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US History II Final Exam Review Sheet


Happy Summer! John Kenneth Galbraith Published The Affluent Society Said that we had an economy of abundance after the war New businesses Improved productivity New ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: US History II Final Exam Review Sheet

US History II Final Exam Review Sheet
  • Happy Summer!

Chapter 13
  • After the Civil War, a dynamic period in American
    history opened the settlement of the West. The
    lives of Western miners, farmers and ranchers
    were often filled with great hardships, but the
    wave of American settlers continued. Railroads
    hastened this migration. During this period,
    many Native Americans lost their homelands and
    their way of life.

Dawes Act
  • Broke up parts of reservations (allotments) into
    individual plots
  • Native Americans would live there with their
    families and support themselves
  • Was a failure
  • Few Native Americans knew how to farm/ranch to
    make money

  • Used by Native Americans
  • Used all parts of the buffalo
  • Crucial to their survival
  • Rapidly disappearing
  • Killed by migrants, professional buffalo
    hunters, sportsmen

  • The idea that one race was superior to another
  • Natural selection is applied to race
  • Fitter families
  • Immigration policy
  • Led to quota laws
  • Led to discrimination against immigrants
  • Nativism

Chapter 14
  • The rise of the US as an industrial power began
    after the Civil War. Many factors promoted
    industry, including cheap labor, new inventions
    and technology, and plentiful raw materials.
    Railroads rapidly expanded. Government policies
    encouraged growth, and large corporations became
    an important part of the economy. As industry
    expanded, workers tried to form unions and fight
    for better wages and working conditions.

Transcontinental Railroad
  • Government encouraged the rapid construction of
    the tracks
  • Land Grant
  • Union Pacific and the Central Pacific
  • Effects of RRs on the Native Americans
  • Buffalo
  • Land disappearing
  • More interaction with whites -gt normal schools,

Economies of Scale
  • Corporations make goods more cheaply because they
    produce so much so quickly in large manufacturing

Horizontal Organization
  • Combining of many firms engaged in the same type
    of business into one large corporation
  • Took place when companies competed
  • Companies who were failing would sell out to
    competitors to create a larger organization

Vertical Organization
  • When a company owns all the different businesses
    on which it depends for its corporation
  • Enabled bigger companies to get even bigger

  • When workers were locked out of their places of
    work and refused pay
  • This usually happened when workers formed a union

Chapter 15
  • European and Asian immigrants arrived in the US
    in great numbers during the late 1800s.
    Providing cheap labor, they made rapid industrial
    growth possible. They also helped populate the
    growing cities. The immigrants presence
    affected both urban politics and labor unions.
    Reactions to immigrants and to an urban society
    were reflected in new political organizations and
    in literature and philosophy.

Most immigrants were from...
  • Eastern and Southern Europe
  • Rural farms
  • They came here looking for the new jobs that
    industry in the US had created
  • Wanted to break away from Europes class system
    and move to a democratic nation

Unions view of immigrants
  • Did not like them
  • Thought that they would work for lower wages
  • This would hurt what unions were looking to do

William Tweed
  • Corrupt party boss in a political machine
  • Political machine informal political group that
    wanted to keep power
  • Tammany Hall his political machine

Social Darwinism
  • Sprung from Darwins idea of natural selection
  • Presented by Herbert Spencer
  • Said that human society evolved through
  • The fittest people would survive

  • Functioned as a community and political center
    for men in cities
  • Free toilets, water for horses, newspapers, and
    free lunch

  • Wanted to limit immigration
  • Believed in the theory of eugenics and social

Tammany Hall
  • Corrupt political machine
  • Led by Tweed

Political Machines
  • Informal political group
  • Wanted to keep power
  • Happened because cities were growing faster than
    their governments
  • Provided people with things that they needed in
    exchange for votes
  • Led by party bosses

Salvation Army
  • Social welfare organization
  • Offered practical aid and religious counseling to
    the urban poor

The Gilded Age
  • Covered in gold on the outside but on the
    inside made of a cheaper material
  • Things may look good on the surface but
    underneath there is corruption

Population growth in cities
  • Urbanization
  • Hoped for better paying jobs
  • Immigrants settle there to look for jobs
  • Lights, running water, modern plumbing
  • Entertainment
  • Libraries

Conditions in the cities
  • Tenement houses
  • Dark, multi-family apartments
  • Crime
  • Violence
  • Fire
  • Disease
  • Pollution
  • Immigrants were blamed for many of these problems

Settlement Houses
  • Jane Addams
  • Wanted to improve conditions for the poor
  • Middle class residents lived there and helped
    poor residents (usually immigrants)
  • Medical care, recreation, English classes
  • Hull House

Chapter 16
  • During this period, political parties often
    focused on party competition rather than on
    important issues. Rural Americans were suffering
    economically, and they began to organize to
    obtain relief. Many states passed laws
    segregating African Americans and limiting their
    voting rights.

