How do you think De-Colonization in the 1950s will impact the Cold War? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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How do you think De-Colonization in the 1950s will impact the Cold War?


How do you think De-Colonization in the 1950s will impact the Cold War? * According to your homework - How did this war come about? * Who was involved in the Korean ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: How do you think De-Colonization in the 1950s will impact the Cold War?

How do you think De-Colonization in the 1950s
will impact the Cold War?
Korean War 1950-1953
According to your homework - How did this war
come about?
Who was involved in the Korean War other than the
United States and South Korea?
  • When hostile North Korean forces crossed the
    38th parallel in Korea in June of 1950, the
    United Nations Security Council called for an
    immediate end to hostilities. When its further
    demand that North Korea withdraw forces from the
    southern half of the Korean peninsula fell on
    deaf ears, the UN Security Council recommended
    that members of the United Nations join forces to
    repel the attack. Twenty-one nations agreed to
    contribute arms, money, medical supplies, and/or
    troops to rid South Korea of the Communist
  • The move succeeded only because the Soviet
    delegate, who had veto power, was absent because
    he was protesting the U.N.s refusal to recognize
    the Communist government in China.
  • General Douglas MacArthur, as head of the US
    military presence in Korea and Japan, was placed
    in charge of task for sent to handle this
  • Fifteen foreign nations other than the United
    States and South Korea sent combat forces to
    serve in the United Nations Command in Korea
    during the Korean War. Five noncombatant nations
    provided hospitals or ambulance units.
    Approximately 150,000 foreign servicemen fought,
    and foreign casualties included 3,360 killed,
    11,886 wounded and 1,801 servicemen missing in
    action. There were 1,376 foreign prisoners of war
    repatriated to 12 countries in 1953.

  • How far did the North Koreans advance in
    1950? In 1951?
  • What is the northernmost city that UN troops
    were heading towards? Did they obtain their goal?
  • Why do you think China became involved in the
    Korean War?
  • Where is the Armistice Line?

The End of the Korean War
  • Finally, in July 1953, the UN forces and North
    Korea signed a cease-fire agreement. (armistice)
  • The border between the two Koreas was set near
    the 38th parallel, almost where it had been
    before the war.
  • A demilitarized zone, which still exists,
    separated the two countries.
  • One notable effect of the war- Truman increased
    assistance to the French in IndoChina, creating
    the Military Assistance Advisory Group for
    Indo-China (entrance of America into the
    deepening Vietnam Conflict)

Another Notable Effect of the Korean War in the
United States
Fear of Communism in the United States (Red
Scare) Senator Joseph McCarhy - (1950s)
recklessly accused many government officials and
citizens of being communist. (McCarthyism
making false accusations based on rumor or guilt
by association.)
Death of Stalin, March 1953
How do you think the bi-polarized world will
react to Stalins Death?
1953 New Course in Soviet Union and East
Germany (GDR)
  • Nikita Khruschev takes over after Stalins death.
  • Promise better consumption and lower work quotas

Political Upheaval in the GDR
  • June 17, 1953 Uprising
  • Spread to all of GDR

20th Party Congress 1956 Khrushchevs Secret
Khrushchev repudiated Stalins use of the vast
Gulag (or labor camp complex) and attempted to
separate Stalins crimes from true communism
Repression and Dissent in 1956
  • Polish and Hungarian intellectuals and students
    held demonstrations calling for free elections,
    withdrawal of Soviet troops, etc.
  • 1956 - Soviet Crackdown in Hungary
  • Soviet tanks were sent in to crush dissent
  • despite anti-Soviet propaganda sent via the USIA
    - Americans did not intervene to help the
    Hungarian dissenters....
  • Eastern Europe remained under Soviet Control

Kitchen Debate, 1959 American National Exhibition
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Aim How did Vietnam become the next major battle
of the Cold War?
  • Late 18th C. WWII French control Indo-China
    (Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam)
  • World War II
  • Viet Minh (communists) successfully resisted
    Japanese occupation
  • Provided assistance during famine
  • Instituted communist reforms
  • Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam independent from
    France in 1945
  • French refused to recognize independence and
    tried to reoccupy the region
  • US backs French claim due to the rising fear of
  • Defeat the French at Dien Bien Phu in 1954

