1. A prince therefore who desires to maintain him­self must learn to be not .always good, but to be so or not as necessity may require. This state­ment is typical of the writings of which of the following? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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1. A prince therefore who desires to maintain him­self must learn to be not .always good, but to be so or not as necessity may require. This state­ment is typical of the writings of which of the following?

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Title: 1. A prince therefore who desires to maintain him­self must learn to be not .always good, but to be so or not as necessity may require. This state­ment is typical of the writings of which of the following?


1
  • 1. "A prince therefore who desires to maintain
    himself must learn to be not .always good, but
    to be so or not as necessity may require." This
    statement is typical of the writings of which of
    the following?
  • (A) Castiglione
  • (B) Erasmus
  • (C) Machiavelli
  • (D) Petrarch
  • (E) Boccaccio
    peterson-1

2
  • 2. On the issue of salvation, Martin Luther
    differed from the Catholic Church in that he
    believed
  • (A) salvation was obtained through good works
    alone.
  • (B) salvation was obtained through good works and
    faith.
  • (C) salvation was predetermined by God.
  • (D) salvation was available only through the
    Church.
  • (E) salvation could be obtained through faith
    alone.

3
  • 3. Women were frequently tried and executed as
    witches for all of the following reasons SXCEPT
  • (A) their repeated acts of violence.
  • (B) their neighbors suspected the women of
    witchcraft.
  • (C) their communities feared the women
    worshipped the Devil
  • (D) their neighbors feared the women engaged in
    sexual 'activities with the Devil.
  • (E) the prevailing misogyny of the period.

4
  • 4. King Louis XIV of France provides perhaps the
    best example of the form of government known as
  • (A) despotism.
  • (B) absolutism
  • (C) constitutional monarchy
  • (D) fascism.
  • (E) representative democracy.

5
  • 5. The intellectuals that dominated the thought
    of the Enlightenment were known as
  • (A) scholastica.
  • (B) philosophes.
  • (C) Encyclopedie.
  • (D) Romantics.
  • (E) empiricists.

6
  • 6. The Industrial Revolution, which began in the
    late eighteenth century, began in
  • (A) France.
  • (B) Germany.
  • (C) Russia.
  • (D) the Low Countries.
  • (E) Great Britain.

7
  • 7. The event that triggered the outbreak of World
    War I was
  • (A) Germany's return to unrestricted submarine
    warfare.
  • (B) the collapse of the Three Emperor's League.

  • (C) the assassination of Archduke Francis
    Ferdinand.
  • (D) the Bloody Sunday massacre.
  • (E) failure of the Treaty of Versailles.

8
  • 8. During World 'War II, the Alliance of Germany,
    Italy, and Japan was known as
  • (A) the Entente Cordiale.
  • (B) the Allied Powers.
  • (C) the Triple Alliance
  • (D) the Axis Powers.
  • (E) the Eastern Bloc.

9
  • 9. The Supremacy Act of 1534
  • (A) declared the king the ofl1cial head of the
    Church of England.
  • (B) revoked the Edict of Nantes.
  • (C) declared the Pope the supreme religious
    figure in England.
  • (D) declared the Bible the supreme source of
    religious authority.
  • (E) closed the monasteries and led to a more
    equitable distribution of land in England.

10
  • 10. Generally speaking, after the Thirty 'Years'
    War
    (A) the
    Holy Roman Empire was strengthened.
  • (B) the German princes were granted
    sovereignty and the Holy Roman Empire collapsed.
  • (C) Calvinism was prohibited throughout Germany.
  • (D) the pope was allowed to intervene in German
    religious affairs.
  • (E) Germany was unified.

11
  • 11. The Glorious Revolution (1688-1689) was
    significant because
  • (A) William and Mary led a successful revolt
    among the English peasants.
  • (B) it reinstated the idea of the divine right of
    kings.
  • (C) the Parliament was suppressed by royal
    authority.
  • (D) of the excessive violence necessary to
    succeed in its attempt to overthrow the king.
  • (E) the idea of divine right was destroyed, and
    one monarch was replaced by another with minimal
    bloodshed

12
  • 12. The painting below most likely depicts (A)
    the trial of an alleged witch.
  • (B) the licensing of a prostitute in early modern
    Europe.
  • (C) an anatomy lesson during the Scientific
    Revolution.
  • (D) the examination of a native from the New
    World during the Age of Exploration and
    Expansion.
  • (E) the public ostracizing of a Woman who posed
    nude for a painting during the Renaissance.

13
  • 13. The phrase "I am the state" best
    characterizes the reign of
  • (A) William and Mary.
  • (B) Louis XIV
  • (C) Victor Emmanuel III
    (D) Otto yon Bismarck.
    (E) Helmut Kohl.

14
  • 14. The philosopher who first doubted all but the
    power of his own reason and deduced the
    existence of God was
  • (A) Rene Descartes.
  • (B) Blaise Pascal.
  • (C) Sir Francis Bacon.
    (D) Sir Isaac Newton.
    (E)
    Baruch Spinoza.

15
  • 15. The industry that paved the way for the
    Industrial Revolution 'was the
  • (A) steel industry.
  • (B) agricultural industry.
  • (C) textile industry.
  • (D) luxury goods industry.
    (E) shipbuilding industry.

16
  • 16. The Tennis Court Oath symbolized the
  • (A) resolve of the National Assembly to create a
    new constitution.
  • (B) desire of the National Assembly to behead the
    king and queen.
  • (C) resolve of the First and Second Estates to
    resist change.
  • (D) resolve of the monarchy to resist change.

    (E) the determination of Robespierre to
    eliminate all enemies of the state.

17
  • 17. An experimental utopian socialist society was
    built in New Harmony, Indiana, in the 1820s by
  • (A) Robert Owen.
  • (B) Karl Marx.
  • (C) Friedrich Engels.
    (D) Thomas More.
    (E) Flora
    Tristan.

18
  • 18. Strides were made in nineteenth-century
    health care by .
  • (A) returning to traditional methods of
    treatment and prevention.
  • (B) practicing methods formerly used by midwives
    and rural health-care professionals.
  • (C) mixing religion and science to prove a
    holistic approach to medicine.
  • (D) reviving classical ideas about health and
    sickness.
  • (E) employing rational methods of treating and
    preventing diseases.

19
  • 19. Popular unrest, mass exodus., and mass
    demonstrations against the repressive measures
    of Erich Honecker in 1989 led to
  • (A) retaliatory measures by Honecker's secret
    police.
  • (B) intervention into East German affairs by the
    United States.
  • (e) the strengthening of the East German
    government.
  • (D) the arrest of Solidarity leaders, including
    Lech Walesa.
  • (E) the collapse of the Communist Party and the
    destruction of the Berlin Wall.

