New Technologies and Opportunities for Marine Aquaculture Using Best Practices Management for Sustainability Dr. Phil McGillivary, USCG PACAREA & Icebreaker Science Liaison - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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New Technologies and Opportunities for Marine Aquaculture Using Best Practices Management for Sustainability Dr. Phil McGillivary, USCG PACAREA & Icebreaker Science Liaison

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Title: New Technologies and Opportunities for Marine Aquaculture Using Best Practices Management for Sustainability Dr. Phil McGillivary, USCG PACAREA & Icebreaker Science Liaison


1
New Technologies and Opportunities for Marine
Aquaculture Using Best Practices Management for
Sustainability Dr. Phil McGillivary, USCG PACAREA
Icebreaker Science Liaison
2
Welcome to my world a homeland security view of
US fisheries and aquaculture
  • After oil autos, US fish imports3rd largest
    contribution to US trade deficit 20007 US fish
    exports_at_4B/yr, imports 12B/yr (top 3shrimp,
    salmon clams), so fish8B/yr trade deficit. In
    2008, imports 14.2Bw fish byproduct imports,
    total fish trade deficit 2008 28.5B (NOAA,
    2009) . US aquaculture mostly salmon, oysters,
    mussels, shrimp 1.5 US supply 200M in 2008.
  • Hawaii case exports 33 million lbs, consumes 55
    million, local aquaculture only 0.6 million lbs
    (2007) worth 37M
  • National economic security issue, also food
    security....
  • 84 US seafood is imported, 50 is farmed, w top
    3 countries for farmed seafood China, Thailand,
    Indonesia. China produces 90 of farmed seafood.
    Do you think there are water quality issues?
  • Introduced disease an issue to DHS not so much a
    matter of human health (although a concern), but
    also of putting US fisheries and aquaculture at
    risk.

3
Welcome to my world a homeland security view of
international fisheries aquacultureinstability
overuse of land resourcesinternational
Africa case
  • Worldwide 45 fish consumed today from
    aquaculture, 48 million tons
  • By 2030 UN FAO says additional 38 million tons
    aquacultured fish will be needed to support
    population increase
  • Case study Ghana offshore over-fishing affects
    political instability of west African nations and
    marine mammal sea turtle by-catch
  • Also effecting bush meat over-harvest in
    national parks reserves, endangering 41 sps.

4
Welcome to my world a homeland security view of
international fisheries aquaculturePacific
Climate Effects of Ciguatera
  • .Called in for UN FAO Ciguatera Conf in 2010
  • Re UNESCO July 2000 Climate Workshop Climate
  • Variability Change and their Health
    Effects in Pacific
  • Island Countries
  • Algal blooms occur more frequently with
    unusually warmer or cooler water temperatures.
    Some of these algal blooms cause disease in
    humans, but the most frequent case of human
    illness caused by a marine toxin is ciguatera.
    The toxin is eaten by herbivorous fish, and then
    becomes more concentrated up the food chain.

5
How Can Climate Affect Ciguatera? South Pacific
SSTs redwarmer, Bluecolder, El Nino periods on
left La Nina periods on right ENSO effects on
SST and ciguatera are NOT the same everywhere!
(Rongo et al., 2009).
6
Annual incidence of Ciguatera in Polynesia
1979-83 as cases per 100,000, showing Tokelau has
greatest incidence of ciguatera, followed by
French Polynesia Northern Cook Islands (from N.
Lewis, 1986)
7
Welcome to my world a homeland security view of
international fisheries aquaculturePacific
Climate Effects of Ciguatera
  • Tahiti and Tokelau _at_80 of fish are now inedible
    due to ciguatera. Rule is if 5 of fish are
    found with ciguatera they are not allowed to be
    sold. The low due to chronic effects you never
    lose ciguatera.
  • Hawaii 20 fish are now inedible due to
    ciguatera, and additional species are added
    annually. Now, the introduced pest fish taape
    cannot be eaten, increasing problem of removal
    threat to natives.

