considered them perpetual children
  • --used stocks, shackles, flogging to punish
    disobedience
  • --Locked up single women and girls at night

14
  • 1820s, 1830s Durán opposed settler demands to
    close the missions, release Indians
  • Neophytes died in droves
  • --Poor nutrition and sanitation, overcrowding
  • --Exposure to European diseases venereal
    disease, cholera, dysentery, tuberculosis,
    influenza, measles

15
  • --Epidemics 1/3 of mission Indians might die
  • --Non-epidemic years, 10 San Jose Indians died
  • --Of 5600 Indians baptized, only 1700 at Mission
    San Jose in 1826
  • --By 1820s, local Costanoans virtually extinct
  • --Those who could ran away

16
  • Fugitivism
  • 1820s alone, 1000 neophytes fled to interior
  • Usually individuals ran
  • Sometimes coordinated May 25 and 26, 1827, 400
    ran away, about ¼ of Mission San Jose Indians

17
  • Soldiers exacerbated problems
  • --Hunted runaways to punish, return to missions
  • --Raided villages to capture new neophytes
  • --Natives resisted, battled with soldiers
  • --Survivors delivered to missions against their
    will
  • --Interior campaigns brought Estanislao, other
    San Joaquin Valley Indians into Mission San Jose

18
  • Horses
  • 1800 Spanish horses introduced in Valley
  • Grazed on Native lands
  • Natives raided ranches, missions for horses
  • Increased soldier campaigns into interior,
    looking for horse thieves

19
  • 1805, Yokuts on Stanislaus River attacked Father
    Pedro de la Cueva, soldiers
  • --Authorities retaliated, attacked Native
    villages
  • --Yokuts retaliated with more raiding, attacks on
    missionaries, soldiers
  • 1813, 1816, 1819, 1823, 1826 major battles
    between Natives, Spanish
  • By 1828, Indians around Mission San José ripe for
    revolution

20
  • Estanislao's Rebellion
  • Fall 1828 Estanislao, other mission Indians
    allowed to visit families
  • Lakisamni villages about 60 mi east of Mission
    San José, near junction of San Joaquin,
    Stanislaus rivers
  • Estanislao, several hundred refused to return to
    mission

21
  • several hundred runaways joined Estanislao from
    missions Santa Clara, San Juan Bautista, and
    Santa Cruz
  • Durán wrote to San Francisco presidio for
    soldiers to round up, punish, return fugitives

22
  • Commandante Martinez sent 15-20 soldiers to
    Lakisamni villages
  • --Commander Sergeant Antonio Soto, experienced
    Indian fighter
  • --Soldier Antonio María Osio described campaign
    50 years later
  • --Villages barricaded in willow thicket, river
  • --Yokuts lured soldiers into thicket then
    attacked
  • --shot arrows into heads, killed two
  • --Soto, other survivors fled for San Jose with
    arrows in heads

23
  • Victory attracted more Indians to Estanislao's
    camp
  • --By spring 1829 had combined army of 500 to
    1,000 neophyte and gentile warriors
  • --one of largest Native forces to date
  • --February 1829 Estanislao captured Macario and
    Benigno
  • --Macario's message led Durán to demand another
    expedition

24
  • May 1829 San Francisco presidio raised second
    expedition
  • --Commander José Antonio Sanchez, experienced
    Indian fighter
  • --Total of 28 soldiers, six militiamen, 70 Indian
    auxiliaries, one cannon

25
  • Stronghold located in bend of Stanislaus River
  • --Native soldiers protected by river, thick
    brush, log palisades
  • --Sanchez divided troops into three squads
  • --One guarded horses
  • --another forded river, surrounded village
  • --third group made frontal assault with cannon
  • --cannon quickly disabled
  • --Spaniards fired for hours with no result

26
  • May 8 Sanchez launched another frontal attack
  • --Still couldn't get through Native barricades
  • --Spaniards ran out of ammunition
  • --Retreated again to Mission San José

