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The United States as a World Leader (Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, from Crisis to Prosperity)


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Title: The United States as a World Leader (Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, from Crisis to Prosperity)

The United States as a World Leader (Cold War,
Civil Rights Movement, from Crisis to Prosperity)
  • After WWII, the Soviet Union and the United
    States entered into a power struggle that would
    last for almost 40 years
  • This Cold War (called this because no actual
    war took place) pitted the West (US and allies)
    against the East (Soviet Union and allies)

Origins of the Cold War
  • Western democracys fundamental hatred of
    communism and growing distrust of Stalins regime
    in the Soviet Union
  • Stalins broken promise of allowing free
    elections in Eastern European nations after WWII
    threatened western democratic values, due to a
    fear of the spread of communism
  • Containment idea of keeping Soviet influences
    contained within existing boundaries
  • The Iron Curtain Churchills explanation of
    cut off Soviet-run Eastern Europe from the
    democratic governments of the West

US Response
  • Truman Doctrine By giving 400 million in
    economic and military aid to Greece and Turkey to
    fight off communist threats, the US took a firm
    role in containing communism at any cost. The
    encouragement of nations to resist communism
    became known as the Truman Doctrine.
  • Marshall Plan Secretary of State George Marshall
    toured European nations and saw the damage caused
    by WWII. Fearing that communism could easily
    infiltrate these war-torn countries, Marshall
    proposed a plan to aide and rebuild these
    nations. This 12 billion dollar plan reduced
    the threat of communist revolutions is Europe.

Berlin Crisis
  • After Yalta and the decision to divide control in
    Germany between the US, France, Britain and the
    Soviet Union, Stalin feared the idea of the US,
    France and Britain combing their zones. To
    prevent a united Western Germany, Stalin closed
    all roads, railway lines, and river routes
    connecting Berlin with West Germany. This
    blockade cut West Germany off from the rest of
    the world.
  • Berlin Airlift American and British planes
    delivered food, fuel and supplies to West
    Germany. Stalin saw the resistance of the west
    and lifted the blockade in May, 1949.

Berlin wall
  • Communist East Germans fled to the West for many
    years. Stalin decided to build a huge concrete
    wall topped with barbed wire to seal East Berlin
    from West Berlin. The Berlin Wall became a
    symbol of the Cold War for the duration.

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization alliances
    with friendly nations created in 1949, NATO was
    formed to defend Western Europe against any
    Soviet threat.
  • United Nations 1945- formed after WWII to
    promote peace and settle disputes

Warsaw Pact
  • Military Alliance formed by Soviet Union in
    response to NATO
  • Alliance included other Communist nations in
    Eastern Europe to secure relations throughout the
    Cold War Era (1955)

  • Even with new organizations and policies,
    communism continued to grow. Mao Zedong and his
    communist supporters gained power in China. Now,
    the fear of communism grew with the growing
    concern of Eastern Europe and Asia being
    dominated by communism

Korean Conflict (1950-1953)
  • 38th Parallel line that divided communist North
    Korea from non-communist South Korea
  • US supports South Korea after North Korea invades
    and occupies Seoul (capital of South Korea)
    General MacArthur leads the attacks. North Korea
    was forced back across the 38th parallel.
    MacArthur suggests using nuclear weapons to end
    the war, Truman disagrees.
  • Once China joined forces with the North, they
    took the upper hand pressing into the south. The
    war was a deadlock

  • The conflict in Korea continued, and both sides
    were eager for a cease-fire.
  • 1953- Newly elected president Eisenhower visits
    Korea and with the help of an international
    commission, an armistice is drawn redrawing the
    line of division at the 38th parallel.
  • Demilitarized Zone an area with no military
  • 54,000 Americans died in Korea, for a conflict
    which proved nothing different than when it

