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Early Cold War

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Early Cold War Truman & Ike From Isolation to World Superpower Most Americans want to come home and enjoy the post war boom Post War America 15 million soldiers ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early Cold War


1
Early Cold War
  • Truman
  • Ike
  • From Isolation to World Superpower
  • Most Americans want to come home and enjoy the
    post war boom

2
Post War America
  • 15 million soldiers, sailors, marines ? civilian
    life
  • 1945-6 problem finding jobs and homes
  • Fears depression could return
  • No because war increased per capita income
  • Most in savings
  • Pent up consumer demand
  • Cars, homes, gov road building projects
  • Fears end
  • By 1950s US standard of living higher than any
    in history

3
GI Bill 4 Vets
  • Servicemans Readjustment Act 1944
  • Helps pay for college
  • Low interest gov backed loans for homes, farms,
    new businesses
  • Better educated work force stimulates post war
    economic expansion

4
Suburban Growth
  • Construction boom
  • Led by Wm Levitt
  • Building promoting Levittown
  • Planned community of 17,000 mass produced low
    priced family homes
  • Long Island
  • Low interest rates on mortgages
  • Gov insured tax deductions
  • Huge move to suburbia
  • Effect on older inner cities
  • Increasingly poor, racially divided
  • Baby boom increased marriages, births
  • 20 million born 1945-60
  • Home making ? work force by 1960 (1/3)
  • Sun Belt South SW grew- due to climate, lower
    taxes and economic opportunity

5
Truman New Deal Democrat
  • Favors Civil Rights, got opposition from
    conservative Democrats
  • Employment Act 1946 Bill for Gov to commit to
    continued Full employment- created council of
    Econ. Advisors, to help promote National Econ
    welfare
  • Also got increase in min wage national
    insurance plan

6
Inflation, Strikes
  • Truman wants price controls?
  • S. Dems, Reps relax controls? results in 25
    inflation
  • 1st yr ½ of peace
  • 4.5 million workers go on strike 1946
  • Wages must rise, too
  • RR mine strikes threaten safety
  • Truman seized mines, kept open w/ soldiers until
    United Mine Workers end strike

7
Civil Rights
  • Established Committee on Civil Rights 1946
  • Strengthened C.R. division of Justice Dept
  • To end segregation
  • 1948 ordered end of racial discrimination in
    depts of Fed Gov and ALL branches of armed forces
  • Urged creation of Fair Employment Practices
    Commission to prevent discrim in hiring
  • blocked

8
80th Congress
  • Unhappy with inflation and strikes, people
    elected Repub majority to Congress 1946
  • Tried to pass two tax cuts for wealthy
  • Truman vetoed
  • Rolled back part of New Deal w/ 22nd amend
  • 2 term limit on presidency
  • Taft-Hartley Act 1947 passed over Ts veto
    (Slave Labor Bill) purpose stop growing power of
    unions
  • Outlawed closed shops
  • Workers have to join union b4 being hired
  • Let states pass right to work laws- outlawing
    union shops
  • Outlaws secondary boycotts
  • Several unions supporting by joining a boycott
  • Gave Pres. Power to invoke 80 day cool off period
    b4 strike endangers National Safety could be
    called
  • Unions fight for repeal of TH act thru 50s.
  • No success

9
Election 1948
  • Dem party splintered
  • Conserv Dems form party Dixiecrats
  • Reaction to Civil Rights issue
  • Nominated Strom Thurmond
  • Lib Dems form new Progressive Party Nominated
    Henry Wallace (X vp)
  • Reps nominated Thomas E Dewey, gov NY
  • Truman (man w/o a chance) toured US giving Give
    Em Hell speeches
  • Attacking 80th Do Nothing Congress
  • Shocked pollsters w/ decisive victory
  • 2 million majority in pop election electoral
    votes

10
Fair Deal
  • Reform program
  • national health car insurance
  • Federal aid to education
  • Civil Rights legislation
  • Funds for public housing
  • New farm program
  • Most blocked
  • Exc min wage went up from 40 cents to 75 cents
    hour
  • more people were included under Social Security