8
The Long View Upper panel Pacific Decadal
Oscillation (PDO) 1930-2000 Lower panel PDO
1000-1900 (-2000 in brackest) Purpleciguatera
So.Cooks GreenN.Cooks/Fr.Polynesia. Note major
PDO shift _at_1450A.D. in lower panel (Rongo et
al. 2009)
9
Welcome to my world a homeland security view of
international fisheries aquacultureClimate
Effects on Ciguatera
  • ENSO effects dont correlate w/ long climate
    shifts
  • Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) effects
    across entire Pacific are similar to Pacific
    Decadal Oscillation effects in the North Pacific
  • ENSO and IPO are of _at_ strength in terms of
    effects on location of SPCZ, but vary
    independently
  • South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) affects
    SoPac latitudinal SST distribution and has varied
    in phase w/ IDO since 1890s (Folland et al.,
    2002), therefore
  • We CAN use IPO surface pressure data to
    predictively model latitudinal changes in SSTs
    and probable changes in Ciguatera locations

10
ENSO IDO effects on Ciguatera
  • Nunns 1991 Feeling the hand of God hypothesis
  • Environmental climate variations are as
    important as human environmental effects on human
    marine resource availability and use.
  • The current Tipping Point hypothesis
  • Human activities combining increased nutrient
    runoff ocean acidification and alien species
    introduction will act in concert with climate
    variations causing marine ecosystems to cross a
    tipping point, leading to long-term shifts in
    marine resource availability and use.

11
Quick guide to paleo-climate changes
  • AD 750-1300 warm, rising temps Sea Level,
    increasing aridity, the Little Climatic Optimum
  • AD 1270-1475 rapid temp drop in many places SL
    drop up to 1m, initial precipitation increases,
    the Transition Period but in Southern Cooks,
    temp increased1-1.5oC

12
Indications of ciguatera from other
archaeological sites
  • Indicators of ciguatera
  • Cautions about data interpretation
  • Shift to smaller, safer reef fish
  • Shift to more pelagic fish
  • Shift to less fish in diet
  • Not all sites are comparable even on one island
  • Care must be made to consider high and low island
    effects
  • Sites differ with ciguatera susceptibility,
    increasing at low latitudes where warming has
    greatest effect

13
Conclusion to date More and more careful
analysis of paleo-data on both climate and fish
use would be required to document ciguatera
induced changes in Polynesian migrations! The
fish you eat today may not be available
tomorrowand aquaculture may be susceptible as
well.
  • Food Security in the Pacific An Ocean of Change

14
An Innocent abroada personal aquaculture history
  • 1970s Grow up in Philippines during Vietnam war
    see milkfish aquaculture in Subic Bay and Sulu
    Sea fishponds. Return US East coast, discuss
    aquaculture of FW clam pearls to save clam
    species
  • Early 1980s Grad school at Skidaway Inst. Oc.
    Savannah, shellfish aquaculture Ken Tenores
    group
  • Watch offshore deepwater Golden crab harvest to
    near extinction within 18 months of discovery
    before NOAA regulation
  • Attempt sturgeon restoration in So Atl rivers,
    sturgeon aquaculture
  • Jamaica Lindberg Grant (10K) w Brian LaPointe,
    Tom Goreau fisheries restoration by backreef
    Gracilaria line culture using pulsed phosphate
    fertilization over backreef nitrate/nitrite-rich
    springs. Handed over to locals in 1 year,
    profitable second year, reef fisheries rebound in
    4 years.
  • Late 1980s Post-docs UCSB Monterey striped
    bass and stomatopod culture in Calif., and eval
    of Pacific Island options growth hormone effects
    discovered at Hopkins Marine Station by Denny
    Powers.