Civil Rights Act of 1875
  • guaranteed that everyone was entitled to the same
    treatment in public
  • Was rarely followed
  • Overturned to legalize segregation

Sherman Anti-Trust Act
  • Made to limit the power of trusts
  • Trusts large combinations of companies that
    dominated certain markets
  • Made it illegal to combine into a trust in
    restraint of trade or commerce among states
  • Courts were responsible for enforcing it judges
    didnt see anything that said that companies had
    to change the way they did business

Segregation in the North/South
  • South
  • Enforced by law Jim Crow laws
  • Passed laws that enforced segregation in all
    public places
  • Plessy v. Ferguson upheld the idea of separate
    but equal
  • Lynching
  • North
  • There was segregation but no laws enforcing

Ida Wells
  • Led a crusade against lynching
  • Exposed that it was not just racism that that was
    behind lynching
  • Exposed that African Americans were being lynched
    because they successfully competed against white
    grocers this lynching had nothing to do with

Plessy vs. Ferguson
  • Upheld the Louisiana law that said that blacks
    had to ride in a separate car than whites
  • Enforced the idea of separate but equal

  • Movement meant to increase farmers political
  • Worked to pass legislation to help farmers
  • Silver standard

Chapter 17
  • During this era, economic and military
    competition from world powers convinced the US it
    must be a world power. The United States became
    an empire when it acquired the Philippines and
    territory in the Caribbean. American influence
    in Central and South America grew as the US took
    a more active role in Latin American Countries.

The Platt Amendment
  • Said that
  • Cuba could not make a treaty with another nation
    that would weaken its independence or allow
    another foreign power to gain territory in Cuba
  • Cuba had to allow the US to buy/lease naval
  • Cubas debts had to be kept low to prevent other
    nations from sending troops to Cuba
  • The US would have the right to intervene in Cuba
    to protect Cuban independence and order
  • Cuba is forced to accept this amendment
  • Made Cuba a protectorate of the US

Arguments of Imperialists
  • Wanted to make the US a world power
  • Economic and military competition with other
    countries made the US interested in gaining
  • Feeling that the US is culturally superiority
  • New markets

Arguments of Anti-Imperialists
  • Inconsistent with American principles of
    democracy, popular sovereignty and independence
  • The US was acting unfairly toward the citizens of
    other nations by controlling them as an outside

Chapter 18
  • Industrialization changed American society.
    Cities were crowded with new immigrants, working
    conditions were bad, and the old political system
    was breaking down. These conditions were often
    bad, and the old political system was breaking
    down. These conditions gave rise to the
    Progressive movement. Progressives campaigned
    for both political and social reforms for more
    than two decades and enjoyed significant
    successes at the local, state and national levels.

Alice Paul
  • Quaker
  • Social worker
  • Organized the march on Washington for womens
  • Used protests to force suffrage
  • Formed the National Womans Party

Roosevelts view of Taft
  • Felt like Taft failed to be a true progressive
  • Didnt make enough change fast enough

Bias against women
  • Right to vote
  • Supposed to be feminine and moral

Chapter 19
  • The US reluctantly entered WWI after German
    submarines violated American neutrality. After
    the war ended, President Wilson supported the
    Treaty of Versailles, believing its terms would
    prevent another war. The US senate however,
    rejected the treaty. It did not want the country
    to be tied to European obligations. Instead ,
    Americans turned their attention to the difficult
    adjustment to peacetime.

