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Chapter 18 The Civil Rights Era


Chapter 18 The Civil Rights Era Urban Unrest 1964-1967: racial unrest erupted in most of the large cities, especially in the poor, African American neighborhoods Los ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 18 The Civil Rights Era

Chapter 18The Civil Rights Era
Starter 10 Mon 2/14
  • Read the Inside Story on page 556
  • What local school board practice led Harry and
    Eliza Briggs to challenge school segregation in
    the courts?
  • How do you think school segregation affected
    African Americans?

Chapter 18 Section 1Fighting Segregation
  • The Civil Rights Movement prior to 1954
  • Fight for rights since the end of slavery
  • Rights suffered after Reconstruction
  • Plessy v. Ferguson legalized segregation
  • Late 1800s- 1900s
  • Washington DuBois, NAACP
  • Great Depression

Decade of Progress
  • WWII ban against discrimination
  • Congress of Racial Equality, CORE
  • nonviolent protest
  • Truman desegregated armed forces
  • 1947 Brooklyn Dodgers, first African American
  • Jackie Robinson many inspired by courage

Seeking Change in the Courts
  • Used courts to attack racism
  • 1930s attack legal segregation in education
  • Thurgood Marshall, denied into college
  • Several cases to challenge separate but equal-
    both law school cases
  • Registrar v. University of Missouri
  • Sweatt v. Painter- TX

Brown vs. Board of Education
  • Colleges first focus, then turned to
    elementary/high schools
  • Briggs v Elliott
  • African American schools inferior
  • Needed a case, Linda Brown

The Supreme Court Hears Brown
  • Lower courts upheld segregation, NAACP continued
    to push to Supreme Court
  • Court combined all cases into Brown
  • Listened to arguments for 2 years
  • Did various tests on children (doll test)
  • Chief Justice Warren all justices agreed
    separate schools violated Constitutions
    guarantee of equal protection of the law

The Little Rock Crisis
  • 21 states had segregated schools
  • case put down legislation, yet no guidelines
  • Some vowed to integrate, others pledged
  • Virginia, closed schools planning to integrate
  • gave white students opportunity to go to private
  • 1957 Governor Orval Faubus violated federal law
    refusing to integrate Little Rocks Central High
  • blood would run streets if 9 black students
  • Sent in Arkansas National Guard

  • September 4, 1957 9 students tried to enter
  • Guard not allow in, angry white mobs spit and
    tore clothing
  • Guard prevents Little Rock Nine from entering for
    3 weeks
  • Eisenhower told governor to back down, refused,
    spoke publicly and sent US soldier to protect the
  • Little Rock Nine tortured all year
  • Showed how strong racism was in some parts of the

Boycott Begins in Montgomery, Alabama
  • The Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Brown decision integrated schools, several other
    public facilities still segregated
  • Bus system segregated African Americans 2/3
  • tried to fight for years, after Brown took stand
  • Rosa Parks after work rode bus, sitting in
    African American section, white section filled up
    and she was told to give up her row, she refused
    and was arrested
  • NAACP seized opportunity
  • one day boycott of buses 90 stayed off

  • Montgomery bus boycott continued after one day
  • Montgomery Improvement Association, leader MLK
  • Boycott hurt businesses, buses, and African
    Americans who depended on buses to get to work
    and run errands
  • Case to Supreme Court, 1956 boycott one year
  • segregation on buses illegal
  • Integration met by violence, yet became apart of
    everyday life

Birth of the SCLC
  • Bus boycott inspired people across nation
  • Leaders met in Atlanta GA to organize boycotts
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference, SCLC
  • Religious movement, many members of clergy
  • Commitment to mass, nonviolent action

Chapter 17Section 2 Freedom Now!
  • The Strategy of Non-Violence
  • Mohandes Gandhi Non-violence resistance
  • There is more power in socially organized
  • CORE and SNCC- James Farmer, James Lawson- not
    strike back
  • The Sit-In Movement
  • Feb, 1 1960 Woolworths Store in Greensboro, NC
  • Protestors in 50 southern cities began to use
    this tactic over the next two months