Hunting Down Communism at Home
  • Turning on free enterprise and democracy after
    the Great Depression, some Americans felt that
    communism was the answer to their economic
  • Several arrests were made throughout the US,
    Canada and Britain.
  • Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were arrested for
    passing atomic secrets to the Russians. Both
    were executed (1953)
  • Alger Hiss- State Department official accused of
    perjury, when he denied being part of a circle of
    Americans sharing information with the Soviets

The McCarthy Era
  • Senator Joseph McCarthy (Wisconsin)- claimed to
    have a list of 205 State Department employees who
    were Communist part members. He never proved
    this, but received large amounts of national
  • McCarthy continued to insist that their were
    communists in the US Army. He went too far and
    lost much popularity.
  • McCarthy was condemned for conduct unbecoming a
    member of the Senate. He died three years later
  • McCarthyism refers to making charges about a
    persons loyalty without offering any evidence

  • Cold War conflicts continued in Africa and Asia.
  • The US withdrew from the Philippines in 1946
    after being in control since acquisition during
    the Spanish-American War. The Philippines
    struggled for many years to find stability in
    their government
  • In Africa, the Soviet Union and the United States
    assisted nations torn after gaining independence
    after WWII. These struggles were often caused by
    the desire to make alliances for each nation.
  • India- after gaining independence from Britain,
    the sub-continent was divided into Pakistan and
    India. Both superpowers tried to win the support
    of these nations

Crisis over Cuba
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion- The Soviet Union supplied
    communist Cuba (led by Fidel Castro) with
    military supplies and economic aid.
  • 1961- JFK approves an exile-led plan to overthrow
    Castro. Castro quickly took advantage of the
    ill-planned invasion and an embarrassed United
    States grew more and more hostile toward Cuba

Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Soviets were secretly building missile bases in
  • Because of the closeness of Cuba (90 miles south
    of Florida) JFK decided to send American ships to
    stop any Russian vessel carrying missiles. The
    world was tense as Soviet ships headed for Cuba,
    but then eventually turned back.
  • Krushchev removed Soviet missiles and the US
    promised not to invade Cuba.
  • This was the closest the world came to a
    full-scale nuclear war during the Cold War years

Aid Programs
  • Alliance for Progress- US gives aid to Latin
    American nations to build schools, hospitals and
    improve farming and sanitation services
  • Peace Corps- American volunteers worked in
    developing countries as teachers, engineers and
    technical advisors
  • OAS- Organization of American States- US promoted
    progress in the Americas by investing in
    transportation and industry

The Arms Race
  • Sputnik- Soviets launched the first satellite
    into space. The US was stunned. Fear followed,
    with the belief that if the Soviets could launch
    a satellite into space, they certainly could send
    a rocket with atomic weapons to the United States
  • US responds with NASA- National Aeronautics and
    Space Administration. The mission was to build a
    space program that would compete with the

  • Ho Chi Minh- a communist and Vietnamese
    nationalist led his nation to victory over France
  • A peace conference divided Vietnam at the 17th
    parallel. The North was led by Minh and the
    South by Diem. The Soviet Union supported the
    north, the US supported the South.

  • Domino Theory- the idea that if South Vietnam
    fell to communists, then other countries in the
    region would fall as well, like a row of
  • This justified Johnsons decision to send troops
    to Southeast Asia
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution- announcement that
    North Vietnamese ships had attacked an American
    patrol ship. Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin
    Resolution, allowing the President to take
    whatever means necessary to prevent further
  • By 1968, 500,000 American troops were in Vietnam

Protest at Home
  • Vietnam sparked great amounts of debate within
    the US
  • The conflict in Vietnam forced many young men to
    flee or dodge the draft (forced military
  • Many Americans, largely college students and
    twenty-somethings, protested the war, stating the
    US had no business being involved in the affairs
    of the Vietnamese