11
Origins of Cold War
  • 1946-91
  • Did Truman over react to Russias historic need
    to secure its borders?
  • Was T soft on Communism?
  • Bolshevik Reb 1917 threat to all capitalist
    nations
  • Launched Red Scare 1919
  • Non-Aggression pact 1939 (G USSR) proves they
    cant be trusted
  • WWII alliance- of convenience/ NOT mutual trust
  • Stalin complains that allies waited until 1944 to
    open second front in France
  • After Potsdam, Truman quickly becomes suspicious
    of Soviet intentions

12
Post War Cooperation
  • UN fall 1945- hopeful sign
  • Gen Assembly to provide representation to all
  • Security Council- 15 members, responsible for
    maintaining international security and
    authorizing peace keeping missions
  • 5 allies WWII permanent members on Sec. Council
  • China, US, Br, Fr, Soviets Veto Power

13
Post War Coop 2
  • Soviets agree to US proposal
  • Atomic Energy Commission
  • But reject Bernard Baruch Plan to regulate
    Nuclear energy and eliminate Atomic Weapons
  • Bretton Woods Conf 1944 created World Bank to
    fund post war re-building
  • Soviets wont participate instrument of
    Capitalism
  • Nuremberg Trials of 22 top Nazi leaders for war
    crimes 1945-6 Soviets participate

14
Satellite States
  • Soviets occupied countries of Central E Eur
  • Held elections of communist candidates
  • Communists dictators installed in Hungary,
    Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria,
    Albania 46-48
  • Buffer states?
  • Expansion?

15
Occupation Zones in Germany
  • Temporary divisions
  • Br, Fr, Soviet, American zones
  • Fr, Br pull out and US merges western zone
  • East zone becomes new communist state G Dem Repub
  • Soviet want a weak G for security reasons
  • GB US want a revitalized G for security of Eur

16
Iron Curtain
  • Canadian Spy Ring stole secrets for Soviets
  • Soviets continue to occupy N.Ira n
  • Washington gets tough
  • Mar 46, Fulton, MO former PM Churchill speech
  • An iron curtain has descended across the
    continent of Eur
  • New policy Halt expansion of soviet power

17
Containment in Eur
  • Policy of Sec of State, former Gen George
    Marshall undersec. Dean Acheson George F.
    Kennan
  • Containing soviet expansion would cause Soviets
    to stop trying for world domination
  • Walter Lippmann (journalist who coined term Cold
    War) argued not all areas are vital to US
    Security

18
Truman Doctrine
  • Communist led uprising in Greece
  • Soviets demand partial control over Dardanelles
    (Turkey)
  • Truman asks Congress for 400 Mill in econ
    military aid to assist free people of Greece
    Turkey against Totalitarian Regimes

19
Marshall Plan
  • 1945-7 Eur in ruins- food, fuel shortages /
    discontent rises
  • Communist party rises, esp in Fr, Italy
  • Recovery program 12 Bill in aid over 4 yrs
  • Rebuild, assure trading partners
  • Soviets E Repubs offered aid refused
  • Effects
  • w/ Euro recovery, communist threat ends
  • US exports rise

20
Berlin Airlift
  • June 48 Soviets cut off access to W Berlin thru E
    G
  • Supplies flown in 60 bombers sent to England in
    case of war
  • No war
  • May 49 blockade lifted
  • Long Term Effect Creation of 2 Germanies

21
NATO
  • 1949 Military Defense Pact to protect W Eur, US,
    10 Euro nations Canada
  • Gen Eisenhower commander
  • Stationed troops in W Euro
  • in case
  • Head quarters Belgium

22
Warsaw Pact 1955
  • Alliance to defend Communist nations from Nato-
  • Eastern Bloc

23
National Security Act 1947
  • Created Department of Defense (DOD)
  • Coordinated Army, Navy, Airforce
  • Creates National Security Council
  • NSC
  • To make cold war policy
  • Creates CIA to spy on foreign govs
  • 1948 First perm. Peacetime draft