27
  • Second debacle forced full-out Spanish effort
  • Monterey presidio ensign Mariano Guadalupe
    Vallejo joined soldiers from San Francisco
  • --21 years old
  • --Little battle, command experience
  • --Monterey soldiers hadn't been paid in 2 years
  • --Had recently mutinied
  • --Rivalry between Monterey, San Francisco
    presidios
  • --Running low on ammunition, armaments defective

28
  • May 26, 1829 expedition set out
  • --107 soldiers, 50 Native auxiliaries
  • --cannon, ammunition, and 3,500 musket cartridges
  • --largest army yet raised against Native
    California

29
  • Vallejo took offensive
  • --ordered troops to surround stronghold, burn
    woods, launch infantry assault from several
    directions
  • --pounded palisade with cannonballs
  • --got through first wall, threatened by own fire

30
  • Vallejo withdrew, returned following day
  • --Fortifications empty
  • --Natives had escaped in the night
  • Found Indians next day near Tuolumne River
  • --Hidden by even better fortifications
  • --Battled for hours, couldn't dislodge Indians

31
  • --Mexicans retreated, Indians trapped
  • --Several Indians killed trying to escape
  • --3 Native women captured
  • --Majority of Indians escaped during night
  • --Mexican soldiers tortured, killed some
    captives women, elderly men

32
  • Returned to Mission San José with 2-3 female
    captives, 18 horses
  • --Minimum gains for maximum cost
  • --Rebellion continued
  • Reports of atrocities embarrassed Mexican
    officials
  • --Father Durán demanded Vallejo be punished
  • --investigation confirmed Mexicans hanged two old
    men and three women, shot another captive

33
  • Nothing changed
  • --Neophytes still ran away
  • --horse stealing increased
  • Estanislao went back to Mission San José
  • --Durán secured pardon
  • --Died in late 1830s disease outbreak

34
  • Left few traces
  • --River, county named for him
  • --1950s state put up memorial at Caswell Memorial
    Park
  • --Plaque imagined Estanislao as Great Plains
    warrior

35
Old Mission Santa Barbara Damaged by earthquake
in 1925, the beautifully restored Mission Church
at Santa Barbara recalls Spains eighteenth-
century attempt to transplant European
civilization to the Pacific Coast. Photograph by
Richard Orsi.
36
Mission San José in 1853 The great California
photographer Carleton E. Watkins made one of the
first photographic images, a daguerreotype, of
Mission San José in 1853. By this time, the
imposing buildings that had impressed foreign
visitors had fallen into disrepair. The large
church to the right was demolished in the great
1868 earthquake, one of the states most violent,
along the Hayward Fault. Not until 1985 did a
combined church and civic effort succeed in
restoring the historic building. Courtesy of The
Bancroft Library, University of California,
Berkeley.
37
Father Narciso Durán and an Indian
Child Published in a travel account by a foreign
visitor to the California missions, this likeness
of Narciso Durán suggests the paternalistic
relationship of missionary to Native. From Eugene
Duflodt de Mofras, Exploring du territoire de
lOregon (1844). This item is reproduced by
permission of The Huntington Library, San Marino,
California.
38
Narciso Duráns Map of Mission San José,
1824 Narciso Duráns topographical map of Mission
San Josés territory shows San Francisco Bay at
the lower left and the complex of rivers in the
San Joaquin Valley, beyond the Coast Range, at
the upper right. This was the home of the Yokuts.
Christianized Native villages are marked with a
, gentile villages with a 0. The mission appears
along the vertical center line in the lower part
of the map. Courtesy of The Bancroft Library,
University of California, Berkeley.
39
Estanislao as a Great Plains Warrior This plaque,
at Caswell Memorial State Park along the
Stanislaus River, depicts Estanislao as a Great
Plains warrior, complete with eagle feathers,
pigtails, and choke collar. The drama of the
Plains Indian wars of the late nineteenth century
made a great impression on the American popular
mind, and all Natives began to be seen in terms
of Plains Indian imagery. Reflecting common
ignorance about the states original inhabitants,
some early California local histories described
Indians as roaming the landscape on horses,
hunting the buffalo, and living in tepees.
Photograph by Richard J. Orsi.
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