  • The Freedom Rides
  • In Dec 1960, the Supreme Court ordered that bus
    stations serving interstate travelers had to be
    open to all passengers
  • The Courts order was not being enforced
  • Freedom Riders-Nash- would get off at each stop
    and use white only facilities- riders attacked,
    aide to JFK beaten
  • Federal Intervention
  • Attorney General Robert Kennedy arranged for
    police protection

Integrating Higher Education
  • SNCC and CORE used non-violent protests while
    NAACP used a legal campaign
  • 1961 Obtained a court order requiring U of
    Georgia to admit two African-American students
  • Riots against admitted students, had to use
    federal marshalls for protection

The Albany Movement
  • 1961 Albany, GA became a battle ground
  • SNCC began a sit-in at the bus station because
    officials were ignoring the integration rules
  • Invited Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr to lead the
  • Police chief Prichett aware of Kings tactics and
    arranged to have all jails open
  • After 9 months, the city officials refused to
    meet with King. Major defeat.

The Birmingham Campaign
  • Started by MLK Jr in April 1963 with sit-ins and
  • Quick arrests, which only motivated more people
    to join
  • Police Chief Connor used police and firefighters
    to break up 2500 students protesting
  • Eventually the city met MLK Jrs demands
  • the most magnificent victory for justice weve
    seen in the Deep South

The Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Kennedy announced he would ask for sweeping
    legislation designed to finally end segregation
  • Didnt pass until after his assassination

The assassination of Medgar Evans
  • Just hours after Kennedys speech about
  • Head of the NAACP
  • Ku Klux Klan responsible

The March on Washington
  • Leaders of several organizations organize a mass
    march in August 1963
  • Include demand for the passage of a Civil Rights
  • More than 200,000 people at National Mall
  • MLK Jr delivered the I Have a Dream speech

Passing the Civil Rights Act
  • April 1963 Bomb exploded in Birmingham, AL
  • Nov 1963 Kennedy assassinated
  • Johnson supported the passage of the bill, but
    some southern Congressmen fought hard to stop it
  • July 2, 1964 banned discrimination in employment
    and public accomondations

Starter 11 Thurs 2/17
  • Read the Inside Story on page 573
  • How did Selma, Alabama, gain national attention
    in 1965?
  • Why do you think Perkins supporters chose the
    Edmund Pettus Bridge as the site for their

Chapter 18 Section 3Voting Rights
  • Gaining Voting Rights
  • Registering to Vote
  • Rights achieved at great cost and sacrifice
  • JFK troubled that nonviolent protests led to
  • Pushed right to vote, because would change south
  • Voter Education Project register southern
    African Americans to vote
  • Met with violence, similar to integration
  • Success 1962 1.2 of 5 million were registered
    1964 had registered ½ million- except in

The 24th Amendment
  • Banned states from taxing citizens to vote
  • Poll tax keep from voting
  • Applied only to elections for President

Freedom Summer
  • Called college students to go south for summer to
    register African Americans to vote
  • Met at Miami University Ohio to train
  • SNCC workers poor southern AA
  • Students white northern upper class
  • Trained to teach summer school or register to
  • Wanted to start movement in Mississippi

Crisis in Mississippi
  • 200 volunteers arrived June 20, 1964
  • 3 workers went missing after visiting church
  • Arrested for speeding, spent night in jail, never
    heard from again
  • President Johnson ordered manhunt
  • Found bodies in August in an earthen dam
  • 21 suspects, members of KKK
  • State dropped charges, charged federally
  • First conviction ever for killing of civil rights
  • Considered success
  • Taught 3000 students, registered 17000

Political Organizing
  • 1964 election overshadowed Freedom Summer
  • Wanted Johnson because Goldwater voted against
    Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • MLK Jr. agreed to suspend protest to help Johnson
  • SNCC refused, wanted democrats to end racism as
  • Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)
  • Elected 68 delegates to National Convention
  • Fannie Lou Hamer
  • Plead case and story to convention
  • Johnson agreed to give MFDP 2 votes, and allow
    the rest to sit
  • MFDP refused, widened split in civil rights

The Voting Rights Act
  • The Right to Vote was the issue, replacing
    public accommodation as the mass concern of a
    people hungry for a place in the sun.
  • MLK Jr.

