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APUSH DAY 4

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APUSH DAY 4 ROBINSON Today: Reform and Culture Jackson The other presidents Era of Good Feelings (1817-1825) James Monroe elected President in 1816 Continued ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: APUSH DAY 4


1
APUSH DAY 4
  • ROBINSON

2
Today
  • Reform and Culture
  • Jackson ?
  • The other presidents

3
Era of Good Feelings
  • (1817-1825)

4
James Monroe elected President in 1816
  • Continued the Virginia dynasty (4 of 5 initial
    presidents Virginian 32 of first 36 yrs)
  • Death of Federalist party
  • "Era of Good Feelings"

5
"Era of Good Feelings" NOT REALLY
  • Crystallizing sectionalism
  • Tariff issue
  • Internal improvements
  • Bank of U.S. (BUS)
  • Sale of public lands
  • Republican party enjoying 1-party rule began
    developing factions eventually leading to 2nd
    Party System in the 1830s.
  • Clay, Calhoun, Jackson, John Quincy Adams

6
Monroe's presidency oversaw two major events
  • Panic of 1819
  • Missouri Compromise of 1820

7
Panic of 1819
  • Economic panic and depression set in 1819
  • Causes of 1819 panic
  • Over speculation on frontier lands by banks
    (especially BUS)
  • Inflation from 1812 war economic drop-off after
    war
  • Significant deficit in balance of trade with
    Britain
  • BUS forced "wildcat" western banks to foreclose
    on western farms
  • Resulted in calls for reform and pressure for
    increased democracy.
  • Monroe reelected in 1820 with all but one
    electoral vote (nearly unanimous) -- Only
    president in history to be elected after a major
    panic.

8
The Growing West
  • New states' characteristics
  • No long-established history of states' rights
  • More than other regions, depended on federal
    gov't where it had secured most of its land.
  • Melting pot of a wide diversity of peoples
    immigrating from the east.
  • 9 frontier states joined the union bet. 1791
    1819
  • Most had been admitted alternately free and
    slave.
  • Maintaining a sectional balance in Congress was a
    supreme goal.

9
The Growing West
  • Reasons for explosive westward expansion
  • Westward movement
  • Cheap lands in the Ohio territory
  • Land exhaustion
  • Speculators accepted small down payments made
    purchase of land easier.
  • Economic distress of embargo years stimulated
    migration west.
  • Crushing of Indians during the war cleared much
    of the frontier.
  • Transportation Revolution improved land routes to
    Ohio Valley.

10
The Growing West
  • West still remained weak in population and
    influence
  • Forced to ally itself with other sections
  • Demanded land reform cheap transportation.

11
Missouri Compromise of 1820
  • Missouri asked Congress to enter the union in
    1819
  • Tallmadge Amendment
  • Missouri Compromise of 1820
  • Henry Clay played a key role in mediating a
    compromise
  • Provisions
  • Congress agreed to admit Missouri as a slave
    state.
  • Maine was admitted as a free-soil state.
  • Future slavery prohibited north of 36-30' line,
    the southern border of Missouri.
  • Compromise was largely accepted by both sides
  • South got Missouri
  • North won concession that it could forbid slavery
    in the remaining territories above 36-30 line

12
Time Lines fill in area from 1814-1845
  • Growth
  • 1819 Indian Civilization Act is passed
  • 1824 Monroe proposes the removal of all Indians
    to lands W. of Mississippi
  • 1831Cherokee Nation v. Georgia Fight Monroe
    legally
  • 1831 Trail of Tears
  • 1835 Seminole War
  • 1845 Irish immigration Potato Famine
  • Democracy Grows
  • 1815 Battle of New Orleans
  • 1816 Monroe Elected President
  • 1817 Rush-Bagot Treaty
  • 1819 McCulloch v. Maryland, and Adams-Onis
    Treaty
  • 1820 Missouri Compromise, Monroe re-elected
  • 1823 Monroe Doctrine (limit foreign
    intervention)
  • Expansion and Reform
  • 1825House elects JQ Adams
  • 1827Creek Indians cede their western Georgia
    lands to U.S.
  • 1828 Jackson becomes president, construction of
    Baltimore and Ohio begins.
  • 1830 Webster Hayne Debates over nullification
    and meaning of Union
  • 1831 Liberator begins publication
  • 1832 Jackson vetoes rechartering BUS 2
  • 1836 Republic of Texas established, Specie
    Circular only gold or silver is acceptable for
    payment of land
  • 1838 Underground railroad.
  • 1839 Depression until 1843.
  • 1844 Polk elected president

