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Absolutism in France L’etat c’est moi -- Louis XIV

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Absolutism in France L etat c est moi -- Louis XIV France in the 17th Century Population: 3 times that of England 2 times that of Spain Uneven wealth Large ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Absolutism in France L’etat c’est moi -- Louis XIV


1
Absolutism in France Letat cest moi -- Louis
XIV
2
France in the 17th Century
  • Population
  • 3 times that of England
  • 2 times that of Spain
  • Uneven wealth
  • Large merchant class
  • Self-sufficient economy
  • Trade with India, settlements in North America
    and Caribbean (Canada, Mississippi Valley, West
    Indies)

3
Absolutism (Absolute Monarch)
  • Monarch has unlimited power
  • No limits
  • No constitution
  • Monarch tied to tradition and custom
  • People must have complete trust in well-bred and
    well-trained monarchs who were raised for the
    role from birth
  • Believe in the Divine Right to Rule
  • Examples Russian Tsars, French Kings

4
Henry IV Henry the Great
  • Ruled 1589-1610
  • Converted to Catholicism
  • 1598 Edict of Nantes
  • Freedom to the Protestants
  • Ended French Wars of Religion
  • Murdered by a fanatical Catholic
  • Religious problems still there

5
Louis XIII
  • Ruled 1610-1643
  • 30 Years War
  • Richelieu
  • Intrigue Three Musketeers
  • Absolute Monarch
  • French nobility under control
  • No privileges for the Huguenots
  • Built powerful navy
  • No tax reform

6
Cardinal Richelieu
  • 1585-1642
  • Believed in the State above all else

7
Richelieu and Government
  • Cardinal Richelieu was Louis XIIIs Chief
    Minister
  • Consolidated royal power, reduced noble rights
  • Crushed domestic dissenters
  • Result Strong, centralized state

8
Richelieu and France
  • Main foreign policy objectives
  • limit Hapsburg Dynasty
  • Alliances with Protestant rulers
  • Thirty Years War
  • France emerges more powerful than other nations
  • Decline of HRE
  • Legacy King Louis XIV
  • Edict of Fontainebleau in 1685
  • Nullified Edict of Nantes (1598)
  • Destroyed Huguenot churches
  • Closed Protestant schools
  • Result nearly 500,000 Protestants left France
    over the next 20 years
  • Went to England, Netherlands, Denmark, Germany,
    North America

9
Thirty Years War Causes
  • 1618-1648
  • Mostly religious conflict between Catholics and
    Protestants
  • Also political conflict between Holy Roman Empire
    and France

10
European Results Thirty Years War
  • Dutch independence from Spain
  • France gains Alsace from HRE
  • Protestant German princes ally themselves with
    France
  • Peace of Westphalia
  • Everyone must recognize the Peace of Augsburg
  • Catholics and Protestants are legally equal
  • Calvinism is permitted
  • Decline of HRE
  • Doesnt end conflict between Spain and France

11
Thirty Years War Results for France
  • Treasury nearly bankrupt
  • 1659 Spain cedes territory (mostly land in the
    Spanish Netherlands) to France, ending the
    conflict
  • Balance of Power changes. Spain begins to
    decline, France is rising in power

12
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13
Young King Louis XIV
  • Born 1638
  • Ruled 1643-1715
  • Assumed power at age 23

14
Cardinal Mazarin
  • Advisor to Louis while he was a child (1643-
    1661)
  • Italian. Not popular.

15
Just when things are getting better . . . . Le
Fronde
  • 1648 1653
  • Rebellion nobles vs. the king
  • Long term results
  • Louis distrust of nobility
  • Louis XIV must enforce absolutist rule
  • French realize benefit of a strong monarch

16
Jean Baptist Colbert Finance Minister
  • Believer in Mercantilism
  • prosperity depends on supply of capital.
  • Economic assets money held by the state
  • Positive balance of trade with other nations
    (exports minus imports).
  • Government must encourage exports and discourage
    imports, through the use of tariffs.