24
Arms Race
  • Competition to develop more , better weapons
  • 1949 Soviets test first A bomb
  • Truman approves new H Bomb 1,000 times stronger
  • Ready in 1952
  • NSC 68 Report
  • Recommends dramatic increase in Defense spending
  • Ally w/ non communist countries around the world
  • Convince American people costly buildup is vital

25
Japan
  • Under US control
  • MacArthur in charge of rebuilding
  • 7 Generals, Premier Tojo tried, executed for war
    crimes
  • Set up Parliamentary Democ
  • Emperor gave up claims of divinity and allows LTD
    military capability

26
Philippines Pacific
  • July 4, 1946 Philippines becomes independent
  • Kept air and naval bases through CW
  • UN Trustee Islands taken from Japan

27
China
  • Chiang Kai-shek in power s. 1920s
  • used nationalists (Koumintang) to control
  • During WWII US gave increased aid to help Chiang
    fight off Japanese control
  • At wars end Civil War resumes
  • Chiangs nationalists v Mao Zedongs Communists
  • Chiang- corruption inflation lost support of
    People
  • 1947 Chiang in retreat.
  • US decides not to mount huge invasion to save
    Chiang
  • End of 1949 2 Chinas mainland Communist
  • Taiwan (Formosa) Chiangs
  • US refused to recognize Beijing- Peoples
    Republic of China until 1979
  • 1950 Mao Stalin sign Sino-Soviet Pact
  • Proof of world wide Conspiracy

28
Korean War
  • Divided at 38th Parallel
  • Soviets N of line Amers S of line
  • 1949 both armies w/drew
  • N. in hands of Communist leader Kim Il Sung
  • S. in hands of Nationalists Syngman Rhee
  • Invasion June 25, 1950 N.K. army invades SK
  • Truman calls spec. session of UN Sec Council
  • Sov Boycott UN votes to defend S. K.
  • Gen D MacArthur UN forces ? Korea Police
    Action

29
Counter Attack Korea
  • NKs pushed SKs all the way to tip of peninsula
    (Pusan)
  • MacArthurs daring attack behind enemy lines at
    Inchon Bay turned tide
  • Paushed NKs ? China Border
  • China crossed into Korea
  • Drove UN forces out
  • Fighting stops at 38th parallel

30
Truman v Mac Arthur
  • Mac Arthur calls for expanding war into China and
    bombing and invading main land China
  • Trumans peace talks in danger from this
  • Apr 1951- Truman re-called Gen MacArthur fired
    him
  • MacArthur Theres no substitute for victory
  • Heros welcome

31
2nd Red Scare
  • 1947- under pressure, Truman set up Loyalty
    Review Board
  • Investigates 3 mill Fed employees
  • 4 yr probe
  • Thousands fired

32
2nd Red Scare 2
  • McCarran Internal Security Act- 1950
  • Unlawful to support any totalitarian Gov
  • Restricted employment and travel of Communists
  • Authorized creation of detention camps for
    subversives

33
Red Scare 3
  • HUAC House of Reps- Un-Am Activities committee-
    39
  • To find Nazis
  • Now looking for Communists
  • Government
  • Boy Scouts
  • Hollywood Industry, etc
  • Called people to testify
  • Ruined careers w/ accusations

34
Espionage
  • Hiss Case
  • Whittaker Chambers confessed Comm
  • Testified that Alger Hiss gave him docs 4 Soviets
  • FDR assistant at Yalta Conf
  • Denies charges
  • 2nd trial convicted of perjury jailed

35
Rosenberg Case
  • Klaus Fuchs, Br Sci,
  • Gave Russia A Bomb secrets from Los Alamos
  • Traced to spy ring in US
  • Julius Ethyl Rosenberg
  • Convicted executed 1953
  • Mostly due to hysteria