Review At Home
13
  • Most reforms are driven by evangelical religion
  • Women are prominent
  • Major issues

Reform and Culture
14
  • Crusade against alcohol
  • American Temperance Society
  • TS Arthurs Ten Nights in a Barroom and What I
    Saw There.
  • Neal s. Dow
  • Results

Reform and Culture
15
  • Womens Rights
  • Republican Motherhood
  • Lucretia Mott
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • Susan B. Anthony
  • Angelina Grimke
  • Sara Grimke
  • Lucy Stone
  • Amelia Bloomer
  • Margaret Fuller
  • Seneca Falls Convention (1848)

Reform and Culture
16
  • Public Education
  • Horace Mann
  • Noah Webster
  • William H. McGuffey
  • Emma Willard
  • Oberlin College
  • Lyceums

Reform and Culture
17
  • American Peace Society
  • Dorothea Dix
  • Wilderness Utopias
  • New Harmony
  • Brook Farm
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne a resident
  • Oneida Colony
  • Shakers
  • Mormons

Reform and Culture
18
  • Changing American Family
  • Most women left their jobs upon marriage and
    became homemakers
  • Cult of domesticity
  • Godeys Ladys Book
  • Catharine Beecher
  • Frontier experience uniquely American
  • Alexis de Toquevilles Democracy in America

Reform and Culture
19
  • Democracy on the Frontier
  • Artistic Achievements
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828)
  • Charles Willson Peale
  • Hudson River School of Art
  • Stephen Foster

Reform and Culture
20
  • Literature
  • The Knickerbockers Group
  • Washington Irving (1783-1859)
  • James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851)
  • William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878)
  • Transcendentalism
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)
  • Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862)
  • Walden Or Life in the Woods (1854)
  • Walt Whitman (1819-1892)
  • Margaret Fuller The Dial
  • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882)

Reform and Culture
21
  • Individualists and Dissenters
  • Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849)
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne
  • Herman Melville (1819-1891)
  • Journalism
  • Horace Greeley
  • Science
  • John J. Audubon (1785-1851)

Reform and Culture
22
  • Election called The Revolution of 1828
  • Andrew Jackson (Old Hickory) the man
  • Jacksonian Democracy
  • Increase of manhood suffrage
  • Ends of the caucus
  • Spoils System
  • Martin Van Buren
  • Albany Regency
  • Consequences of the spoils system

JACKSON
23
  • Cabinet Crisis
  • Jacksons six-member cabinet was mediocre
  • Kitchen Cabinet
  • Webster-Hayne Debate
  • Senator Robert Hayne
  • Tariff of Abominations 1828
  • Daniel Webster
  • Jefferson Day Toast 1830
  • Peggy Eaton Affair
  • Tariff Controversy of 1832
  • Calhoun resigned in 1832
  • Concurrent majority plan

JACKSON
24
  • Nullification Controversy of 1832
  • Tariff of 1832
  • Compromise Tariff of 1833
  • Force Bill
  • Election of 1832
  • Henry Clay (National Republican) vs. Jackson
    Old Hickory (Democrat)
  • Anti-Masonic party became the first 3rd party
  • National nominating conventions

JACKSON
25
  • MAIN AIM Divorce government from the economy
  • End of the Bank of the United States (BUS)
  • Jackson vetoed BUSs charter in 1832
  • Nicholas Biddle
  • Pet banks scheme
  • Specie Circular
  • General Incorporation Laws
  • Charles River Bridge decision
  • Maysville Road Veto

JACKSON
26
  • Transplanting Native American Tribes
  • Indian Removal Act (1830)
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs
  • Cherokee
  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)
  • Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
  • Trail of Tears
  • Black Hawk War (1832)
  • Seminoles in Florida
  • Second Seminole War (1835-1842)

JACKSON
27
  • The Birth of Texas
  • Stephen Austin
  • Santa Anna
  • Sam Houston
  • Jacksons dilemma
  • Election of 1836
  • Birth of the Whigs
  • King Andrew I
  • William Henry Harrison
  • Martin Van Buren
  • Jacksons Legacy
  • Van Burens Presidency
  • Caroline Incident
  • Aroostook War
  • Creole Incident