Triple Entente
  • Britain, France, Russia
  • Alliance

Schenck vs. the United States
  • Supreme Court ruled that an individuals freedom
    of speech could be curbed when the words uttered
    present a clear and present danger

Spark of WWI
  • Balkan powder keg
  • Many countries wanted to maintain their
    independence and saw Austria-Hungary as their
    main threat
  • When the archduke from Austria traveled into the
    Balkans he was assassinated this sparked WWI

Great Migration
  • African Americans left the South and moved North
    in search of wartime jobs

Triple Alliance
  • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
  • Alliance

Zimmerman Telegram
  • Telegram sent from Germany to Mexico encouraging
    an alliance
  • Germany promised that if Mexico joined the war on
    their side they would get the land back that
    they lost to the US (Texas, New Mexico, and

Espionage and Sedition Act
  • Espionage Act
  • Established penalties and prison terms for spies
  • Sedition Act
  • Made it illegal to publicly oppose the war
  • Allowed officials to prosecute anyone who
    criticized the president or the government

How did Public Opinion affect WWI
  • Propaganda that supported the Allies
  • Pro-British sentiment
  • Economically supported the British
  • Committee on Public Information sold the war to
    the people

Chapter 20
  • The 1920s was an era of rapid change and clashing
    values. Many Americans believed society was
    losing its traditional values, and they took
    action to preserve these values. Other Americans
    embraced new values associated with a freer
    lifestyle and the pursuit of individual goals.
    Writers and artists pursued distinctively
    American themes, and the Harlem Renaissance gave
    African Americans new pride.

New Morality
  • Romance and friendship as a part of marriage
  • Women in the workforce began to work to get wages
    for themselves or for their families
  • Wanted to break away from parental authority
  • Attended college
  • Bought cars

John T. Scopes
  • Clash of evolution vs. creationism
  • Scopes taught evolution and was arrested
  • Prosecuted by William Jennings Bryan and defended
    by Clarence Darrow

21st Amendment
  • Repealed the 18th amendment (prohibition)

Harlem Renaissance
  • Surge in African American art and literature
  • Renaissance rebirth

National Origins Act of 1924
  • Immigration restriction
  • Quota system
  • 2nd part of the act (took place in 29) said
    that only 150,000 immigrants could come into the
    country each year
  • Mexico was exempt from this act

Chapter 21
  • Prosperity was the theme of the 1920s, and
    national policy favored business. Although
    farmers were going an economic depression, most
    people remained optimistic about the economy.
    The middle class bought on credit the many new
    convenience products available. One of the most
    popular purchases of the day was the automobile,
    which had a major impact on how Americans lived.

Warren G. Harding
  • Return to normalcy
  • Wanted to return life to normalcy after WWI

Calvin Coolidge
  • Silent Cal
  • Distanced himself from Harding
  • Against government interference in business

Fords Manner of making cars...
  • Assembly line
  • First one to adopt this manufacturing process
  • Divided operation into simple tasks
  • No need for unskilled workers

Teapot Dome Scandal
  • Government officials received bribes for allowing
    private interests to lease lands containing Navy
    oil reserves in Teapot Dome Wyoming

Chapter 22
  • Prosperity in the US seemed limitless before the
    Great Depression. Overproduction and
    agricultural problems contributed to the economic
    catastrophe. President Hoover looked to
    voluntary business action and limited government
    relief as solutions, but these efforts failed.
    Meanwhile millions of Americans lost their jobs
    and life savings. Artists and writers depicted
    this suffering, and many people turned to
    lighthearted films to escape their difficult

Bank Collapse
  • Fear of losing money led to bank runs
  • People lost their savings when many tried to
    remove their money at the same time

Bonus Army
  • Veterans from WWI wanted their 1,000 bonus early
  • Marched on Washington
  • Sent the army to clear Washington

Causes of the Depression
  • Overproduction
  • Underconsumption
  • Margin Buying
  • Rise in industrial wages
  • International economy
  • Farmers loans
  • Banks fail
  • Stock market crash

Chapter 23
  • Unlike Hoover, FDR was willing to employ deficit
    spending and greater federal regulation to revive
    the depressed economy. In response to his
    requests, Congress passed a host of new programs.
    Millions of people received relief to alleviate
    their suffering, but the New Deal did not really
    end the Depression. It did however, permanently
    expand the federal governments role in providing
    basic security for citizens.

Roosevelt felt to fight depression...
  • 1st! Restore confidence in the banks
  • Direct relief to the people the New Deal
  • Big government
  • Government had to be involved in the economy

Huey Long
  • Senator
  • Champion of the downtrodden
  • Share the wealth of the rich with the poor

The New Deal
  • FDRs plan to stop the Depression
  • Regulation of banks
  • Social works programs
  • Put money in the hands of the people then they
    will have money to put back into the economy

Chapter 24
  • After WWI, Europe was unstable. Fascists led by
    Mussolini seized power in Italy, and Hitler and
    the Nazis took control of Germany. Meanwhile,
    Japan expanded its territory in Asia. As the
    Nazis gained power, they began a campaign of
    violence against Jews. When Germany attacked
    Poland, WWII began. The US clung to neutrality
    until Japan attacked Pearl Harbor.