36
Joseph McCarthy
  • Repub Senator, WI
  • 1950 re-election bid
  • Waved papers
  • Claimed to be list of 205 avowed Communists in
    State Dept
  • Steady stream of unsupported accusations to keep
    media attention
  • To discredit Truman Admin
  • Turned shrill.. . Popular while attacking Dems
  • After 1952, attacks George Marshall
  • Ike afraid to stand up for his friend
  • Army McCarthy Hearings
  • Charged army w/ Comm infiltration
  • Hearings televised McCarthy exposed as bully,
    thug
  • Discredited
  • Censured by Senate Dec 1954
  • Dies 57

37
Eisenhower years
  • Ike former General/Commander of allied forces in
    Europe, WWII
  • I Like Ike Rep slogan
  • Promise to go to Korea and end the conflict
  • Richard Nixon- conserv Rep, CA balanced ticket
  • Tough on Communists
  • Adlai Stevenson- Dem, pop Gov IL
  • Witty, courageous, eloquent, liberal

38
Campaign 52
  • Rep for integrity tarnished by allegations of
    Nixons slush fund
  • Campaign funds used for personal matters
  • Nixon used TV Checkers Speech
  • Landslide victory

39
Domestic policies
  • Ike delegates authority
  • Cabinet successful corporate execs
  • Charles Wilson- head of G.M.
  • Went golfing, fishing
  • Modern Republicanism
  • Bland leading the bland
  • Priority 1 balance budget
  • Accepted most ND programs
  • Extended social security to 10 mill more people
  • Raised min wage
  • Built more public housing
  • Created Health Edu Welfare Dept
  • Oveta Culp Hobby- 1st woman in Rep cabinet
  • Opposed to aid education or Fed Health Care
    Insurance

40
Interstate Highway System
  • 1956- Highway Act
  • Authorized construction of 42,000 miles of
    Highway
  • Wide area every 5 mi
  • National defense
  • Also created jobs,
  • Increased growth of suburbs
  • Hurt RRs

41
Prosperity
  • Steady growth of economy
  • Low inflation
  • Fed budget (tiny surplus) 3x in 8 yrs
  • Deficits fell
  • 1945-60 per capita disposable income more than
    tripled
  • Highest standard of living in the world

42
Election 1956
  • 1955- heart attack
  • 1956- major surgery
  • Ike Nixon v. Stevenson
  • Easy victory

43
Ike Cold War
  • Sec St Dulles shapes most policies
  • Dulles Diplomacy
  • Critical of Trumans containment too passive
  • New Look of foreign policy
  • More bang for the buck build up nukes reduce
    conventional
  • Challenges USSR, China, spoke of liberating
    captive peoples of E Europe
  • Pushing Comms to brink of war to preserve peace
  • Brinksmanship
  • Hard liner prevented from being extreme by Ike

44
Dulles
  • Brilliant international lawyer
  • Ideologist, moralist, conflict w/ China, USSR
  • Saw things in absolute rights, wrongs
  • Containment substituted reluctantly for Roll Back
  • Righteous crusade against atheistic Marxism
  • Looked like a dangerous man but was very cautious
    and reported to Ike daily, even on foreign
    assignments
  • Ike seen by press, academics, pundits
  • Laid back, well meaning, intellectually ignorant,
    inarticulate, weak,lazy, left nation on auto
    pilot
  • By mid 70s, records opened that show he was very
    hard working, used Dulles and others as
    lightening rod
  • Used military gobbledy gook to press to avoid
    giving answers in plain English
  • Excellent command of English, kept it hidden

45
Ikes guiding principles
  • Avoid war seen it up close hated it
  • No limited wars object to destroy your enemy
    with all at disposal (cant apply to small brush
    fire conflicts)
  • Security and freedom of world depends on health
    and strength of US economy

46
Massive Retaliation
  • More reliance on nukes air power
  • Less on conventional ground forces
  • More bang for the buck
  • 53 Russia had the H bomb
  • M.A.D. to deter each other from using the bomb