Van Buren
28
  • Panic of 1837
  • Causes
  • Results
  • Whigs Proposals shot down by Van Buren
  • Treasury Bill of 1840 (Divorce Bill)
  • Independent Treasury System
  • Election of 1840
  • Van Buren Re-nominated by Democrats
  • Log Cabin and Hard Cider

Van Buren
29
  • William Henry Harrison
  • Whig
  • VP John Tyler
  • Secretary of State Daniel Webster
  • Election of 1840

Harrison
30
  • Anti-Jackson Democrat
  • Secretary of State Daniel Webster
  • Tyler vs. Congress
  • Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842)
  • Clays Bill for 3rd BUS
  • Canadian Border 45th Parallell

TYLER
31
The Rise of "King Cotton"
  • Prior to 1793, the Southern economy was weak
  • Eli Whitneys Cotton Gin (1793)
  • Trade
  • Cotton exported to England from sale of cotton
    used to buy northern goods
  • For a time, prosperity of both North and South
    rested on slave labor
  • Cotton accounted for 50 of all American exports
    after 1840.

THE SLAVERY ISSUE
32
The Three South's Border South Delaware,
Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri
  • Plantations scarcer cotton cultivation almost
    nonexistent Tobacco main slave crop (as in
    Middle South) More grain production (as in
    Middle South)
  • 1850, Slaves 17 of population. Avg. 5 slaves
    per slaveholder
  • 1850, over 21 of Border Souths blacks free 46
    of Souths free blacks
  • 22 of white families owned slaves
  • Of all who owned more than 20 slaves in South
    6 Ultra-wealthy 1
  • Produced over 50 of Souths industrial products

THE SLAVERY ISSUE
33
The Three South'sMiddle South Virginia, North
Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas.
  • Each state had one section resembling more the
    Border South and another resembling the Lower
    South.
  • Unionists would prevail after Lincoln elected
    Disunionists would prevail after war began
  • Many plantations in eastern Virginia and western
    Tennessee
  • 1850, slaves 30 of population Avg. 8 slaves
    per slaveholder
  • 36 of white families owned slaves
  • Of all who owned more than 20 slaves in South
    32 Ultra-wealthy 14

THE SLAVERY ISSUE
34
The Three Souths Lower South South Carolina,
Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi,
Louisiana, Texas
  • Plantations prevalent cotton was king grew 95
    of Dixies cotton almost all of its sugar,
    rice, and indigo
  • Disunionists (secessionists) would prevail after
    Lincoln was elected
  • 1850, slaves 47 of population Avg. 12 slaves
    per slaveholder
  • Less than 2 of blacks free only 15 of Souths
    free blacks
  • 43 of white families owned slaves
  • Of all who owned more than 20 slaves in South
    62 Ultra-wealthy 85
  • Produced less than 20 of Souths industrial
    products

THE SLAVERY ISSUE
35
Slaves and the slave system (the "Peculiar
Institution")
  • Economic structure of South was monopolistic,
    dominated by wealthy plantation owners
  • Plantation system      
  • Risky Slaves might die of disease, injure
    themselves, or run away.      
  • One-crop economy      
  • Repelled large-scale European immigration

THE SLAVERY ISSUE
36
Slaves and the slave system (the "Peculiar
Institution")
  • Plantation slavery     
  • Nearly 4 million slaves by 1860 quadrupled in
    number since 1800       
  • Slaves seen as valuable assets and primary source
    of wealth              
  • Punishment often brutal to send a message to
    other slaves not to defy masters authority
  • Life in the newly emerging western areas
    particularly harsh (LA, TX, MS, AL)
  • Afro-American slave culture developed

THE SLAVERY ISSUE
37
Slaves and the slave system (the "Peculiar
Institution")
  • Burdens of slavery        
  • Slaves deprived of dignity and sense of
    responsibility that free people have, suffered
    cruel physical and psychological treatment, and
    were ultimately convinced that they were inferior
    and deserved their lot in life.        
  • Denied an education since seen as dangerous to
    give slaves ideas of freedom     
  • Slaves often insidiously sabotaged their masters
    system
  • Many attempted to escape