Axis Powers
  • Germany, Italy, Japan
  • Alliance

Nuremburg Laws
  • Took citizenship away from Jewish Germans and
    banned marriage between Germans and Jews

Final Solution
  • Developed at the Wansee Conference
  • Put the Jews in Nazi controlled concentration
    camps healthy individuals would work others
    would be sent to extermination camps

Neutrality Acts of 1935
  • Made it illegal for Americans to sell weapons to
    countries that were at war
  • Based on the belief that arms sales got the US
    into WWI

Nazi-Soviet nonaggression
  • Pact signed by Hitler and Stalin to keep one safe
    from the other
  • Both intended to violate this agreement
  • Contained a secret deal to divide up Poland
    between the two countries

Battle of Britain
  • London destroyed for the most part
  • 57 nights of bombing
  • English did not give up showed their
  • English air force saved England from ground

  • night of broken glass
  • Night of violence against the Jews

Wannsee Conference
  • Where Nazi leaders planned the final solution

Destroyers for Bases
  • Exchanged 50 old destroyers for US bases in
    British-controlled areas
  • Got around the neutrality act

Lend-Lease Act
  • US would lend/lease weapons to any country that
    was vital to the defense of the US
  • Could pay for these weapons AFTER the war

Pearl Harbor
  • Brought the US into the war
  • Japanese invasion of the US
  • Final straw to draw us into the war
  • a day that will live in infamy

Chapter 25
  • The US entered WWII unwillingly and largely
    unprepared. The American people, however,
    quickly banded together to transform the American
    economy into the most productive and efficient
    war-making machine in the world. American forces
    turned the tide in Europe and Pacific, and they
    played a crucial role in the defeat of Germany,
    Italy, and Japan.

Blue Points and red points
  • Ration points
  • Blue processed food
  • Red meat, fat, oil

Bataan Death March
  • Philippines
  • American prisoners of war were forced to walk 65
    miles to a Japanese prison camp

Chapter 26
  • After WWII, an intense rivalry developed between
    the US and the USSR two superpowers with very
    different political and economic systems. This
    rivalry, known as the Cold War, led to a massive
    buildup of military weapons on both sides. The
    determination of American leaders to contain
    communism also led to the Korean War, in which
    over 36,500 Americans died.

Yalta Conference
  • Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin
  • Meet to plan the post-war world
  • Polands government set up by the Soviets must
    include free elections
  • Declaration of Liberated Europe right of all
    countries to choose their own government
  • Division of Germany

  • Divided between US, Britain, France, USSR
  • US, Britain, France joined their territories
  • USSR responded by blockading West Berlin

Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
  • Convicted of sharing atomic secrets with USSR
  • Convicted
  • Executed

  • Claimed he had a list of communists in the State
  • Investigation turns to witch-hunt
  • Badgered witnesses and then refused to accept
    their answers
  • McCarthyism

Truman Doctrine
  • Promised money to help contain communism
  • Help started in Greece and Turkey
  • Pledge to fight communism

Marshall Plan
  • Promised money to help rebuild Europe after WWII
  • Turned down by Stalin

Douglas MacArthur
  • Fired after the start of the Korean War
  • Wanted to expand the war against Trumans wishes

Containment Policy
  • Keeping communism where it already was

Result of the Korean War
  • Contained communism but there was no victory

Fear of the Communist ideology
  • Opposite from our own government
  • Afraid that it had already infiltrated into our
  • Domino theory if one country fell the
    countries around that one would fall as well
  • Fear of loosing our way of life

Chapter 27
  • After WWII, the country enjoyed a period of
    economic prosperity. Many more Americans could
    now aspire to a middle-class lifestyle, with a
    house in the suburbs and more leisure time. TV
    became a favorite form of entertainment. This
    general prosperity, however, did not extend to
    many Hispanics, African Americans, Native
    Americans, or people in Appalachia.