47
Unrest in 3rd World
  • Post WWII Colonial empires collapsed
  • 1947-62 dozens in Asia, Africa bcm indep
  • 1947- India, Pakistan
  • 1949- Indonesia (Dutch E. Indies)
  • 1957- Ghana more follow
  • All lack stable political econ institutions
  • All need foreign aid
  • All look to US USSR

48
Covert Action
  • Part of New Look philosophy
  • 1953 CIA helped overthrow gov (Mossadeq) Iran
  • Re-estabd Reza Pahlavi as Shah
  • Would protect foreign oil interests
  • Shah purchased many weapons from US
  • 1954 CIA overthrew leftist Gov in Guatemala
  • Arbenz- in support of pro US corrupt dictator
  • Anti American feeling grew in L.A.
  • 1958 Nixon Tour
  • Crowds in Venezuela attack motorcade

49
Asia
  • Korean Armistice
  • Ike visited UN forces
  • Diplomacy- threat of nuclear war sudden death
    of Stalin moved China, NK to agree to armistice
  • Prisoner exchange- 53
  • Still divided at 38th parallel

50
Asia 2
  • IndoChina
  • French tried to retake after WWII
  • Vietnamese, Cambodians resist
  • Support nationalist communist Ho Chi Minh
  • 1950 anti colonial war is part of Cold War
  • Truman aids Fr China Soviets aid Ho Viet
    Minh guerrillas
  • 1954 Dien Bien Phu-
  • French army trapped forced to surrender
  • Geneva Conf 1954 France gives up IndoChina
  • Divided into indep nations Cambodia, Laos,
    Vietnam

51
Asia 3
  • Division of Vietnam at 17th parallel
  • Until General Election
  • N Ho Chi Minh est Comm dictatorship
  • S Ngo Dinh Diem supported by urban, Catholic,
    anti Comm Vietnamese
  • Election to unite Vietnam never held for fear
    Comms would win
  • 1955-61 US sent 1 bill in econ, mil aid to S.V.
    to build stable anti comm state
  • Domino Theory
  • Justifies if one SE Asian country falls to Comm,
    they all will- then Australia, NZ in trouble

52
Asia 4
  • SEATO treaty
  • To prevent the fall of SV, Laos, Cambodia to
    communism
  • Dulles assembles defense pact
  • 8 nations sign
  • 1954
  • US, GB, FR, Aust, NZ, Phil, Thai, Pakist

53
Middle East
  • Civil War in Br mandate of Palestine left land
    divided
  • UN creates Israel and Palestine
  • All Arab neighbors immediately attacked Israel
  • Who wins most of Palestinian territory in war

54
Middle East 2
  • Suez Crisis
  • Egypts leader Gen Gamal Nassar seeks aid to
    build Aswam Dam on Nile
  • US refused due to threats against Israel
  • Soviets offer aid
  • Looking for other money, Nassar seized,
    nationalized Br, Fr owned Suez Canal July 1956
  • Banned Israels use of Canal
  • w/ Europes supply of oil
  • Br, Fr, Israel surprise attack
  • US pressure got invaders to w/draw

55
Eisenhower Doctrine
  • 1957- US pledge of econ military aid to middle
    eastern countries threatened by Communism
  • Lebanon 58- 14k Marines land to prevent civil war
    between Muslims, Christians
  • OPEC Oil 1960 Arab nations join Venezuela to
    form OPEC
  • Regulate production, prices world wide

56
US Soviet Relations
  • Fluctuation of calm w/ crisis
  • Spirit of Geneva After Stalins death
  • US slows arms race
  • Soviets w/drew troops from Austria estd
    peaceful relats w/ Greece, Turkey
  • 1955 Summit meeting- Geneva Ike New Soviet
    Premier Nikolai Bulganin
  • Ike asks for Open Skies over both countries
  • Aerial photos ok to eliminate chance of nuclear
    attack
  • Nyet
  • Still a thaw in Cold War
  • 1956 Nikita Khrushchev denounced crimes of Stalin
    supported peaceful coexistence w/ west