20
  • 20. The English Star Chamber was
  • (A) the first astronomer's observatory of the
    Scientific Revolution.
  • (B) a court designed to end the influence of
    powerful nobles on the English courts.
  • (C) a room for the torture of Protestants under
    the control of Bloody Jv1ary Tudor.
  • (D) the room designated for the trial of those
    suspected of witchcraft.
  • (E) established to increase the power of the
    English nobility.

21
  • 21. Calvinists in France were known as
  • (A) Anabaptists.
  • (B) Trinitarians.
  • (C) Unitarians.
  • (D) Huguenots.
  • (E) Presbyterians.

22
  • 22. The eighteenth-century European family
    household typically
  • (A) was a nuclear family.
  • (B) included grandparents and great-grandparents.
  • (C) included three to five other families.
  • (D) consisted often to twelve family members.

    (E) consisted of an unmarried couple.

23
  • 23. The graph below illustrates
  • (A) the economic impact of the Great Depression.
  • (B) the devastating effects of the bubonic
  • plague.
  • (C) the pattern of the Great Migration.
  • (D) the rise of capitalism.
  • (E) national participation in World War II.

24
  • 24. Adolf Hitler learned from Benito Mussolini's
    example that
  • (A) he should establish fascist government
    through a military coup.
  • (B) fascism did not have to be violent.
  • (C) he should first gain political power through
    legal measures before establishing a totalitarian
    state.
  • (D) women were not inferior to men.
  • (E) Jews, Catholics, and homosexuals should be
    eliminated.

25
  • 25. "Man is nothing else but what he makes of
    himself" This statement is the first principle of
  • (A) abstract expressionism.
  • (B) transcendentalism.
  • (C) existentialism.
  • (D) atheism.
  • (E) postmodernism.

26
  • 26. In response to the German Peasant Revolts of
    15241525, Luther
  • (A) encouraged the peasants to seek political
    freedom similar to their spiritual freedom.
  • (B) encouraged the princes to crush revolts.
  • (C) encouraged the princes to grant the peasants
    wishes.
  • (D) encouraged the peasants to peacefully
    petition the prince with their desires.
  • (E) encouraged the papacy to grant the peasants'
    wishes.

27
  • 27. The illustration below most likely depicts
    the
  • (A) destructive power of witches.
  • (B) devastating results of total war.
  • (C) aftermath of the Great Lisbon Earthquake.
  • (D) effects of nuclear warfare.
  • (E) nuclear disaster at Chernobyl.

28
  • 28. During the presidential elections of 1848 in
    France, a war veteran spoke of whom when he said,
    "Why shouldn't I vote for this gentleman? I,
    whose nose was frozen near Moscow?"
  • (A) Louis XVI
  • (B) Louis-Philippe
  • (C) Louis Napoleon
  • (D) Richard Dreyfus
  • (E) Louis XIV

29
  • 29. The leader of the group known as the Red
    Shirts was
  • (A) Victor Emmanuel III.
  • (B) Giuseppe Mazzini.
  • (C) Camillo de Cavour.
  • (D) Giuseppe Garibaldi.
  • (E) Benito Mussolini.

30
  • 30. One of the outstanding new developments of
    Romantic music by musicians such as Franz Liszt
    was the
  • (A) use of music to express a literary or
    pictorial concept or idea.
  • (B) use of random, atonal music.
  • (C) cold, unemotional use of music.
  • (D) return to traditional forms.
  • (E) removal of the piano from the orchestra.

31
  • 31. By the early twentieth century, art and
    literature began to reflect many people's
    notions that
  • (A) the world needed to return to religion to
    restore hope and order.
  • (B) reality was to be perceived according to a
    few universal truths.
  • (C) the purpose of art and literature was to
    recreate reality as accurately as possible.
  • (D) the reason and rationality of the past was to
    be necessary for man's progression in the future.
  • (E) reality may not be what they had once
    believed, especially in light of the new
    physics and new psychology.

32
  • 32. In the years prior to World War I, the entity
    most perceived by Austria- Hungary as a threat to
    its empire was
  • (A) Russia.
  • (B) Germany.
  • (C) France.
  • (D) Serbia.
  • (E) the Ottoman Empire.

33
  • 33. All of the following are tenets of John
    Calvin's theology EXCEPT
  • (A) perseverance of the saints.
  • (B) total depravity of man.
  • (C) unconditional predestination.
  • (D) infallibility of the Church.
  • (E) limited atonement.

34
  • 34. All of the following were true of the Council
    of Trent (15451563) EXCEPT
  • (A) authority of local bishops was increased.
  • (B) the selling of church offices was restricted.
  • (C) no doctrinal concessions were made to the
  • Protestants.
  • (D) steps were taken to enhance the image and
    abilities of local parish priests.
  • (E) the rules requiring priests to remain
    celibate were relaxed and, in some cases,
    revoked.

35
  • 35. The Peace of Utrecht (l7131714)
  • (A) established the dominance of France after the
    War of the Spanish Succession.
  • (B) laid the foundations for the French
    dominance of Europe during the eighteenth
    century.
  • (C) established a balance of power in Europe and
    ended French dominance.
  • (D) established Catholicism as the one true
    religion in the Netherlands.
  • (E) greatly reduced the holdings of Great Britain
    in North America.

36
  • 36. Sir Francis Bacon advocated
  • (A) reliance on scholastic traditions and
    knowledge from antiquity.
  • (B) the understanding of nature through
    mathematical laws
  • (C) deductive reasoning.
  • (D) examination of empirical evidence.
  • (E) the idea that most truth had already been
    discovered.

37
  • 37. In the time during and after the French
    Revolution, the French Catholic clergy were
    alienated most by the
  • (A) elimination of tax exemptions for the First
    Estate.
  • (B) state's seizure of Church property.
  • (C) Declaration of the Rights of Man and the
    Citizen.
  • (D) involvement of women in the revolutionary
    activities.
  • (E) Civil Constitution of the Clergy.

38
  • 38. John Wesley's ministry primarily involved
  • (A) writing pamphlets and tracts.
  • (B) preaching in open fields
  • (C) teaching in universities.
  • (D) preaching hellfire and brimstone sermons from
    the pulpit.
  • (E) caring for the sick in the slums of the urban
    areas.