GI Bill
  • Provided generous loans to veterans to help them
    establish businesses, buy homes, and attend

Rock n Roll
  • Grew from African American rhythm and blues
  • Condemned by the parents as loud, mindless, and

John Kenneth Galbraith
  • Published The Affluent Society
  • Said that we had an economy of abundance after
    the war
  • New businesses
  • Improved productivity
  • New technology

Development of Technology in the 50s
  • Mass media movement
  • Television popularity
  • Smaller radios and calculators
  • Early computers
  • Improvements in communication and transportation
  • Antibiotics
  • Polio vaccine

Chapter 28
  • President JFK urged Americans to work for
    progress and to stand firm against the Soviets.
    Cold War tensions and the threat of nuclear war
    peaked during the Cuban missile crisis.
    Kennedys assassination changed the nations
    mood, but Johnson embraced ambitious goals,
    including working toward the passage of major
    civil rights legislation and eradicating poverty.

Role of Television in Election
  • Televised debates strongly influenced the outcome
    of the election - Kennedys favor

New frontier
  • What Kennedys legislative agenda was called
  • Increase education
  • Provide health insurance to the elderly
  • Create a dept of Urban affairs
  • Help migrant workers

Space Race
  • Vying for the dominance of space to enhance what
    we could already do on earth
  • JFK convinced congress to fund space exploration
  • Wanted to be the first to put a man on the moon

Warren Commission
  • Led by Chief Justice Warren concluded that
    there was one assassin responsible for JFKs death

Chapter 29
  • In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans made
    major strides. They began by challenging
    segregation in the South. With the Montgomery
    bus boycott, Martin Luther King Jr., achieved
    national and worldwide recognition. His peaceful
    resistance inspired many, especially students.
    After Kings assassination, the civil rights
    movement shifted focus. Many people in the
    movement began to see economic opportunity as the
    key to equality.

Rosa Parks
  • Made the decision that would begin the Montgomery
    bus boycott
  • Organized a bus boycott

  • Congress of Racial Equality
  • Used sit-ins as a form of protest
  • Attempted to desegregate restaurants

Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Got his ideas from Gandhi who used non-violent
    forms of protest
  • Encouraged civil disobedience

Little Rock, AR
  • Governor orders that the national guard prevent
    the Little Rock 9 from entering Central High
  • The army escorts them to school for 1 year
  • After that year the governor shuts down schools
    in Little Rock for everyone

March on Washington
  • 200,000 demonstrators of all races marched on
  • Speeches, hymns, songs
  • Martin Luther Kings I have a dream speech

Goals of the Civil Rights Movement
  • End to segregation
  • Over turn Plessy v. Ferguson
  • Get rid of Jim Crow Laws
  • Equal education
  • Equal treatment under the law
  • Civil Rights Act
  • Equal employment
  • Get rid of poll taxes
  • Voting rights

Freedom Riders
  • Went to the south to draw attention to the
    Souths refusal to integrate bus terminals

Chapter 30
  • The Vietnam War created very bitter divisions
    within the US. Supporters argued that patriotism
    demanded that communism be halted. Opponents
    argued that the intervening in Vietnam was
    immoral. Many young people protested or resisted
    the draft. Victory was not achieved, although
    more than 58,000 American soldiers died. After
    the war, the nation had many wounds to heal.

  • Ho Chi Minhs support
  • United communists and non-communists with the
    goal of freedom from Japan

American Involvement in Vietnam
  • Wanted to be there because of the fall of China
    to communism and the Korean War
  • Continue our containment policy

Gulf of Tonkin
  • Authorized the president to take all necessary
    measures to repel any armed attack against the
    forces of the Us and to prevent further
  • Congress handed over war powers to the president

Johnsons view of North Vietnam
  • Thought that a full scale invasion of the North
    would bring China into the war

Tet Offensive
  • All American airbases in South Vietnam were
    attached as well as most of South Vietnams major
  • After this the media started to criticize the war
  • North Vietnam won a major political victory

Dien Bien Phu
  • Vietminh attacked this area to take control from
    the French
  • Caused the French to leave Indochina

Monks Protest
  • Protested Diems harsh religious policies
  • Buddhist monk set himself on fire (picture page

Anti-war Protests
  • Protested outside of the Democratic national
  • Clashed with police there

Pentagon Papers
  • Showed that the government had not been honest
    about what was going on in Vietnam
  • Many leaders questioned the war privately but
    openly supported it

Agent Orange
  • Harsh chemical that strips leaves from trees and
    shrubs turns farmland into wasteland

  • DONE!!