57
Hungarian Revolt
  • Oct 56 uprising over threw Moscow backed gov
  • New liberal leaders want to pull Hungary out of
    Warsaw Pact
  • Soviet tanks crushed Freedom Fighters reestabd
    control over Hungary
  • Ike unwilling to risk world war over Hungary
  • Let it go

58
Sputnik Shock 57
  • Launched SI, SII into orbit around Earth
  • Technological leadership in question
  • US rockets failed to get off ground
  • Whos responsible?
  • Some blamed Schools- behind in Math, Sciences
  • Congress passes National Defense and Education
    Act
  • Authorized hundreds of millions to schools for
    science foreign language edu
  • National Aeronautics and Space Admin (NASA)
  • To direct Space program
  • Space race is on!

59
Second Berlin Crisis
  • 1958 Khrushchev gives West 6 months
  • To get out of Berlin by turning over city to E.
    G.
  • Camp David visit 1959 agree 2 put off crisis
    discuss at Paris Summit 1960
  • U2 incident- 2 weeks b4 meeting
  • Shot down U2 spy plane and captured Francis Gary
    Powers pilot exposed US spy flights over USSR
  • Ike takes responsibility, refused to appologize
  • Khrushchev calls off summit conf

60
Communists in Cuba
  • Revolution Cuba, 1959-
  • Castro ousted dictator Batista-
  • Nationalized Amer businesses and property in Cuba
  • US cut off trade w/ Cuba
  • Castro turns to Soviets for support
  • Sets up Communist Totalitarian State
  • Ike orders CIA to train Cuban exiles to retake
    Cuba
  • Leaves office before ready to go

61
Civil Rights
  • Color barrier in baseball broke 1947
  • Jackie Robinson- Dodgers
  • In South segregation, Poll Taxes, literacy
    tests, etc
  • Schools Brown v Board of Ed, Topeka, KS
  • Argued by Thurgood Marshall-
  • School seg violated 14th amend protection
  • protection under the law
  • New Chief Justice Earl Warren agreed w/ Marshall
  • Sep facilities are inherently unequal unconst
    ordered Seg in schools to end w/ all delib speed

62
Little Rock 9
  • Some states closed schools rather than integrate
  • AR Gov Orval Faubus used National Guard to
    prevent 9 Af Am Students from entering Little
    Rock HS as ordered by Fed Ct
  • Ike didnt support integration
  • Had personal reservations abo Brown case
  • Understood constitutional responsib to uphold Fed
    authority
  • Sent in Fed troops to stand guard protect 9
    students as they went to school

63
Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955
  • Rosa Parks- 2 tired to get up from seat for white
    man
  • Arrested off bus
  • Sparked protest
  • MLK Jr. started boycott
  • Lasted 1 yr, nearly bankrupted Montgomery busses
  • Sup Ct ruled 1956 seg laws on public transp
    unconstitutional

64
Non Violent protests
  • MLK Jr formed Southern Christian Leadership
    Conference (SCLC)
  • Organized ministers and churches to support civil
    rights movement
  • Students in Greensboro, NC sat at woolworth lunch
    counter, Feb 1960
  • Spread often arrested for sitting in restricted
    areas
  • Piece by piece Southern barriers come down

65
Military Industrial Complex
  • Farewell address
  • Warned US to guard against the acquisition of
    influence, sought or unsought, by the
    military-industrial complex
  • Connections between defense industry and gov
  • Not condemning militarism making important
    economic point
  • Can trace the rise of huge executive power in US
    accompanied by spending increase from WWI -gt New
    Deal -gt WWII now Cold War made large scale,
    free spending fed gov lock into enormous arms
    ind, voracious armed forces
  • US econ can be destroyed by intemperate spending
    by a greedy over large state generating
    wastefulness inflation
  • Sd military knows nothing about fighting
    inflation and this country can choke on mounting
    military expenses as easily as it could defeat
    itself by NOT spending enough 4 protection
  • there is no defense for any country which busts
    its own econ
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