17
Colbert and the Domestic Economy
  • More taxation to enrich treasury
  • Domestic Commerce
  • Farmers, small manufacturers penalized
  • Restricted movement of goods and labor
  • Unfair tax system reinforced
  • Gentry, clergy exempt from taxation
  • Capitalists have favorable taxes
  • Ag. Land used for export industries (wine, wool)

18
Louis XIV Domestic Problems
  • Debt due to war
  • But, foundation for a strong economy
  • Civil Unrest
  • Nobles are too powerful. Louis must punish them.
  • Filled high government positions with commoners
  • Reduced nobles to courtiers
  • Required nobles to spend the majority of the year
    with him
  • Rewarded nobles with time spent with him

19
L etat cest moi!
  • I am the State
  • 1643-1715
  • France became world power, leader in the arts.
  • Fashion Clothing is large and showy to emphasis
    the kings personality

20
Louis XIV the Sun King
  • Overall brilliance
  • Nobles stayed within the kings orbit
  • Ruled for 72 years
  • Great influence on French culture
  • French is language of diplomacy
  • French style imitated

21
Life of Opulence and Grandeur
  • The Daily Routine of the King

22
Louis as the sun god Apollo
23
Louis as Apollo
by Jean Nocret, 1670
24
1673 Louis represented as a classical hero
25
The sun symbol was everywhere at Versailles
26
Family Life
  • His wife and cousin Marie Therese (a Hapsburg)
  • Seven children, only one son survived

27
Mistresses of the King
  • Mistress is a public role sits next to the
    queen at court.
  • Mademoiselle de la Vallière 3 children, later
    fled to a convent
  • Madame de Montespan 7 children, also retired
    to a convent
  • Madame de Maintenon no children, but married
    Louis in secret.

28
Versailles
  • Glory of the monarch glory of the state

29
Versailles Statistics
550,000 square feet 2,153 windows 700 rooms
67 staircases 6,000 paintings 2,100
sculptures 5,000 pieces of furniture 6,500
Acres
30
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31
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33
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35
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36
Temple of Love
37
Hall of Mirrors
38
The Kings Chapel
39
Opera Stage at Versailles
40
Furniture Louis XIV Style
41
Imitators
Winter Palace in St. Petersburg and Peterhof
summer palace near St. Petersburg
42
Blenheim Palace England
43
Schonbrunn Austria
44
La Granja Madrid
45
Marie Antoinettes Peasant House
  • Looks rustic, but opulent on the inside
  • Many aristocrats mimicked this style
  • Revolution wiped out that idea

46
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47
Marie Antoinettes Peasants Hut
48
War of Spanish Succession
  • Carlos II (1669-1700)
  • Descended from Joanna the Mad 14 times -- twice
    as a great, great, great grandson

49
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50
  • War of Spanish Succession
  • 1702-1713
  • France and HRE want to share Spanish territory
  • Spanish kings will favors France
  • This would make France too powerful, disrupt
    balance of power
  • War
  • Two sides
  • Grand Alliance (led by England, Holland, HRE) vs.
    France
  • France loses war, but gains Spanish throne

51
1713 Treaty of Utrecht
  • The Grand Alliance
  • England finally becomes one of the great powers
    of Europe
  • Made Louis XIV unpopular at home, but his
    grandson is now king of Spain
  • Spain loses Italian possessions
  • France gives England Hudsons Bay territory
  • Balance of Power is preserved

52
Death of Louis XIV
  • "Je m'en vais, mais l'État demeurera toujours."
    ("I am going away, but the State will always
    remain")
  • Advice to Louis XV "Do not follow the bad
    example which I have set you I have often
    undertaken war too lightly and have sustained it
    for vanity. Do not imitate me . . . may you apply
    yourself to the alleviation of the burdens of
    your subjects".

53
1715 Death of Louis XIV
  • War left France in need of revenue
  • Spread of French culture and style throughout
    Europe
  • Other monarchs mimicked his lifestyle
  • French is the lingua franca of Europe, the
    language of diplomacy

54
Louis XV Reigned 1715-1774
  • Great-grandson of Louis XIV
  • Mismanagement of finances
  • Loss of colonial possession during the 7 Years
    War with England
  • Scandalous private life
  • Where did all this lead? To questions about
    Absolutism.

55
Limits to Royal Absolutism
  • Kings power is NOT absolute
  • His rule must be reasonable, conform to the will
    of God
  • Power still limited by traditions, customs
  • King must operate under a recognized body of law
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