THE SLAVERY ISSUE
38
Slaves and the slave system (the "Peculiar
Institution")
  • Slave Revolts
  • Stono Rebellion, 1739
  • Gabriel Prosser, 1800
  • Denmark Vesey, a mulatto in Charleston, devised
    the largest revolt ever in 1822.
  • Nat Turners revolt -- 1831       
  • Southern white paranoia

THE SLAVERY ISSUE
39
The White Majority
  • By 1860, only 1/4 of white southerners owned
    slaves or belonged to slave-owning families
  • 75 of white southerners owned no slaves at all.
  • Mountain whites

THE SLAVERY ISSUE
40
Free Blacks
  • Numbered about 250,000 in the South by 1860
  • Discrimination in the South
  • Discrimination in the North

THE SLAVERY ISSUE
41
Early Abolitionism
  • Definition Abolitionism Movement in the North
    that demanded the immediate end of slavery
  • First abolitionist movements began around the
    time of the Revolution esp. Quakers
  • American colonization Society

THE SLAVERY ISSUE
42
Early Abolitionism
  • Abolitionists in the 1830s
  • Second Great Awakening convinced abolitionists of
    the sin of slavery.
  • Abolitionists inspired that Britain emancipated
    their slaves in the West Indies in 1833

THE SLAVERY ISSUE
43
Radical Abolitionism
  • William Lloyd Garrison
  • American Anti-Slavery Society
  • Theodore Dwight Weld
  • Wendell Phillips
  • Angelina and Sarah Grimke
  • Arthur and Lewis Tappan - wealthy New York silk
    merchants.
  • Organization would eventually split along
    gender lines womens rights issues

THE SLAVERY ISSUE
44
Radical Abolitionism
  • David Walker
  • Sojourner Truth
  • Elijah Lovejoy
  • Martin Delaney
  • Frederick Douglass

THE SLAVERY ISSUE
45
Pro-slavery whites responded by launching a
massive defense of slavery as a positive good.
  • Slavery supported by the Bible (Genesis) and
    Aristotle (slavery existed in ancient Greece).
  • It was good for barbarous Africans who were
    civilized and Christianized
  • Master-slave relationships resembled those of a
    "family."
  • George Fitzhugh -- most famous of pro-slavery
    apologists
  • Gag resolution"

THE SLAVERY ISSUE
46
Abolitionist impact in the North
  • Abolitionists, esp. Garrison, were unpopular in
    many parts of the North.    
  • Many mob outbursts in response to extreme
    abolitionists    
  • Ambitious politicians avoided abolitionists
    (e.g., Lincoln) abolitionism was political
    suicide   
  • By 1850, abolitionism had had a deep effect on
    the Northern psyche.

THE SLAVERY ISSUE
47
Popular Sovereignty and the Mexican Cession
  • Intense debate over what to do with the Mexican
    Cession.
  • Wilmot Proviso New territory should be free of
    slavery
  • Issue threatened to split both Whigs and
    Democrats along sectional lines    
  • "Popular Sovereignty"
  • Lewis Cass, 1812 War vet, became Democratic
    candidate for president in 1848
  • Definition Sovereign people of a territory,
    under general principles of the Constitution,
    should determine themselves the status of
    slavery.
  • Supported by many because it kept in line with
    democratic tradition of self-determination.
  • Fatal flaw It could spread the "peculiar
    institution" to new territories.

Road To Civil War
48
Election of 1848
  • Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor, "Hero of Buena
    Vista"
  • Free-Soil party
  • Coalition of northern antislavery Whig, Democrat,
    and Liberty Party men in the North distrusting
    Cass Taylor
  • Result Taylor 163, Cass 127, Van Buren 0
  • Free-Soilers won no states and did not actually
    affect the outcome of the election.