15
An Innocent abroad a personal aquaculture
history 1990s Molokai, the most aquaculture
intensive society in the world, 110 fishponds, a
fat land. Kupeke Fishpond, 800 years old, 25
acres for mullet, clam, crab, reef fish, tuna and
stomatopod aquaculture, with its own
mini-hatchery.
16
An Innocent abroada personal aquaculture
history Lysiosquilla maculata, 12-18 and all
tail_at_150-200 ea in market. Males eat fish by
spearing, females shellfish by smashing. And they
come when called
17
An Innocent abroada personal aquaculture history
Kupeke Fishpondlearning from restoring the past
  • Back-reef springs the contributor to
    productivity, as in Jamaica
  • Concept demonstrate to native Hawaiians how to
    restore their own culture
  • Culture highest value species to maximize profit
  • Start by removing 500,000 mangroves alien
    species the kiss of death due to anoxic waters
  • Repair wall tsunami damage to ensure flow
  • Repair makaha gate
  • Restore depth due to sedimentation
  • Remove barracuda
  • Restore macroalgal culture
  • Involve locals, esp. HS
  • Restore fishing gods, fish-calling site,
    traditions

18
An Innocent abroada personal aquaculture
history Kupeke Fishpondlearning from
restoring the past
  • The Kapu Nights of Kanaloa
  • Kaloa Ku Kahi, Kaloa Ku Lua Kaloa
    Pau (24-26th nights of lunar month) The three
    nights of Kaloa are good nights for fishing.
    Makaloa and ole shellfish (drupes, terebras)
    plentiful.
  • Fishpond work begins _at_11pm, runs through 2am or
    later.
  • Lesson One Lunar cycles are essential factors
  • The Kapu nights of Kanaloa the Ocean God
    are centered during the 23-27th nights of the
    lunar month. This is when fish gates are open in
    spring, and juvenile fish enter ponds, and/or can
    be caught by throw net nearshore put in ponds.
    When male stomatopods feed on schooling goatfish,
    and females fatten reproductive lipids by feeding
    on shellfish.

19
An Innocent abroada personal aquaculture
history Kupeke Fishpondlearning from
restoring the past
  • Lessons Two Vary food with the lunar cycle
  • Stomatopod males feed only the three nights of
    the month when goatfish school over their
    burrows, which are always directly under these
    fish aggregation sites, both on Molokai, and also
    in Moorea, Tahiti, where they have been studied
    for a long time by UCB.
  • Feeding on a lunar cycle requires at minimum two,
    and usually three food types.
  • Recall females need lipid-rich foods to
    reproduce, and do so according to lunar cycles.
  • If you feed the same food all the time, organisms
    will grow and gain weight for a while, but then
    weight gains become erratic, and they lose
    weight.
  • It is essential to alter 2-3 types of food with
    the lunar cycle to sustain growth, varying lipid,
    carbo and protein content.

20
An Innocent abroada personal aquaculture
history Kupeke Fishpondlearning from
restoring the past
  • Lesson Three Fish Calling
  • As a child I was taught to call animals by both
    sides of my family, from snapping turtles in the
    South by slapping pond surfaces, to our family
    tradition of dolphin-calling similarly
  • In Hawaii bamboo stamping tubes or kaekeeke are
    used to call fish. Frequencies are 150-300Hz,
    depending on tube length.
  • In 2004 filmed shark turtle calling in
    American Samoa
  • Even tuna can be called directly up onto the
    beach using the correct frequencies, those of
    feeding and breeding (circular swimming)
  • Light also works...

21
An Innocent abroada personal aquaculture
history Heeia Fishpondlearning from
restoring the past
  • Heeia Fishpond, Oahu, grows Graciliaria (ogo),
    various fish and stomatopods under community
    management.

22
An Innocent abroada personal aquaculture
history Other Hawaiian Aquaculture spsOpihi
(Limpets)
  • Opihi, or limpets, of which there are 3 species
    in Hawaii are all endangered. To meet food
    demand Hawaii imports _at_12 tons/year from Ireland.
    They are both a traditional and medicinal food.
  • Aquaculture of opihi had been tried for years but
    never succeeded. Rob Toonen (UH/HIMB) and
    colleagues succeeded by raising them on turf
    green algae, which suits them just fine.
  • It is hoped that aquaculture will take pressure
    off local stocks which are severely
    over-harvested on all islands except Kahoolawe,
    the former Navy bombing range, where they are
    also at risk. They fetch a good price and their
    culture is easy once you know how to do it!