39
  • 39. The two major factors in the onset of the
    Great Depression were the
  • (A) collapse of the American stock market and the
    slowing of national economies.
  • (B) slowing of national economies and the rise in
    unemployment.
  • (C) collapse of the ,American stock market and
    the collapse of the Credit-Anstalt.
  • (D) collapse of the Credit-Anstalt and the rise
    of unemployment.
  • (E) skyrocketing unemployment rate worldwide and
    the secret treaties between European powers.

40
  • 40. The Edict of Nantes, issued by Henry IV in
    1598, effectively
  • (A) outlawed Protestantism in France.
  • (B) restricted Protestantism to rural areas of
    France.
  • (C) granted religious freedom to Protestants in
    France.
  • (D) ended papal authority in France.
  • (E) ignited the French Wars of Religion.

41
  • 41. The building in the picture below was most
    likely constructed to
  • (A) honor the gods represented by the statues
    around the fountain.
  • (B) intimidate and impress foreign dignitaries.
  • (C) provide safety and protection.
  • (D) recreate classical architecture.
  • (E) serve as a public works project that would
    provide jobs for the unemployed.

42
  • 42. The dominance of Napoleon helped inspire in
    subjugated lands feelings of
  • (A) loyalty to Napoleon.
  • (B) intense religious revival.
  • (C) nationalism.
  • (D) respect for the Catholic Church.
  • (E) a deep appreciation for French culture.

43
  • 43. "I grieve, when on the darker side
  • Or this great change I look and there behold
    Such outrage done to nature as compels
  • The indignant power to justify herself"
  • This poem is most characteristic of
  • (A) Michel de Montaigne.
  • (B) Miguel de Cervantes.
  • (C) Vaclav Havel.
  • (D) Friedrich Nietzsche.
  • (E) William Wordsworth.

44
  • 44. The German Schlieffen Plan during World War I
    called for
  • (A) German troops to maintain a defensive
    position in case of an attack by Russian forces.
  • (B) German troops to be positioned for a battle
    on both the eastern and western fronts.
  • (C) Germany to be allied with Russia in case
    Austria-Hungary attacked the Balkans.
  • (D) a total war effort On the homefront.
  • (E) the unconditional surrender of Germany's
    enemies.

45
  • 45. Joseph Stalin's five-year plans were designed
    to
  • (A) turn Russia into an industrial power.
  • (B) make Russia the world's leading
  • agricultural producer.
  • (C) put Russian astronauts in orbit before the
    Americans.
  • (D) empower the kulaks.
  • (E) spread Communism to capitalist nations within
    five years.

46
  • 46. The Dayton Accords of 1995
  • (A) split Bosnia into two separate states.
  • (B) authorized NATO forces to use force in
    Chechnya if needed.
  • (C) decelerated the international nuclear arms
    race.
  • (D) granted significant amounts of financial aid
    to Russia and states of the former Soviet Union.
  • (E) created the European Union.

47
  • 47. In the mid-eighteenth century, the leading
    banking center of Europe was
  • (A) Florence.
  • (B) Milan.
  • (C) Amsterdam.
  • (D) Vienna.
  • (E) Prague.

48
  • 48. The family that ruled Russia from the 1600s
    until 1917 was the
  • (A) Muscovites.
  • (B) Hohenzollerns.
  • (C) Romanovs.
  • (D) Brezhnevs.
  • (E) Habsburgs.

49
  • 49. The philosophy of the philosophes conflicted
    with the theology of the Church because the
  • (A)philosophes believed that humanity could not
    be improved and the Church did.
  • (B) philosophes were not concerned with matters
    of this world but matters of the world beyond
    this one.
  • (C) philosophes disapproved of the scientific
    study of humanity as advocated by the Church.
  • (D) philosophes believed the Church was too open
    to new ideas.
  • (E) philosophes believed that humanity was not
    depraved and could be improved, as opposed to
    the view of the Church.

50
  • 50. Prior to the French Revolution, the First
    Estate owned approximately what percent of the
    land of France?
  • (A) 10 percent
  • (B) 25 percent
  • (C) 50 percent
  • (D) 75 percent
  • (E) 90 percent

51
  • 51. The map below most likely depicts
  • (A) the Ottoman Empire prior to the Crimean War.
  • (B) the Ottoman Empire after the Crimean War.
  • (C) the Balkans in 1914.
  • (D) the Balkans in 1995.
    (E) Germany prior to 1871.

52
  • 52. Hitler's hatred of the Jews was no secret,
    but Hitler also despised the
  • (A) Anglo-Saxon Europeans.
    (B) Scandinavians,
  • (C) Italians.
  • (D) French.
  • (E) Slavs.

53
  • 53. The reduction of international tension
    through diplomacy and trade is best defined as
  • (A) perestroika,
  • (B) solidarity,
  • (C) glastnost.
  • (D) appeasement.
  • (E) détente.


54
  • 54. The issue that drove a wedge between the
    French people in 1954 and nearly cost Charles de
    Gaulle his country was the
  • (A.) independence of Algeria.
  • (B) independence of Morocco and Tunisia.
  • (C) destalinization of the Soviet Union. (D)
    Dreyfus Affair.
  • (E) youth revolt in Paris.

55
  • 55. The two thinkers who were the most
    influential forerunners of the Enlightenment were
  • (A.) Galileo and Copernicus.
  • (B) Newton and Galileo.
  • (C) Descartes and Locke.
  • (D) Descartes and Newton.
  • (E) Newton and Locke.

56
  • 56. The phrase enlightened absolutism is most
    often associated with
  • (A.) Louis XIV and Frederick William I of
    Prussia.
  • (B) Charles V and Catherine the Great.
  • (C) Catherine the Great and Joseph II of Austria.
  • (D) William and Mary of England.
    (E) Joseph I and Joseph II of Austria.

57
  • 57. The Frenchman Joseph de Maistre would most
    likely agree that
  • (A.) society was an agreement between the
    governed and the government.
  • (B) only an absolute monarch could maintain
    control and order in the wake of events like the
    French Revolution.
  • (C) the government's key function was the
    preservation of its citizens' basic natural
    rights.
  • (D) absolute monarchs had no place in the
    eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
  • (E) democracy was superior to monarchy.

58
  • 58. All of the following were true of Camillo de
    Cavour EXCEPT that he
  • (A.) favored a constitutional government in
    Italy.

    (B) encouraged economic development by expanding
    industry.
  • (C) encouraged economic development by building
    railroads and canals.
  • (D) spent large amounts of money to build and
    equip a large army.
  • (E) enlisted the help of Austria to declare war
    on Napoleon III.