Tet Offensive
  • Tet- the Vietnamese New Year. Numerous attacks
    on American and South Vietnamese troops surprised
    and killed many. Major victory for the Vietcong
    (Minhs North Vietnamese troops)
  • This proved that no matter how many troops the US
    had in Vietnam, the conflict was never going to
    end and no one would ever win
  • 1968- Nixon is elected and began withdrawing
    troops, but not quickly. By 1973- cease fire

  • Vietnamese used guerilla tactics in order to
    fight. These hit and run tactics were used to
    attack the enemy in smaller amounts, rather than
    large plannede out battles

Kennedys Vietnam
  • Supported the domino theory
  • He sent military advisors to South Vietnam to
    help defend the nation, hoping to promote

Johnsons Vietnam
  • 1964- Johnson gives authority to halt North
    Vietnamese aggression. (Turning Point)
  • Large numbers of troops are sent
  • Johnson only proves that America was far from
    winning the war

Nixons Vietnam
  • 1968- campaigns for presidency, promises peace
    with honor
  • 5 years later, troops are gradually withdrawn
  • 1973- Paris Peace Accords America withdrew from
    South Vietnam. Two years later, the Communists
    took over South Vietnam, leaving conditions as
    they were in the late 1950s.

  • 1975- communist forces capture Saigon, and
    re-name it Ho Chi Minh City. Vietnam became
    united under a communist government
  • Nearby Cambodia was in the midst of a civil war
  • Communist Khmer Rouge imposed a brutal reign of
    terror on their own people
  • 1979- Vietnam invaded Cambodia and set up a
    communist state. Fighting continued for years

End of the Cold War
  • Chinese tensions with the United States began to
    diminish with President Nixons visit to China
    and the Chinese invitation of the American Ping
    Pong team to Bejing
  • To reduce tensions between the two superpowers,
    the Soviet Union and the US, President Nixon made
    a visit to the Soviet Union. This policy is
    known as détente.
  • SALT- Strategic Arms Limitation Talks- More trade
    and contact between the US and Russia was
    established as well as a limitation to the amount
    of nuclear warheads and missiles allowed

  • Star Wars- Reagans development of a new weapons
    system that he hoped could destroy Soviet
    Missiles from space
  • 1985- Mikhail Gorbachev backed glasnost, the
    Russian term for speaking out openly. He hoped
    this would lead to citizens discovering ideas to
    solve economic and social problems
  • Instead, it leads to the collapse of the Soviet

The Demise of Communism
  • The late-1980s proved that the majority of the
    world wanted democracy to prosper
  • The Soviet Union no longer had the power to
    suppress these protests
  • 1989- Poland rejected communism in their
    elections and one-by-one other communist nations
    fell as well.
  • East Germany- 1990- Berliners smashed through the
    wall that divided their city. Germany became
    democratic. This was a symbolic representation
    of the crumbling communist nation

The Soviet Union Falls
  • 1990- Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia demanded
    self-rule. This was followed by the emergence of
    political parties in the Soviet Union and the
    demand for self-rule by the other 12 states
    within the Soviet Union
  • 15 new states emerged from the collapse of the
    Soviet Union
  • Boris Yeltsin became president of Russia, the
    largest of the new nations

At Home
  • Production and Consumption patterns result in
    economic expansion
  • US, as a world leader, becomes the largest
    producer of goods and services after WWII
  • Industry evolves
  • Large boost of children born in the late 1940s
    and 1950s becomes known as BABY BOOM

  • Baby Boom adds the need for additional housing,
    education and related services.
  • Women enter the workforce to meet these needs
  • More Americans gain employment in fields such as
    health care, education and banking
  • Poverty still exists- mainly in rural areas and
    within minority groups

Civil Rights Movement
  • Focus on greater rights of humans and goals are
    equality and democracy
  • Major Case Brown v. Board of Education
  • (NAACP, 1953, argues for the right of an
    African-American to attend an all-white public
  • Supreme Court rules that segregation in public
    schools is UNCONSTITUTIONAL. This reverses the
    1896 legislation stating Separate but equal is
  • Brown v. Board leads to end of racial
    segregation in public schools

Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • Leader of the Civil Rights Movement
  • Mid 1950s
  • Attempts to change the attitudes of racists
    through non-violent protest (like Gandhi)
  • Civil Disobedience nonviolent protest against
    unjust laws

Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • 1955- One of the most successful campaigns
    against racism
  • Ends racial segregation on pubic buses in
    Montgomery, Alabama
  • Boycotts, Picketing and Sit-ins were methods of
    civil disobedience
  • Often times, MLK, Jr. faced violence from

I Have a Dream
  • MLK, Jr. organizes a March on Washington where at
    the Lincoln Memorial, he gives his world-famous
  • The speech focuses on the nations attention on
    the problems faced by African Americans who are
    deprived of their human rights

Civil Rights Act
  • 1964- Congress passes the Civil Rights Act, which
    prohibits discrimination based on race or
    religion in business involved in interstate
  • Voting Rights Act 1965- prohibits practices that
    were still in use, mainly in southern states,
    that prevented African Americans from voting

Who else joined the crusade?
  • Women, Native American Indians, the disabled and
    others also fought for equality
  • The Supreme Court and Earl Warren pushed to
    protect individual rights (Miranda v. Arizona,
  • Police cannot interrogate a person accused of a
    crime without first telling the person of his or
    her right to have a lawyer present or to remain

Domestic Policies
  • John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson attempted
    to reform society, as well
  • Civil Rights Legislation, improvements in
    education and reduction of poverty were all hot
    topics in the Great Society
  • Medicare, inner city assistance, affirmative
    action (programs promoting the hiring of blacks
    and women)

Womens Liberation
  • 1960s- women wanted equal pay for equal work
  • Influenced by the CRM
  • Womens Lib become a campaign for women and made
    advancements in the workplace and in society
  • Impacts
  • Education (hiring female professors)
  • Employment (building of child-care centers)
  • Research
  • Ms. (instead of Miss or Mrs.)

  • Assassinations
  • John F. Kennedy (1963)
  • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1968)
  • Robert F. Kennedy (1969)

  • Some African Americans become violent after the
    death of MLK, Jr.
  • Riots erupted in cities, and other minority
    groups began to mirror the image of angry African
  • American Indian Movement Alcatraz Island gets
    seized and the monument at Wounded Knee
  • Tensions further escalate in Vietnam, causing
    mass protest and demonstrations, mainly at
    college campuses across the nation (1969)

Nixons Crises
  • War Powers Act requires the president to seek
    Congressional approval soon after sending troops
    overseas (1973)
  • nation loses faith in their national leaders
  • Watergate 1972- A group working for Nixon breaks
    into the Democratic National Headquarters at the
    Watergate building

Nixons Demise
  • Nixon secretly taped White House conversations
    and he refused to turn over tapes that could
    possibly incriminate him
  • SC orders him to turn over the tapes, supporting
    the fact that the president is NOT above the law
  • Nixons cover is blown, hes caught lying
  • Threatened with impeachment, Nixon resigns

  • Inflation rising prices, (dealt with during
    Nixons presidency)
  • Stagflation severe inflation and high
    unemployment in the early 1970s
  • Ford and Carter deal with this, without much
  • Carter faces troubles in Iran (1978) Overthrow
    of the Shah by Muslims, Iranians seize the US
    Embassy, holding 50 staff members hostage for
    more than a year
  • Seeming helpless, Carter loses the election in

  • Cut federal programs
  • Eliminated many regulations on business
  • Cut federal taxes
  • Increased military spending, by increasing the
    federal deficit what the government pays for by
  • Spurs the economy, however the national debt was
    greatly increased

Iran-Contra Scandal
  • Rolling back Communism was a major goal of
    Reagans administration
  • Sending aid to rebel nations was common for
    Reagan (Afghanistan)
  • Congress forbid Reagan from sending aid to
    Nicaraguan anti-communist rebels
  • High officials secretly used funds to aid the
  • Reagan is cleared of any wrong doing