Road To Civil War
49
California Statehood
  • Gold discovered in 1848 at Sutters Mill
    prospectors in 1848 known as "forty-eighters
  • 1849 -- Masses of adventurers flocked to northern
    California.
  • Gold essentially paved the way for rapid economic
    growth in California
  • CA drafted a Constitution in 1849 that excluded
    slavery and asked Congress for admission
              

Road To Civil War
50
Sectional Balance in 1850
  • South
  • Had presidency, majority in the cabinet, and a
    majority in the Supreme Court
  • Equal number of states in Senate thus strong veto
    power
  • Yet, South deeply worried
  • In 1850, 15 free and 15 slave states
  • CA would tip the balance in the Senate and set a
    free-state precedent in the southwest
  • New Mexico and Utah territories seemed leaning
    toward free state status.
  • Texas claimed vast area east of Rio Grande (part
    of NM CO, KA OK) and threatened to seize Santa
    Fe.
  • Southerners angered by Northern demands for
    abolition of slavery in Wash. DC.
  • Extremely angered over loss of runaway slaves,
    many assisted by North.
  • When CA applied, southern "fire-eaters"
    threatened secession

Road To Civil War
51
Underground Railroad and the Fugitive Slave issue
  • Consisted of informal chain of antislavery homes
    which hundreds of slaves were aided by black
    white abolitionists in their escape to free soil
    Canada.
  • Harriet Tubman ("Moses") (ex-slave from Maryland
    who escaped to Canada)
  • Jerry Loguen Led hundreds of slaves to their
    freedom
  • Prigg v. Pennsylvania, 1842 Political.
    significance by 1850 southerners demanded a new
    more stringent fugitive-slave law

Road To Civil War
52
Compromise of 1850
  • Sunset of the "Great Triumvirate"
  • Clay initiated his 3rd great compromise
  • Calhoun (dying of TB) rejected Clays position as
    not being adequate safeguards.
  • Webster supported Clays compromise (famous "7th
    of March speech" of 1850)
  • Meanwhile, William H. Seward (nicknamed "Higher
    Law" Seward by his adversaries)

Road To Civil War
53
"Compromise of 1850"
  • California admitted as a free state
  • Abolition of the slave trade in District of
    Columbia
  • Popular sovereignty in remainder of Mexican
    Cession New Mexico and Utah territories.
  • More stringent Fugitive Slave Law (than 1793)
  • Texas to receive 10 million from federal govt
    as compensation for its surrendering of disputed
    territory to New Mexico.

Road To Civil War
54
Result
  • North got better deal.
  • Fugitive Slave Law became the single most
    important frictional issue between north and
    south in the 1850s.
  • Compromise of 1850 won the Civil War for the
    North

Road To Civil War
55
Election of 1852
  • Democrats nominated Franklin Pierce (from NH)
  • Whigs nominated General Winfield Scott ("Old Fuss
    Feathers") but party fatally split
  • Result Pierce d. Scott 254 - 42
  • Significance Marked effective end of Whig party
    complete death 2 years later
  • Significance of Whig party Webster Clay had
    kept idea of Union alive (both died in 1852)

Road To Civil War
56
Expansionism under President Pierce
  • War in Nicaragua seemed inevitable Britain
    challenged Monroe Doctrine
  • Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850) Neither U.S. or
    Britain would fortify or secure exclusive control
    over any future isthmian waterway.
  • America looks toward Asia

Road To Civil War
57
Expansionism under President Pierce
  • Cuba
  • Polk had offered Spain 100 million for Cuba
    Spain categorically refused.
  • 1850-51 -- two expeditions by private southern
    adventurers into Cuba failed.
  • 1854, Spain seized U.S. steamer Black Warrior on
    a technicality.
  • Ostend Manifesto
  • Secret document whereby U.S. would offer 120
    million for Cuba and if Spain U.S. would take it
    by force.
  • News leaked out and angry northern free-soilers
    forced Pierce to abandon it.

Road To Civil War
58
Gadsden Purchase (1853)
  • U.S. concerned that CA Oregon inaccessible by
    land sea routes too tough
  • Debate Should transcontinental railroad route
    run through the North or South?
  • Result
  • South boosted its claim to railroad
  • North now tried to quickly organize Nebraska
    territory but the South opposed it.

Road To Civil War
59
The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
  • Stephen Douglas proposed carving Nebraska
    Territory into 2 Nebraska, Kansas
  • Slavery issue would be based on popular
    sovereignty
  • His main motive was to give Illinois the eastern
    terminus for the proposed Pacific railroad.
  • Kansas would presumably become slave Nebraska
    free
  • 36-30 line prohibited slavery north of it Kansas
    above it.
  • Southerners fully supported it and pushed Pierce
    to support KS-NB Act
  • Douglas successfully rammed the bill through
    Congress great orator of his generation

Road To Civil War
60
The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act passed in 1854
  • Northern reaction
  • Southern reaction
  • Effectively wrecked the Compromises of 1820
    1850
  • Birth of the Republican party
  • Republican party formed in response to the
    Kansas-Nebraska Act.