59
  • 59. The nineteenth-century concept of the germ
    theory
  • (A) inspired the germ warfare used in the
    twentieth century.
  • (B) was incorrect in asserting that germs were
    nonliving organisms.
  • (C) was developed by Marie Curie and
    ultimately won her the Nobel Prize.
  • (D) implied that diseases were caused by living
    organisms.
  • (E) had no impact in hospital treatment and
    surgical procedures.

60
  • 60. The most significant decision made at the
    Teheran Conference in 1943 was to
  • (A) partition Germany after the war.
  • (B) drop an atomic bomb on Japan.
  • (C) invade Normandy.
  • (D) build a wall in Berlin after the war.
  • (E) invade Germany from the east and west.

61
  • 61. The Labour Party, which defeated Churchill's
    Conservative Party after World War II, created in
    Britain what was best described as a
  • (A) democracy
    (B) republic.
  • (C) capitalist state.
  • (D) communist state.
  • (E) welfare state.

62
  • 62. The Hohenzollerns were
  • (A) representatives in the Reichstag. (B)
    representatives in the duma.
  • (C) rulers of Prussia known for their social
    fairness and economic freedoms.
  • (D) rulers of Prussia known for their weak
    military and poor administration.
  • (E) rulers of Prussia characterized by military
    strength and discipline.

63
  • 63. All of the following were reforms of Peter
    the Great EXCEPT
  • (A) secularization of the Russian church.
  • (B) replacement of the government ministers with
    bureaus to more effectively manage taxes and
    economic affairs.
  • (C) establishment of new industries in Russia.
  • (D) the elimination of all Western ideas and
    influences in Russia.
  • (E) the subordination of the boyars.

64
  • 64. All of the following are true of deism EXCEPT
    that it
  • (A) is emotional and irrational.
  • (B) is tolerant.
  • (C) allows for and encourages virtuous living.
  • (D) is reasonable.
    (E) is empirical.

65
  • 65. Napoleons armies were significant because
  • (A) of their sheer numbers and strength.
  • (B) Napoleon successfully used mercenaries to win
    numerous battles.
  • (C) they were not composed of conscripts.

    (D) they successfully fought for
    someone in whom they did not believe and for a
    nation to whom they were not loyal.
  • (E) they were trained abroad and then brought
    back to France for battle.

66
  • 66. The government of France after the July
    Revolution of 1830 could best be described as
  • (A) mutually beneficial to the upper and lower
    classes.
  • (B) beneficial only to the upper middle class.
  • (C) beneficial only to the workers.
  • (D) one of near-miraculous economic prosperity.
  • (E) an absolute monarchy.

67
  • 67. Turner, Friedrich, and Delacroix were
    painters of which of the following movements?
  • (A) Romanticism
  • (B) Neoclassicism
  • (C) Impressionism
  • (D) Dadaism
  • (E) Cubism

68
  • 68. All of the following can be said of Russian
    peasants after Czar Alexander II emancipated
    them in 1861 EXCEPT that they
  • (A) could own property.
  • (B) could marry freely.
  • (C) were completely free.
  • (D) could bring cases before the courts.
  • (E) could purchase land that had been made
    available to them.

69
  • 69. Although the ostensible cause for the removal
    of Khrushchev from office was his deteriorating
    health, the real reason for his removal was
  • (A) his renunciation of Stalin.
  • (B) his failed economic policies.
  • (C) his increased contact with the Western world.
  • (D) his personality.
  • (E) the abuse and corruption he practiced while
    he was in office.

70
  • 70. Through the teachings and work of John Knox,
    the ideas of John Calvin spread to Scotland in
    the form of
  • (A) Anglicanism.
  • (B) Methodism.
  • (C) Anabaptism.
  • (D) Presbyterianism.
  • (E) Catholicism.

71
  • 71. The Prussian leader during the eighteenth
    century who was obsessed with all things military
    was
  • (A) Frederick William I.
  • (B) Franz Joseph.
  • (C) Catherine the Great.
    (D) Peter the Great.
  • (E) Maria Theresa.

72
  • 72. "The ordinary means therefore to increase our
    wealth and treasure is by Foreign Trade wherein
    we must ever observe this rule to sell more to
    strangers yearly than we consume of theirs in
    value." This statement best explains which of the
    following?
  • (A) Imperialism
  • (B) Socialism
  • (C) Communism
  • (D) Mercantilism
  • (E) Protectionism

73
  • 73. The declaration of Notre Dame Cathedral as a
    Temple of Reason and the renaming of the days and
    months were measures taken by the Republic of
    Virtue to
  • (A) make the common people forget their old
  • way of life.
  • (B) dechristianize the republic.
  • (C) satisfy the demands of the sans-culottes.
    (D) unite the provinces with the
    revolutionary
  • forces of the capital.
  • (E) unite both the clerical and secular factions
    of the republic.

74
  • 74. Women tended to be especially oppressed in

    (A) Russia under Lenin.
  • (B) Russia under Stalin.
  • (C) Germany under the Weimar Republic.
  • (D) Italy under Mussolini.
  • (E) France under de Gaulle.

75
  • 75. One of the main reasons for the success of
    Lech Walesa's Solidarity movement was the
  • (A) enormous amount of funding it received from
    the United Nations.
  • (B) large military following Walesa amassed.

    (C) support of other Eastern bloc
    governments.
  • (D) support of the Catholic Church.
  • (E) support of the Polish government.

76
  • 76. The English Game Laws were examples of
  • (A) legislation designed to reduce the economic
    burden of the peasantry.
  • (B) laws that enabled Parliament to produce
    revenue by charging the peasants for hunting
    licenses.
  • (C) legislation that banned medieval
    tournaments.
  • (D) legislation that allowed hunting on the
    king's land only in order to feed families and
    not for profit.
  • (E) class legislation that benefited only the
    gentry.

77
  • 77. The last great outbreak of which of the
    following diseases wok place in France in 1720?
  • (A) Smallpox
  • (B) Dysentery
  • (C) Bubonic plague
  • (D) Influenza
  • (E) Typhus

78
  • 78. In response to the revolutionary activities
    in France, many European governments
  • (A) ignored the events.
  • (B) offered to lend assistance to the
    revolutionaries.
  • (C) instituted repressive domestic policies to
    prevent the spread of the revolutionary fervor.
  • (D) did not see the danger in the ideas of the
    revolutionaries in France.
  • (E) signed treaties of nonaggression with both
    the old regime and the revolutionary forces.