23
An Innocent abroada personal aquaculture
history Other Hawaiian Aquaculture spsCorals
and Reef Fish
  • Reef fish culture is not often economically
    viable, but is for some species, eg uncommon
    species from remote areas, for which transit
    costs demand are high, e.g. the Flame Angel,
    Centropyge loriculus. It occurs in Hawaii also,
    but colors there are not as intense the market
    wants Micronesian specimens. They are not hard
    to culture.
  • Indonesian Banggai Cardinalfish (Pterapogon
    kauderni) are protected now due to
    over-harvesting are also being cultured also
    easy.

24
An Innocent abroada personal aquaculture
history Other Hawaiian Aquaculture spsCorals
and Reef Fish
  • Michael Moore got his PhD at UCB
    post-docd at UCSD. Both were in Indonesia,
    where dynamite fishing in Indonesias Bunakin
    Reef Reserve was rampant due to war in Aceh,
    whose locals arrived desperate w no stake in
    local fisheries. The locals were furious their
    fishing was being ruined and wanted action.
    Michael started Ecoreefs, and a program w US AID
    funding to restore reefs there elsewhere from
    ship groundings. Units are fastened into sand or
    reef to prevent storm damage. It works.
  • Competitor Reef Balls, doesnt get alien species
    ciguatera.

25
An Innocent abroada personal aquaculture
history Other Hawaiian Aquaculture spsCorals
and Reef Fish
  • 30 years ago growing corals for the aquarium
    trade was considered impossible
  • 15 years ago 50 of aquarium corals were cultured
    rising
  • Challenge remains culture of non-branching
    (brain or massive) corals. Secret is lunar
    cycles, maybe stress to cause polyp shedding.
  • 20 years ago Tom Goreau re-establishing corals in
    polluted damaged areas growing on metal frames
    w a low current anode it worked, they grew 5X
    as fast, and survived in polluted waters where
    they otherwise died.

26
An Innocent abroada personal aquaculture
history Electric Clams, Electric Oysters Still
TBD
  • Tom Goreau tried several times to culture clams
    in cages using his electric method off Cape Cod.
    However people kept coming and disconnecting the
    cables going into the water. After several
    efforts, since he didnt live locally, he gave up
    and stuck with coral restoration, which is his
    main thing anyway.
  • Disappointed with Tommys failure to try the
    electric method on shellfish, and being well
    aquainted with the Tomales Bay oyster growers
    (the Bay is north of SF, CA), I tried to start a
    trial program there. They claimed they would
    never be able to negotiate the maze of NOAA and
    other permits, and declined to make the attempt.
  • STILL TBD!

27
Step 1 Environmental Best Management Practices
  • We have identified 8 goals of environmental best
    management practices for aquaculture
    (McGillivary, Troy and Spencer, 2007)
  • (1) an effective system of monitoring and
    record-keeping
  • (2) methods which avoid or minimize impacts to
    natural stocks
  • (3) methods which avoid disease and minimize
    interactions with wild stock
  • (4) methods which minimize impacts on the
    ecosystem as a whole
  • (5) methods which minimize interactions with wild
    predators and avoid or minimize losses due to
    escape
  • (6) methods which sustain optimal water quality
  • (7) methods which minimize other ancillary risks,
    eg risks to navigations and, finally,
  • (8) methods which include fully conceived and
    readily implemented contingency plans.

28
An Innocent abroada personal aquaculture
history Back to Hawaii Open Ocean Aquaculture
  • Land-based aquaculture in Hawaii includes
    Spirulina culture for astaxanthin using upwelled
    water at NELHA (Natural Energy Lab Hawaii
    Authority) in Kona. Abalone culture efforts also
    ongoing.
  • US open ocean aquaculture started 2001 in Hawaii
    w Randy Cates (Cates, Intl.) culturing moi (aka
    threadfin, Polydactylus) off Oahu, and 2005 Neil
    Sims (Kona Blue) culturing yellowtail (aka
    kampachi, Seriola riviolana) off Big Island in
    shallow (30-90m) Ocean Spar cages.