Road To Civil War
61
Antislavery literature
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe Uncle Toms Cabin (1852)
  • Hinton R. Helper The Impending Crisis of the
    South (1857)

Road To Civil War
62
"Bleeding Kansas"
  • New England Emigrant Aid Company Sent 2,000 into
    Kansas to prevent slavery from taking hold and to
    make a profit.
  • Southerners infuriated by apparent northern
    betrayal -- attempts to abolitionize Kansas.
  • 1855 election in Kansas for first territorial
    legislature 1856, a gang of proslavery raiders
    shot up and burned part of free-soil Lawrence,
    Kansas.

Road To Civil War
63
The Caning of Charles Sumner
  • Sumner a leading abolitionist Senator from
    Massachusetts, gave speech "Crime Against Kansas"
    where he lashed out at southern pro-slaveryites
    and insulted a S.C. Senator
  • S.C. Congressman Preston Brooks retaliated by
    hitting Sumner over the head 30 times or more
    with an 11-oz gold-headed cane.
  • The House of Reps could not find enough votes
    (122 to 95-- 2/3 needed) to expel Brooks but he
    resigned nonetheless, and was unanimously
    reelected by S.C.
  • Sumner came to symbolize for the North the evils
    of the slavery system (along with bleeding Kansas
    issue)

Road To Civil War
64
  • Pottawatomie Massacre -- John Brown followers,
    in May 1856, hacked 5 men to pieces with
    broadswords in response to attack on Lawrence
    (and the caning of Sumner)
  • Civil war in Kansas ensued from 1856 and merged
    with Civil War of 1861-1865

Road To Civil War
65
Lecompton Constitution (1857)
  • Kansas had enough people to apply for statehood
    on popular sovereignty basis.
  • Southerners, still in power since 1855, devised a
    tricky document
  • People were not allowed to vote for or against
    constitution as a whole but voted for the
    constitution. with or w/o slavery.
  • If people voted no on slavery, rights of
    slaveholders already in KS protected
  • Infuriated free-soilers boycotted the polls
  • Slaveryites approved constitution with slavery
    late in 1857.

Road To Civil War
66
Election of 1856
  • James Buchanan chosen as Democratic nominee over
    Pierce (seen as too weak) and Douglas (who
    alienated the southern wing of the party after
    denouncing Lecompton constitution.)
  • Republicans nominated Captain John C. Ferment
    "Pathfinder of the West"
  • American Party ("know-nothing") Nativist in
    orientation
  • Buchanan d. Fremont 174 to 114 Fillmore 8.
           

Road To Civil War
67
The Dred Scott Decision (March 6, 1857)
  • Dried Scott had lived with his master for 5 years
    in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory.  
  • 80-year-old Marylander Chief Justice Roger B.
    Taney wrote the 55 page opinion.
  • Decision
  • Impact        

Road To Civil War
68
Financial Crash of 1857
  • Not as bad as Panic of 1837 but probably the
    worst psychologically in 19th c.
  • Causes
  • Influx of California gold into economy inflated
    currency.
  • Crimean War over stimulated growing of grain
  • Speculation in land and railroads backfired.
  • Results
  • Over 5,000 businesses failed within a year.
  • Unemployment widespread
  • Renewed demand for free farms of 160 acres from
    public domain land.
  • Demand for higher tariff rates
  • Republicans had two major issues for 1860 higher
    tariffs Homestead Act

Road To Civil War
69
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858) Senate seat in
Illinois
  • Lincolns nomination speech "A house divided
    cannot stand. I believe this government cannot
    endure permanently half slave and half free.
  • Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of seven
    joint debates
  • Freeport debate most famous -- Freeport Doctrine
           

Road To Civil War
70
John Brown attacks Harpers Ferry
  • Browns scheme invade the South secretly with a
    few followers and lead slaves to rise, give them
    arms, and establish a kind of black free state.
  • October, 1859 -- Seized the arsenal at Harpers
    Ferry
  • Brown and his followers were hanged after a
    brief but legal trial.
  • Brown became a martyr in the North
  • Effects of Harpers Ferry were ominous in
    southern eyes.        