79
  • 79. The significant increase in crime rates
    across Europe in the early nineteenth century is
    most likely attributable to the
  • (A) collapse of governments across Europe. (B)
    inefficiency of local justice under the
    absolute rulers of Europe.
  • (C) increase in wealth due to industrialization
    and the jealousy of the few poor who remained.
  • (D) undesirable living conditions of the
    increasingly large number of poor as a result of
    urban overcrowding.
  • (E) increased number of secret political
    societies and student groups.

80
  • 80. Between 1871 and 1914, the two European
    countries LEAST likely to rally were
  • (A) France and Great Britain.
  • (B) Austria-Hungary and Russia.
  • (C) Germany and Italy.
  • (D) France and Germany.
  • (E) Great Britain and Russia.

81
  • 1. Which of the following is NOT true of the
    "Glorious Revolution" of 1689?
  • It established, once and for all, the right of
    Parliament to levy taxes.
  • It established that the monarchy and Parliament
    ruled England together.
  • It reflected the theories of government of Thomas
    Hobbes.
  • (D) It was supported by the theories of John
    Locke.
  • (E) It marked the supremacy of constitutionalism
    in England.
  • barrons-1

82
  • 2. Religious toleration by the English government
    from 1534, when the English Reformation began, to
    1689, when the Toleration Act was passed
  • guaranteed the right to worship to all Christian
    sects
  • denied the right to worship to all except
    Anglicans
  • denied only the right to worship to atheists
  • periodically denied to Catholics the right to
    worship
  • was varied, at times denying then guaranteeing
    freedom of worship to different sects

83
  • 3. Which was NOT a goal of Christian humanists
    like Erasmus and Thomas More?
  • To recapture the moral force of early
    Christianity
  • To reform the Roman Catholic Church
  • To criticize the pomposities of leaders and
    inequities of society
  • To support Protestantism
  • To emphasize the religious aspects of classical
    literature

84
  • 4. Regiomontanus and Nicholas of Cusa helped lay
    the foundations for Copernicus's radical theory
    of astronomy by their work in
  • (A) telescopic observation
  • (B) physics
  • (C) mathematics
  • (D) empirical science
  • (E) philosophical disputation

85
  • 5. Machiavelli's The Prince offered which of the
    following pieces of advice?
  • Know your enemy and know your self and you cannot
    be defeated.
  • Behave like a weasel and a bear to be smart and
    ferocious.
  • (C) Allow a strong minister to help you run your
    nation.
  • (D) Do not conquer your enemies too harshly.
  • (E) Be loved or feared, but never hated.

86
  • 6. In the 14th and 15th centuries, mystics, such
    as Meister Eckhart, Thomas a Kempis, and the
    founder of Brothers of the Common Faith, Gerard
    Groote
  • (A) preached rebellion against the papacy
  • (B) stressed the importance of the sacraments
  • (C) laid the foundations for Protestantism's
    personal approach to worship
  • (D) argued the necessity of adhering to dogma
  • (E) had a universal and popular appeal

87
  • 7. An important accomplishment of the Treaty of
    Utrecht (1713-1714) was (A) that
    it allowed a Bourbon monarch to rule both Spain
    and France (B) it
    established a French empire in North America
  • (C) it set up an independent and unified
    Netherlands
  • (D) it ousted the Austrians from Italy
  • (E) it helped restore the balance of power on the
    continent

88
  • 8. The Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day in 1572
  • (A) marked the renewal of religious civil war in
    France
  • (B) resulted in the slaughter of Catholic leaders
  • (C) marked the end of Protestantism in France
  • (D) restored religious toleration in France
  • (E) was perpetrated by Huguenot mobs

89
  • 9. Which of the following is NOT a major tenet of
    Lutheranism?
  • (A) Salvation is by faith and faith only
  • (B) The Bible is the final authority for
    Christian Doctrine
  • (C) Absolution from sin comes only through the
    grace of God
  • (D) Baptism is the only valid sacrament
  • (E) Only the inner grace of God, not indulgences
    or absolution, can free one from sin

90
  • 10. Which of the following is a significant
    difference between medieval and Renaissance
    sculpture?
  • (A) The shift from Old Testament to New Testament
    themes
  • (B) The use of stone rather than wood
  • (C) Renaissance sculpture was devoid of religious
    subjects
  • (D) Renaissance art represented the visible world
    rather than conventional symbolism
  • (E) Renaissance sculpture was no longer
    commissioned by the popes

91
  • 11. Calvin, a Frenchman, established a theocratic
    government in
  • (A) France
  • (B) Scotland
  • (C) Sweden
  • (D) Switzerland
  • (E) England

92
  • 12. "The church is not subordinate to the state,
    but rather must be ruled according to God's plan.
    The chosen few should not only govern the church
    but also the state." An adherent of what
    religious group is likely to have believed this
    in the 16th century?
  • (A) Lutheran
  • (B) Calvinist
  • (C) Roman Catholic
  • (D) Millennarian
  • (E) Anabaptist

93
  • 13. During the 16th century, which dynasty ruled
    a dominion that stretched from the Atlantic to
    Eastern Europe, from the Baltic to the
    Mediterranean?
  • (A) Valois
  • (B) Hohenzollern
  • (C) Bourbon
  • (D) Tudor
  • (E) Hapsburg

94
  • 14. All of the following are accurate depictions
    of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) EXCEPT
  • (A) it was fought mostly in Germany
  • (B) it involved the major states of Europe
  • (C) it was a religious struggle between
    Protestants and Catholics
  • (D) it was a political struggle between the
    German princes and the Holy Roman Empire
  • (E) it allied the French with the Austrian
    Hapsburgs

95
  • 15. The event depicted here marked the start of
    which armed conflict?
  • (A) The Thirty Years' War
  • (B) The War of the Roses
  • (C) The War of the Three Henrys
  • (D) The Hapsburg-Valois Wars
  • (E) The War of Spanish Succession

96
  • 16. Philip II of Spain (1556-1598)
  • (A) championed religious toleration of Spanish
    Jews and Moslems
  • (B) granted independence to the Spanish
    Netherlands
  • (C) abolished the Alcabala, a 10 percent tax on
    all sales that inhibited commerce
  • (D) dedicated his reign to establishing Catholic
    orthodoxy
  • (E) was defeated by the Turks at Lepanto

97
  • 17. The 17th century witnessed the rise in
    Central and Eastern Europe of two states
  • (A) Austria and Prussia
  • (B) Poland and Austria
  • (C) Prussia and Russia
  • (D) Poland and Prussia
  • (E) Russia and Poland