New Role in World Affairs
  • 1977- Panama Canal Treaty- granting Panama the
    rights to the canal in 1999. (Carter)
  • 1977- Camp David Accords- invited leaders of
    Israel and Egypt to Camp David, Maryland, which
    led to a peace settlement (Carter)
  • 1989- George Bush calls for New World Order to
    protect world oil supplies Persian Gulf War
  • Bush also sent supplies to Somalia to help
    protect emergency food supplies from conflicts by
    local warlords

Clinton and Bush
  • World Peacekeeper
  • Intervened in Bosnia and Kosovo, which were
    battlegrounds for racial and ethnic groups
  • Supported NAFTA
  • Promotion of peace in the Middle East
  • Bush- war on Terrorism
  • Afghanistan
  • Iraq
  • Promotion of democratic forms of government

1. During the Cold War era, the United States
and the Soviet Union were hesitant to
become involved in direct military conflict
mainly because of (1) the threat of China to both
nations (2) pressure from nonaligned nations (3)
the potential for global nuclear destruction (4)
mutual dependence on Middle East petroleum
2. In the 1950s, the domino theory was used
by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to justify (1)
sending federal troops into Little
Rock, Arkansas (2) United States involvement in
Vietnam (3) joining the United Nations (4)
opposing Britain and France in the Suez Canal
  • 3. Since the 1950s, the term McCarthyism has been
    applied to events that are related to
  • (1) the basic rights of citizens to own and carry
  • (2) the violent activities of international
  • (3) reckless accusations unsupported by evidence
  • (4) questionable methods used to finance
    political campaigns

4. In 1957, the Eisenhower Doctrine expanded
the principles of the Truman Doctrine by
extending Middle East military assistance in
order to (1) offset communist influence in the
region (2) combat anti-American terrorist
threats (3) force the Organization of Petroleum
Exporting Countries (OPEC) to end its oil
embargo (4) defend Israel against Arab invasions
5. The immediate impact of the 1957 launch
of Sputnik I was that it (1) forced the United
States to find new sources of fuel (2) focused
attention on the need to regulate the uses of
outer space (3) heightened the space race as a
form of Cold War competition (4) ended the period
of peaceful coexistence between the United States
and the Soviet Union
  • 5. President John F. Kennedy supported the 1961
    Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba as an effort to
  • (1) remove a communist dictator from power
  • (2) stop the flow of illegal drugs to the United
  • States
  • (3) support Fidel Castros efforts for reform
  • (4) rescue hostages held by Cuban freedom
  • fighters

  • 6. President Richard Nixon supported the policy
  • détente as a way to
  • (1) reduce tensions between the United States
  • and the Soviet Union
  • (2) introduce democratic elections to communist
  • nations
  • (3) encourage satellite nations to break their
  • with the Soviet Union
  • (4) undermine Soviet influence among nonaligned
    countries in Africa and Asia

  • 7. Support for the North American Free Trade
    Agreement (NAFTA) reflected the United States
    commitment to
  • (1) globalization (3) collective security
  • (2) Manifest Destiny (4) isolationism

  • 8. The baby boom primarily resulted from the
  • (1) economic prosperity of the 1920s
  • (2) Great Depression of the 1930s
  • (3) delay in marriages during World War II
  • (4) counterculture movement of the 1960s

  • 8. One result of the Cold War between the United
    States and the Soviet Union was that the two
  • (1) broke all diplomatic ties
  • (2) refused to trade with each other
  • (3) formed competing military alliances
  • (4) clashed over control of the Mediterranean Sea

  • 9. Which foreign policy term would be the most
  • appropriate title for the partial outline below?
  • I. _________________________________
  • A. Truman Doctrine
  • B. Marshall Plan
  • C. Berlin Blockade
  • D. Korean War
  • (1) Imperialism (3) Noninvolvement
  • (2) Appeasement (4) Containment