Road To Civil War
71
Nominating Conventions of 1860
  • Democratic party split in two
  • Met first in South Carolina with Douglas as
    leading candidate of northern wing
  • Next convention in Baltimore nominated Douglas
    while the Democratic party split in two
  • Southern Democratic Party nominated John C.
    Breckinridge
  • Constitutional Union Party nominated John Bell of
    Tennessee
  • Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln
  • Seward the front-runner but perceived as too
    radical for victory in general election.
  • Republican platform (broadly based)
  • Southern secessionists warned that the election
    of Lincoln would split the Union.

Road To Civil War
72
Presidential election of 1860
  • Lincoln elected president with only 40 of the
    vote most sectional election in history.
  • Lincoln won all Northern states except NJ and MO
    (180 electoral votes to 123)
  • Breckinridge won all the Deep South states plus
    AK, MD, and DE
  • Bell won Border States of VA KY and mid-slave
    state of TN
  • Douglas won only MO and NJ but finished 2nd in
    popular votes
  • South still had control of both Houses of
    Congress and a 5-4 majority on Supreme Court   

Road To Civil War
73
Southern states secede from the Union
  • Four days after the election of Lincoln, the
    "Black Republican", South Carolina legislature
    unanimously called for a special convention in
    Charleston.
  • December, 1860, 170 South Carolina unanimously
    voted to secede from the other states.
  • Within six weeks, six other states seceded (MS,
    FL, AL, GA, LA, TX) all during Buchanans
    "lame-duck" period.
  • Four others seceded in April, 1861, after
    beginning of Civil War (VA, AK, NC, TN) as they
    refused to fight their fellow southerners and
    agree to Lincolns call for volunteers.
  • Confederate States of America formed in
    Montgomery Alabama meeting.
  • Jefferson Davis chosen as president of
    provisional government to be located at Richmond,
    VA (after Fort Sumter)

Road To Civil War
74
Southern states secede from the Union
  • President Buchanan did little to prevent southern
    secession.
  • Claimed the Constitution did not give him
    authority to stop secession with force.
  • More significantly, northern army was small and
    weak and scattered on the frontier.
  • Many of his advisors pro-southern
  • Northern sentiment predominantly for peaceful
    reconciliation rather than war
  • Ironically, Lincoln continued Buchanans
    vacillating policy when he became president.
  • Buchanans serendipitous wait-and-see policy
    probably helped save the Union.            

Road To Civil War
75
Reasons for southern secession
  • Alarmed at the political balance tipping in favor
    of the North
  • Horrified at victory of the sectional Republican
    party which appeared to threaten their rights as
    a slaveholding minority.
  • Angry over free-soil criticism and abolitionism,
    and northern interference such as the Underground
    Railroad and John Browns raid.
  • Many southerners felt secession would be
    unopposed
  • Opportunity to end generations of dependence to
    the North.
  • Morally they were in the right        

Road To Civil War
76
Crittenden amendments -- final attempt at
compromise
  • Proposed by Senator John J. Crittenden of
    Kentucky (heir to political throne of Clay)
  • Designed to appease the South
  • Provisions
  • Rejected by Lincoln all hope of compromise was
    gone.        

Road To Civil War
77
EXTRA STUFF
78
  • Name four major Rebellions in early American
    History

79
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80
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81
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82
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83
  • What are some area acquisitions that were made
    with the intent to strengthen, unite, and enlarge
    the nation?
  • Between 1783-1853
  • Think about Manifest Destiny
  • What land area was acquired, and with what means
    of acquisition?

84
Expansion of the US 1783-1853
Original thirteen states and area east of
Mississippi River
Oregon
1846
1783
Mexican Cession
1848
1803
Louisiana Territory
Gadsden Purchase
1819
1853
Florida
85
Original 13 States and area east of Mississippi
River
Expansion
86
Louisiana Territory
Expansion
87
Florida
Expansion
88
Oregon
Expansion
89
Mexican Cession
Expansion
90
Gadsden Purchase
Expansion
91
  • WHAT ARE SOME OF THE MAJOR TREATIES IN US
    HISTORY?
  • THINK BETWEEN 1794-1919.