98
  • 18. The above map shows acquisitions of Peter the
    Great from 1682 to 1715.
  • The territories were gained from
  • (A) Poland, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire
  • (B) Prussia, Austria, and Poland
  • (C) Poland, Prussia, and the Ottoman Empire
  • (D) Sweden, the Ottoman Empire, and Austria
  • (E) Prussia, Poland, Sweden

99
  • 19. Prussia has been called "a state built around
    an army," meaning that
  • (A) the kings were recruited from the High
    Command
  • (B) in a nation of separate states, the army was
    a unifying force
  • (C) the Junkers were militarists
  • (D) the army ruled the monarchy
  • (E) universal conscription was the rule

100
  • 20. Joseph II of Austria (1780-1790) has been
    called the "ideal Enlightened Despot" for all of
    the following EXCEPT
  • (A) he abolished serfdom
  • (B) he fostered freedom of the press
  • (C) he granted religious freedom to most
    Christian sects and to Jews
  • (D) he abolished the secret police
  • (E) he suppressed the influence of the Roman
    Catholic Church

101
  • 21. Louis XVI of France convened the Estates
    General in 1789 for the first time in over 150
    years because
  • (A) he wanted to show support for the growing
    democratic movement
  • (B) he wanted approval to exempt the First and
    Second Estates from taxation
  • (C) he wanted approval for taxing all landowners
    in the realm
  • (D) he needed funds to help support the American
    cause against the British
  • (E) he needed a legislative body to check the
    powers of Parlement of Paris

102
  • 22. When the French people drew up cahiers (lists
    of grievances) in 1789 for the Estates General to
    consider, which of the following would NOT have
    been likely?
  • (A) The peasants wanted relief from feudal dues.
  • (B) The bourgeoisie called for access to high
    office in the military and
  • government.
  • (C) Shopkeepers wanted an end to unnecessary
    taxes on commerce.
  • (D) The nobles wanted an expansion of royal
    power.
  • (E) The clergy wanted protection of monastic
    lands.

103
  • 23. The Age of Napoleon spanned what years?
  • (A) 1799-1815
  • (B) 1803-1815
  • (C) 1789-1815
  • (D) 1795-1814
  • (E) 1799-1814

104
  • 24. The Enclosure Movement is best assessed by
    which of the following statements?
  • (A) A peasant movement demanding special courts
    for nobles who were accused of fur collar crime
  • (B) A set of naval maneuvers perfected by Sir
    Francis Drake
  • (C) A set of military fortifications separating
    Alsace Lorraine from Germanic lands
  • (D) A set of rules governing trade between the
    Germanic states involved in the Zollverein.
  • (E) The slow movement away from the open field
    system as the nobility fenced in their land and
    moved the peasants off it

105
  • 25. Why is it significant that Napoleon crowned
    himself as emperor of the First French Empire in
    1804?
  • (A) He was the first of his line.
  • (B) It was a symbolic gesture to show his
    independence.
  • (C) Because of the Concordat of 1801, the clergy
    refused to participate.
  • (D) Because the Senate had named him "Emperor of
    the French" rather than "Emperor of France."
  • (E) It had no significance.

106
  • 26. All of the following were results of the
    Industrial Revolution EXCEPT
    (A) it created two new social classes
  • (B) it displaced the landed aristocracy as the
    dominant social class
  • (C) it brought great wealth ro factory owners
  • (D) it subjected workers and their families to
    low wages, long working days, and oppressive
    living conditions
  • (E) it created poverty much worse than that in
    the countryside

107
  • 27. According to Ricardo's Iron Law of Wages
  • (A) workers in pig iron production must earn
    subsistence wages
  • (B) population will outrun the food supply
  • (C) a ten-hour workday was most productive
  • (D) variations in the supply and demand of labor
    will lead to eventual mass starvation
  • (E) poverty will end only with the public
    ownership of the means of production

108
  • 28. How did Edward Jenner's development of a
    vaccine against smallpox influence the Industrial
    Revolution?
  • (A) It increased the food supply by protecting
    farmers from developing the disease through
    exposure to infected cows.
  • (B) It led indirectly to a population increase
    that provided more workers for urban factories.
  • (C) It improved the health of milkmaids and
    increased the supply of dairy products.
  • (D) Used on cattle, it increased the yield of
    meat.
  • (E) It had no influence.

109
  • 29. "The Age of Reason diminished the human
    spirit by denying the emotionality that flows
    from the soul. Miracles are acts of God, not
    illusions for the senses. Mystery is at the core
    of existence. The tiller of the soil is purer at
    heart than the factory laborer, and science will
    never uncover the ultimate meaning of life."
  • The passage above would most likely have been
    written in the first half of the 19th century by
  • (A) a Socialist
  • (B) a materialist
  • (C) a Romantic
  • (D) a rationalist
  • (E) a liberal

110
  • 30. The painting above would most likely adhere
    to the themes of the movement that included which
    of the following?
  • (A) Marx and Engels
  • (B) Charles Darwin
  • (C) Byron and Goethe
  • (D) Edmund Burke
  • (E) Freud

111
  • 31. Hapsburg rule in the Austro-Hungarian Empire
    prior to World War I was most threatened by
  • (A) the growth of socialism
  • (B) liberal reformers
  • (C) German aggression
  • (D) the Pan-Slavic movement
  • (E) a decline of the fine arts

112
  • 32. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 was a turning
    point in British history because
  • (A) the Roundheads defeated the Cavaliers and
    executed the king, making Parliament the supreme
    power in the nation
  • (B) it marked Roman Catholicism's return to both
    England and Scotland as an official state
    religion
  • (C) the French vowed to stay out of British
    international affairs as a result of the Glorious
    Revolution of 1688
  • (D) Puritans gained supreme power throughout the
    country and they threatened another civil war if
    Oliver Cromwell's reforms were not reinstated
  • (E) it was accompanied by the English Bill of
    Rights that limited monarchical authority
    significantly

113
  • 33. A revolution in psychology at the end of the
    19th century popularized the notion that human
    behavior springs from irrational forces and
    unconscious urges. It was pioneered by
  • (A) Auguste Comte
  • (B) Leopold von Ranke
  • (C) Sigmund Freud
  • (D) William James
  • (E) Carl Gustave Jung

114
  • 34. Monet, Renoir, and Pissarro pioneered which
    style of painting?
  • (A) Romanticism
  • (B) Impressionism
  • (C) Realism
  • (D) Abstractionism
  • (E) Cubism