29
An Innocent abroada personal aquaculture
history Other than Hawaii Open Ocean
Aquaculture in NH Puerto Rico
  • Similar efforts with Ocean Spar cages are tried
    by UNH personnel in Gulf of Maine, and a tethered
    group successfully over-winters, see video
  • http//vislab-ccom.unh.edu/schwehr/ForPhilM/
  • Off Puerto Rico, in late 2000s Dan Benetti
    (U.Miami/RSMAS) uses Aquapods to successfully
    grow cobia (Rachycentron canadum), and also
    develops concept of self-propelled cage along
    with Cliff Goudey (MIT), and tests these at sea
    successfully (c.f. Benetti, et al., 2010).

30
An Innocent abroada personal aquaculture
history Back to Hawaii Open Ocean Aquaculture
  • Hawaii Oceanic Technology (HOT) starts 2008 to
    culture tuna in a new kind of open ocean cage,
    OceanSphere a Buckminster Fuller dome that can
    be much bigger than spar cages and assembled on
    site by divers. Mindful of problems w benthic
    changes and parasite migration from shallow
    cages, HOT cages are un-tethered, satellite
    directed to productive waters. Goal is to reduce
    use of baitfish by calling krill squid w
    sound/light, use enzymes in feed to digest plant
    food feed grubs instead of baitfish to get same
    fatty acids.

31
An Innocent abroada personal aquaculture
history Back to Hawaii Open Ocean Aquaculture
  • Other innovative aspects of HOT
  • State licensed parasitologist and virologist on
    Board since Day 1
  • Native Hawaiian cultural expert on Board since
    Day 1
  • Use of macroalgae for fish medicine instead of
    antibiotics
  • Inclusion of shark in cages to eat diseased fish
    before disease can spread
  • Status now only company in US w permit for 247
    acre (1km2) deepwater site (Oct.23,2010)
  • Cost 3 years, _at_2M.
  • Some lessons learned
  • Aquaculture business needs about 500K to start,
    and a 3 year plan
  • Have good business partners, and a plan if not
  • Permits take 3 years average
  • Begin site data collection asap
  • Keep meticulous records make quarterly Board
    reports
  • Ensure a good marketing plan
  • Re Mexican tuna culture operation sells 2B/yr
    to California w moving cages due to red tides
    sewage plumes.

32
An Innocent abroada personal aquaculture
history Back to the Big Picture Green Fuel
Aquaculture
  • Macroalgal culture for green fuel is the new hot
    ticket. Navy and AF want biofuel, and biofuel
    from the sea specifically.
  • Biofuel from seaweed plays nicely with offshore
    wind farms
  • Biofuel from seaweed can combine CO2 from power
    plants w sewage, including from cruise ships,
    etc.
  • Korea is in, Denmark is inbag culture a la NASA
    OMEGA bags
  • Tests are beginning now in California and Korea

33
An Innocent abroada personal aquaculture
history Back to the Big Picture Wind Farms,
Shellfish Aquaculture Alaska
  • Wind farms offer one new alternative for
    shellfish aquaculture. They have the advantage of
    fixed moorings, and restricted waters.
  • Shellfish being considered for such sites are
    oysters, mussels, clams and scallops.
  • Mussels are grown on ropes.
  • Oysters and clams in bags hung either vertically
    or horizontally.
  • Scallops are grown on vertically hung culture
    plates.
  • What might Alaska do?
  • Start trying some kinds shellfish aquaculture in
    Chukchi and Bering Sea working with Native
    Alaskans as an educational project. Try bag
    culture at various locations, eval predation,
    growth, etc. Let locals manage.
  • Try electric oyster culture working with Tom
    Goreau.
  • Consider some kelp or fucus bag culture projects
    for biofuel
  • Plan some future interface with ocean energy
    projects.
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