92
NATO 1949
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 1954
93
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94
Pay attention to what they have in common and
what is different
95
  • What are the major differences between BUS 1 and
    BUS 2

96
1791-1811
1816-1836
97
  • Hamilton modeled it after Bank of England
  • Paid dividends and interest to government, which
    was the source of revenue.
  • 1811-1816 country in economic chaos following war
    of 1812
  • Explosion in number of unstable state banks.

98
  • Provided flexible currency
  • Created adequate credit for business
  • Generated revenue for national government
  • Controlled state banks
  • Provided flexible currency
  • Controlled inflation
  • Restrained land speculation

99
-Hamiltons supporters -Members of the Federalist
Party -Mercantile, eastern groups -Friends of
strong central governments
-Madison signed recharter -National
Republicans/Whigs -Henry Clay/ Nicholas
Biddle -Mercantile, eastern groups
100
-Old Jeffersonians -Andrew Jackson
Democrats -Western farmers -Small banking
interests -Land speculators
- Jeffersons supporters - Democratic-Republican
s - Backcountry farmers - States right
supporters
101
-Republicans gain political power and, by 1811,
control Washington -Madisons government did not
renew charter
-Andrew Jacksons Veto -Became a cause celebre
for opponents of Jackson -Appeared
undemocratic/elitist in the egalitarian 1830s
102
- Federalists Bank was necessary and proper
under elastic clause in Constitution -
Republicans Bank violated the Constitution
establishing Bank was not enumerated as a power
of Congress in Article 1, Section 8 - Great
Struggle of loose v. strict interpretation of the
Constitution
- 1819 McCulloch v. Maryland declared the Bank
unconstitutional - 1832 Jackson declared the Bank
unconstitutional in his veto message - Part of an
ongoing debate between the loose/strict
interpretations of constitution and the
strong/weak views of federal government.
103
QUESTIONS
104
C Jackson did NOT object to the banks
preventing inflation, though some of his
followers may have. Jackson desired the gold
standard, and believed the bank allowed the
economic power of the government to be wielded by
private individuals.
  • All of the following were among President Andrew
    Jacksons objections to the First Bank of the US
    except
  • It allowed the economic power of the government
    to be controlled by private individuals
  • It threatened the integrity of the democratic
    system
  • It was preventing the government from achieving
    its policy of creating inflation.
  • It could be used irresponsibly to create
    financial hardship for the nation.
  • It benefited a small group of wealthy and
    privileged persons at the expense of the rest of
    the country.

105
B The molasses Act was intended to force the
colonists to buy sugar from more expensive
British colonial sources rather than from foreign
producers. Forcing the colonists to export
solely to GB.
  • The Molasses Act was intended to enforce
    Englands mercantilist policies by
  • Forcing the colonists to export solely to Great
    Britain
  • Forcing the colonists to buy sugar from other
    British colonies rather than from foreign
    produces.
  • Forbidding the colonist to engage in
    manufacturing activity in competition with
    British industries
  • Providing a favorable market for the products of
    the British East India Company.
  • Creating an economic situation in which gold
    tended to flow from the colonies to the mother
    country.

106
E The British government mistakenly thought the
colonists would accept the Townshend Act as an
external tax after having rejected the previous
Stamp Act, and internal Tax.
  • The British government imposed the Townshend Acts
    on the American colonies in belief that
  • The American position regarding British taxation
    had changed.
  • It was necessary to provoke a military
    confrontation in order to teach the colonists a
    lesson.
  • Its provisions were designed solely to enforce
    mercantilism
  • It had been approved by the colonial legislatures
  • The Americans would accept it as external rather
    than internal taxation.

107
A The primary issues in Says Rebellion was the
jailing of individuals or seizure of their
property for failure to pay taxes during a time
of economic hardship. Economic oppression by
eastern Massachusetts Bankers
  • The primary issue in dispute in Shays Rebellion
    was
  • The jailing of individuals or seizure of their
    property for failure to pay taxes during a time
    of economic hardship
  • The underrepresentation of western Massachusetts
    in the state legislature leading to accusation of
    taxation without representation.
  • The failure of Massachusetts to pay a promised
    postwar bonus to soldiers who had served in its
    forces during the revolution.
  • The failure of Massachusetts authorities to take
    adequate steps to protect the western part of the
    state from the depredations of raiding Indians.
  • Economic oppression practiced by the banking
    interests of eastern Massachusetts.
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