115
  • 35. Who was the most influential statesman in
    Europe for the two decades before 1890, and why
    was he so powerful?
  • (A) Prime Minister Cavour because a united Italy
    had become a major player on the world stage
  • (B) Kaiser Wilhelm I because Germany had become
    the world's leading industrial power
  • (C) Chancellor Bismarck because the unification
    of Germany had upset the European balance of
    power
  • (D) Emperor Franz Joseph because he headed the
    rejuvenated monarchy of Austria-Hungary
  • (E) Prime Minister William Gladstone because
    England had acquired an empire upon which "the
    sun never set"

116
  • 36. Which of the following were strongholds of
    Protestantism by 1600?
  • (A) Northern Italy and Southern Germany
  • (B) Poland and Austria
  • (C) Hungary and Northern Germany
  • (D) Scandinavia and Northern Germany
  • (E) Austria and Germany

117
  • 37. All of the following are accurate assessments
    of the New Imperialism EXCEPT
  • (A) it degraded the subject peoples
  • (B) it created immensely profitable markets for
    European goods in the colonies
  • (C) it introduced progressive economies to the
    non-Western world
  • (D) it helped precipitate World Wars I and II
  • (E) it encouraged the non-West to modernize its
    social and political systems

118
  • 38. The transition from colonialism to
    independence was LEAST chaotic in which of the
    following?
  • (A) The Philippines
  • (B) The Belgian Congo
  • (C) The Dutch East Indies (Indonesia)
  • (D) Algeria
  • (E) Indochina

119
  • 39. New industries, such as railroads, chemical
    production, and electricity generation advanced
    most rapidly in which of the following European
    countries during the last years of the nineteenth
    century?
  • (A) Belgium
  • (B) Russia
  • (C) Germany
  • (D) England
  • (E) France

120
  • 40. Which was NOT a provision of the Treaty of
    Versailles?
  • (A) Germany accepted sole responsibility for
    starting World War 1.
  • (B) Austria was required to pay reparations to
    the Allies.
  • (C) Germany was effectively disarmed.
  • (D) The Rhineland was demilitarized.
  • (E) Germany was to pay the cost of damage done to
    the property of Allied civilians.

121
  • 41. All are important reasons for the failure of
    the League of Nations EXCEPT
  • (A) each member nation of the Assembly got one
    vote regardless of its power
  • (B) the United States never joined
  • (C) economic sanctions could be ignored by member
    nations
  • (D) the league could but never did raise an
    international force to repel aggressiOn
  • (E) Italy and Japan's defiance of league mandates
    in the 1930s reduced its credibility

122
  • 42. All were weapons first employed in combat
    during World War I EXCEPT
  • (A) armored tanks
  • (B) poison gas
  • (C) observation balloons
  • (D) diesel-powered submarines
  • (E) fighter aircraft

123
  • 43. Cultural relativism-that the validity of a
    society's values depend upon its political and
    economic context-was encouraged in the 20th
    century by the theories of
  • (A) Herbert Spencer
  • (B) Sigmund Freud
  • (C) Albert Einstein
  • (D) Thomas Huxley
  • (E) Isaac Newton

124
  • 44. The peace settlements at the end of World War
    I helped cause World War II for all the following
    reasons EXCEPT
  • (A) the newly established independent states of
    Eastern Europe left a power vacuum in the region
  • (B) the establishment of Communism in Russia led
    to eventual conflict between Germany and the
    U.S.S.R.
  • (C) reparations and the war guilt clause provided
    grounds for Hider's propaganda
  • (D) Italy's and Japan's resentments of the
    settlements created international instability
  • (E) the collapse of the Ottoman Empire created a
    belligerent and aggressive independent Turkey

125
  • 45. The photo above is of a structure that has
    been called the greatest monument to absolutism
    and self-aggrandizement. It was
  • (A) the Hermitage of Catherine the Great
  • (B) the Schonbrunn Palace of the Hapsburgs
  • (C) the Palace at Versailles of Louis XIV
  • (D) Sans Souci of Frederick the Great
  • (E) The Blenheim Palace of the Duke of
    Marlborough

126
  • 46. The German composer whose grandiose operas
    had nationalistic themes and who, long after his
    death, was a favorite of Adolf Hitler was
  • (A) Robert Schumann
  • (B) Franz Schubert
  • (C) Ludwig van Beethoven
  • (D) Richard Wagner
  • (E) Franz Liszt

127
  • 47. All of the following are valid
    generalizations about the rise of Communism in
    Russia from 1917 to 1939 except
  • (A) corruption in the tsar's government and war
    reverses brought Communism to power
  • (B) the disunity of both their internal and their
    foreign enemies solidified the original successes
    of the Communists
  • (C) central economic planning and brutal
    repression industrialized Russia's agrarian
    economy within two decades
  • (D) royal excess of the Romanov family diminished
    respect for the tsar and his family
  • (E) the Soviet system of rule was embraced by all
    of the people

128
  • 48. What was the condition of the Soviet economy
    on the eve of World War II?
    (A) It was in a shambles due to the political
    repression of the labor force.
  • (B) It was one of the world's most
    productive.
  • (C) It had been ravaged by depression,
    unemployment, and underproduction.
  • (D) It depended heavily on foreign investment and
    imports.
  • (E) While healthy, its technology and
    productivity were far behind that of the
    capitalist nations of the West.

129
  • 49. What is the social significance of women
    working in factories during World War I?
  • (A) Due to the wartime shortage of male workers,
    even the supervisors were women.
  • (B) Women were found to be more adept than men at
    close detail work.
  • (C) Universal suffrage had been granted with the
    outbreak of war, and women used the vote as
    leverage for getting industrial jobs.
  • (D) The vital contribution of women to the war
    effort helped in their liberation from narrow
    social roles.
  • (E) Only women in those days would accept such
    tedious, menial work.

130
  • 50. "'God is on our side,' each claimed and
    fervently believed as they marched off in 1914.
    They denied themselves the freedom to learn the
    truth and speak our against the insanity of it
    all, and they sent a whole generation of their
    young men to the slaughter."
  • The "they" in the passage above refers to (A) the
    kaiser's military High Command (B) the British
    General Staff
  • (C) the leaders of the Central Powers
  • (D) the czarist government of Russia
  • (E) the belligerent nations of World War I

131
  • 51. Had the above passage been written in 1914 in
    one of the warring countries, its writer would
    likely have been
  • (A) published in the mainstream press
  • (B) applauded by the general public
  • (C) publicly debated by an official of the
    government
  • (D) ostracized and censored
  • (E) a member of Parliament

132
  • 52. After Lenin's death, how was Stalin able to
    succeed to the leadership of Communist Russia?
  • (A) His heroic exploits during the Civil War of
    1918 to 1922 earned him universal respect.
  • (B) He was Lenin's heir apparent.
  • (C) As secretary of the Soviet Communist party,
    he had appointed many of his supporters to
    positions of power.
  • (D) He had his closest rival, Leon Trotsky,
    assassinated soon after Lenin died.
  • (E) Most party members supported his policy of
    "building socialism in one country."