  • 10. Who led a witch hunt for Communist spies in
    the United States government during the early
  • (1) Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren
  • (2) President Dwight Eisenhower
  • (3) Senator Joseph McCarthy
  • (4) Secretary of State Dean Acheson

  • 11.One reason the United States became involved
    in the Vietnam War was to
  • (1) prevent the spread of communism in
  • Indochina
  • (2) reduce French influence in Vietnam
  • (3) stop China from seizing Vietnam
  • (4) support the government of North Vietnam

  • The easing of Cold War tensions between the
    United States and the Soviet Union during the
    1970s was called
  • (1) containment (3) neutrality
  • (2) détente (4) isolationism

  • 13. One similarity between the Truman Doctrine
    and the Eisenhower Doctrine is that both were
    designed to
  • (1) limit the spread of communism
  • (2) help develop the space program
  • (3) restrict United States foreign aid
  • (4) assist rebellions against the Soviet Union

  • 14. In the postWorld War II era, Senator Joseph
  • McCarthy and the House Un-American Activities
  • Committee attempted to
  • (1) develop an effective system for spying on
  • other countries
  • (2) make Cold War programs a priority in United
  • States foreign policy
  • (3) identify Communists in the government and
  • elsewhere in American society
  • (4) establish a policy of détente with the Soviet
  • Union

  • 15. Which foreign policy concept influenced the
    decision of the United States to become
    militarily involved in Southeast Asia in the
    1950s and 1960s?
  • (1) appeasement (3) peaceful coexistence
  • (2) détente (4) domino theory

  • 15. Which situation was a result of the Vietnam
  • (1) South Vietnam was able to maintain its
  • status.
  • (2) The United States questioned its role as a
  • police officer of the world.
  • (3) Richard Nixon was forced to resign the
  • (4) The War Powers Act was repealed by Congress.

  • 16. What was a cause for the investigations of
  • House Un-American Activities Committee in the
  • late 1940s and the investigations of a Senate
  • headed by Joseph McCarthy in the early
  • 1950s?
  • (1) the belief that there were Communist agents
  • in the federal government
  • (2) excessive spending by the United States
  • (3) the corruption and bribery of members of
  • Congress
  • (4) actions of President Harry Truman that
  • might have led to his impeachment

  • 17. Sputnik Launch Propels Soviets Ahead in
  • Race
  • In 1957, the United States government responded
  • to the event described in this headline by
  • (1) reducing military spending
  • (2) building a joint space station with the
  • Union
  • (3) constructing President Ronald Reagans Star
  • Wars defense system
  • (4) providing funds to improve the educational
  • system in the United States

  • 18. Which conclusion can best be drawn from the
  • United States involvement in the Korean War
  • and the Vietnam War?
  • (1) The Cold War extended beyond direct conflict
  • with the Soviet Union.
  • (2) Popular wars have assured the reelection of
  • incumbent presidents.
  • (3) War is the best way to support developing
  • nations.
  • (4) The threat of nuclear war is necessary to
  • a military conflict.

  • 19. Which presidential action best represents the
  • policy of détente?
  • (1) John F. Kennedys order for the Bay of Pigs
  • invasion against Cuba
  • (2) Lyndon B. Johnsons escalation of the
  • Vietnam War
  • (3) Richard Nixons Strategic Arms Limitations
  • Talks (SALT) with the Soviet Union
  • (4) George Bushs military action to remove Iraqi
  • forces from Kuwait

  • 20. Which action occurred for the first time in
  • early 1950s during the Korean War?
  • (1) United States and Soviet troops fought on the
  • same side.
  • (2) The United Nations used military force
  • against an aggressor nation.
  • (3) A president was impeached for abusing his
  • power as commander in chief.
  • (4) United States troops fought in Asia.