Leaders of the Viet Minh Vo Nguyen Giap (left)
and Ho Chi Minh (right)
  • Geneva Agreement (1954) Ends French-Indochina
    War giving independence to Laos, Cambodia,
  • Ho Chi Minh agrees to divide Vietnam into two
    parts at 17th Parallel
  • Communists dominated northern Vietnam
  • U.S. backed government in the South
  • Elections were promised within two years to
    decide who should rule a united Vietnam
  • U.S. sends in advisors to help South Vietnam in
  • U.S. viewed conflict as part of the Cold War
  • U.S. supported anti-communist dictator Ngo Dinh
  • Diem attempted to suppress communists in South
  • Viet Minh (Viet Cong) sent military supplies to
    aid southern communists (National Liberation

Vietnam War (1954-1973)
August 1964 After President Lyndon Johnson
reports that U.S. destroyers off the coast of
North Vietnam have been attacked on the Gulf of
Tonkin, Congress passes the Tonkin Gulf
Resolution (only two dissenting votes in
Congress) which allowed LBJ to send any and all
forces he needed to Vietnam (This was not a
declaration of war)
Viet Cong and the Ho Chi Minh Trail
  • National Liberation Front (NLF) - an anti- Ngo
    Dinh Diem organization of both communists and
    non-communists formed in 1960
  • Viet Cong The militant arm of the NLF - a
    Communist guerrilla force, staffed and funded by
    North and South Vietnamese in rebellion to Diems
    authoritarian rule.
  • The Ho Chi Minh Trail A series of
    interconnecting trails and tunnels built from
    North Vietnam to South Vietnam through the
    neighboring countries of Laos and Cambodia, to
    provide logistical support to the Vietcong and
    the North Vietnamese Army during the Vietnam War.
    It was a combination of truck routes and paths
    for foot and bicycle traffic.

The United States Gets Involved
  • U.S. Troops Enter the Fight
  • In 1964, U.S. sends troops to fight Viet Cong and
    North Vietnamese
  • U.S. fights guerilla war defending increasingly
    unpopular government
  • Vietcong gains support from Ho Chi Minh, China,
    and Soviet Union
  • Despite appearances of South Vietnamese victory,
    with American help, the North Vietnamese launch
    the Tet- Offensive in January of 1968 which turns
    the tides of American public support for the war

  • The United States Withdraws
  • War grows unpopular in the U.S. in 1969, Nixon
    starts withdrawing troops
  • VietnamizationNixons plan to withdraw U.S. from
    war gradually

  • President Richard Nixon continued to escalate
    U.S. presence in Vietnam despite his official
    Vietnamization Policy
  • Resorts to carpet bombing chemical warfare
  • Some historian argue the bombing of Cambodia
    triggered the rise of the Khmer Rouge
  • Pol Pot killed approximately 20 of the Cambodian
  • U.S. ended its involvement in the Vietnam
    Conflict 1973

Some Buddhist monks expressed opposition to the
war by practicing self-immolation. This monk,
Thich Quang Duc is a national hero in Vietnam
End of the War
  • 1973 Paris Peace Accords called for immediate
    ceasefire and withdrawal of U.S. troops
  • 1975 Last U.S. troops leave, North Vietnam
    unifies country with the Fall of Saigon (renamed
    Ho Chi Minh City)
  • Costs of the war -55,000 American dead, over 3
    million Southeast Asians dead
  • About 1.5 million people flee Vietnam, some
    settling in the U.S. and Canada
  • In 1995, United States normalizes relations with

In 1975 South Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos became
communist states.
The Khmer Rouge
Postwar Southeast Asia
  • Cambodia in Turmoil
  • Khmer RougeCommunist rebels who take control of
    Cambodia in 1975
  • They slaughter 2 million people overthrown by
    Vietnamese invaders
  • In 1993, Cambodia adopts democracy, holds
    elections with UN help

Pol Pot, leader of the Khmer Rouge (Cambodian
Communist Party, literally Red Khmers) in 1977
at the height of his power
Postwar Southeast Asia
  • The Killing Fields were a number of sites in
    Cambodia where large numbers of people were
    killed and buried by the Khmer Rouge regime,
    during its rule of the country from 1975 to 1979,
    immediately after the end of the Vietnam War.

Postwar Southeast Asia
  • At least 200,000 people were executed by the
    Khmer Rouge (while estimates of the total number
    of deaths resulting from Khmer Rouge policies,
    including disease and starvation, range from 1.4
    to 2.2 million out of a population of around 7

A commemorative stupa filled with the skulls of
the victims.
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