133
  • 53. Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in
    1933 by
  • (A) engineering a putsch against the Weimar
    Republic
  • (B) setting fire to the Reichstag Building and
    using it as a pretext to restore order
  • (C) being invited by the president to form a
    coalition government after the Nazis won a
    plurality of Reichstag seats
  • (D) being directly elected by a clear majority
  • (E) assassinating the chancellor of the Weimar
    Republic and seizing the office

134
  • 54. The Nuremberg Laws of 1935
  • (A) imprisoned known Communists in concentration
    camps
  • (B) denied the Jews of Germany all their rights
    as citizens
  • (C) outlawed labor unions and strikes in Germany
  • (D) made Hitler German president for life
  • (E) repealed the Treaty of Versailles

135
  • 55. The cartoon above depicts Hitler and Stalin
    after their 1939 nonaggression pact, which Hitler
    signed primarily to
  • (A) avoid a Soviet invasion of Germany due to
    Hitler's anticommunist policies
  • (B) unite their forces in order to jointly invade
    the rest of Europe
  • (C) swap German technology for Russian manpower
    to increase the power of both nations
  • (D) keep Stalin dose to him as an ally so that he
    could not be surprised by him later
  • (E) be certain that he would not face a war on
    two fronts when Germany invaded Poland.

136
  • 56. The first European country to grant women
    suffrage, in 1906, was
  • (A) Britain
  • (B) France
  • (C) Germany
  • (D) Norway
  • (E) Finland

137
  • 57. Which of the following nations consistently
    urged the world community to take up "collective
    security" in the 1930s?
  • (A) The United States
  • (B) Britain
  • (C) France
  • (D) China
  • (E) The U.S.S.R.

138
  • 58. Hitler's rule in Germany was popular with
    most of t4e German people until
  • (A) the Nuremberg Laws were enacted
  • (B) Dachau concentration camp was opened
  • (C) Germany suffered serious reversals in World
    War II
  • (D) the abuses of the SS were publicized
  • (E) Germany entered World War II

139
  • 59. What is the best estimate of the number of
    Jews and non-Jews systematically murdered by the
    Nazis by such measures as gassing, shooting,
    starvation?
  • (A) 600,000
  • (B) 1,000,000
  • (C) 6,000,000
  • (D) 12,000,000
  • (E) 25,000,000

140
  • 60. The emergence of the "second wave" women's
    movement in the 1960s has been attributed to all
    of the following reasons EXCEPT
  • (A) changes in the patterns of work and
    motherhood
  • (B) the work of a vanguard of feminist
    intellectuals
  • (C) the organization of dissatisfied women to
    demand changes
  • (D) new methods of birth control gave women more
    freedom over their own lives
  • (E) fewer opportunities for women existed outside
    the home

141
  • 61. "Functionalism," founded by Walter Gropius
    and taught at the German Bauhaus was
  • (A) a philosophical movement espousing the
    expansion of women's roles in modern society
  • (B) a style of clothing that dispensed with
    frills
  • (C) a trend in postmodern painting that used
    limited colors and set modes of execution
  • (D) a school of literary critique that argued for
    precision in language in the age of "doubletalk"
  • (E) a style of architecture that argued that
    beauty will follow once a building is well
    designed to serve its purpose

142
  • 62. There is strong evidence that the German Army
    might have toppled Hider from power if the
    Western democracies had made a firm stand in 1936
  • (A) against the Anschluss with Austria
  • (B) at the Munich conference against the German
    annexation of the
  • Sudetenland
  • (C) against the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
  • (D) against the remilitarization of the Rhineland
  • (E) against the invasion of Poland

143
  • 63. What is the best estimate of the total cost
    in human lives of World War II?
  • (A) 55 million, of whom approximately two thirds
    were civilians
  • (B) 40 million, of whom approximately half were
    civilians
  • (C) 30 million, of whom three quarters were
    civilians
  • (D) 25 million, of whom two fifths were civilians
  • (E) 15 million, of whom one third were civilians

144
  • 64. The German blitzkrieg tactic, used against
    Poland in 1939 and France in 1940, included all
    EXCEPT
  • (A) frontal infantry assaults against heavily
    fortified positions
  • (B) a spearhead of fast armor on a narrow front
  • (C) tactical air support of ground forces
  • (D) mobile infantry units transported by
    motorcycles and fast vehicles
  • (E) the clearing of enemy mines and obstacles by
    combat engineers

145
  • 65. The painting above is a cubist piece
    protesting the brutality of the fascist actions
    during the Spanish Civil War painted by which of
    the following artists?
  • (A) Salvador Dali
  • (B) Juan Gris
  • (C) Marcel Ducharnp
  • (D) Edvard Munch
  • (E) Pablo Picasso

146
  • 66. The Soviets were able to repel and defeat the
    Nazi invaders in World War II for all of these
    reasons EXCEPT
  • (A) the Germans were never prepared for combat in
    the brutal Russian
  • winter
  • (B) the Russians mounted heroic resistance
  • (C) the enormous front overextended German
    defenses and supply lines
  • (D) Soviet war production surpassed that of the
    Germans
  • (E) the Soviets moved most of the industry of
    European Russia hundreds of miles east out of
    range of the Germans

147
  • 67. Which was the MOST important contribution of
    the United States to the defeat of the Axis?
  • (A) The superiority of its aircraft
  • (B) The development of atomic weapons
  • (C) The brilliance of its military commanders
  • (D) The productivity of its industries
  • (E) The abundance of its natural resources

148
  • 68. The devastation of Europe after World War II
    was far worse than after World War I for all of
    the following reasons EXCEPT
  • (A) the technology and tactics of the First World
    War limited the damage to specific regions
  • (B) saturation bombing of cities during World War
    II destroyed or severely damaged nearly all the
    major industrial areas of the belligerents
  • (C) the scorched-earth policy leveled hundreds of
    thousands of structures in the U.S.S.R. during
    World War II
  • (D) more refugees relocated during World War II
  • (E) more poison gas weapons were used in World
    War II

149
  • 69. When they rejected Western aid in the form of
    the American Marshall Plan in order to rebuild
    their war-torn land, the Soviets
  • (A) were unable to repai
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