The Selma Campaign
  • Organized marches of 1000s to places of
  • Selma, Alabama
  • Marchers arrested by the 1000s placed in jails,
    including children
  • Received public attention
  • Tension broke out, marcher shot and killed by
    state trooper
  • King announced 4 day march from Selma to
  • It will not be tolerated Governor Wallace

The Selma March
  • Began March 7, 54 mile march, 600 people
  • Police stopped
  • Tear gas, clubs, electric prods
  • King not present, led march on March 9, stopped
    at bridge
  • Received federal protection march 25, able to
    reach Montgomery

The Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • It is wrong deadly wrong to deny any of your
    fellow Americans the right to vote, outside of
    this chamber is the outraged conscience of a
    nation. President Johnson
  • Passed August 6th
  • King, James Farmer, Rosa Parks
  • Effect immediately
  • 27,000 African Americans registered to vote
  • Began to hold political office

Expanding the Movement
  • De jure (segregation by law)
  • De facto (segregation that exists through custom
    and practice rather than by law

Conditions outside the South
  • Most African-Americans outside the South lived in
  • Faced similar discrimination
  • Real estate
  • Bank Loans

Urban Unrest
  • 1964-1967 racial unrest erupted in most of the
    large cities, especially in the poor, African
    American neighborhoods
  • Los Angeles, Detroit
  • Kerner Commission

The Movement Heads North
  • The riots in the Northern cities made MLK Jr
    realize that the gains in movement in the South
    bypassed millions of African Americans in the
  • SCLCs 9 month campaign was one of MLK Jrs
    biggest failure because many Northerners did not
    share his civil rights focus

Fractures in the Movement
  • Many white Americans viewed the civil rights
    movement as unified but actually a large amount
    of groups
  • SNCC and CORE experienced increased harassment
    and began to reject the idea of non-violence
  • NAACP, CORE and SCLC favored the compromise
    offered by Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
    (accused of betrayal)

Black Power
  • May 1966 new, more radical, leadership took over
    the SNCC
  • Gave up the policy of nonviolence
  • Support of aggressive action
  • March Against Fear
  • What do you want? Black Power!
  • African Americans dependence on themselves to
    solve problems

The Black Panthers
  • Formed in October 1966
  • Rejected nonviolence and called for a violent
    revolution as a means of African American
  • Carried guns and helped monitored African
    American neighborhoods against police brutality

Black Muslims
  • The Nation of Islam was one of the most
    influential groups expressing the ideas of Black
  • By 1960s, 65,000 followers
  • Malcolm X
  • X symbolized the lost original surname
  • Critical of MLK Jr and nonviolence
  • After pilgrimage to Holy Lands, Malcolm X changed
    to more harmonious views
  • Eventually Assassinated by Black Panthers who
    considered him a traitor to the cause

The Assassination of King
  • March 1968 Memphis, TN to aid African American
    sanitation workers who were on strike against
    discrimination in the citys work and pay
  • April 3 Asked to speak at a Rally
  • James Earl Ray, a white sniper, shot and killed
    MLK Jr on the balcony of his hotel
  • African Americans across the country rioted
    against his death

Starter 12 Wed 2/23
  • Read the Inside Story on page 586
  • Why do you think the protesters choose Washington
    DC for their event?
  • Do you think the sight of poor people of
    different races marching together would have had
    a strong impact on government leaders?

Chapter 18 Section 5 The Movement Continues
  • A Change in Goals
  • Poor Peoples Campaign MLK alerted nation to the
    economic plight not only of AA but of all poor
  • Ralph Albernathy head of SCLC took over for MLK
  • Excerpt pg. 587
  • Campaign was disaster
  • Bad weather, bad media relations, some members
    part of gang, police had to break up with tear
  • Without MLK eloquence and leadership movement
  • Caused SCLC role in movement to decline

Decline of Black Power
  • Occurred during Cold War, fear of Communism high
  • Some felt there was a connection
  • FBI created division to spy on groups
  • Posed as members to find out plans
  • Felt King was main culprit, yet also focused on
    declining other groups
  • Spread rumors, forged harmful posters to hurt
  • Black Panthers main target
  • Since armed, violence usually occurred, many
    leaders killed
  • 1967 H. Rap Brown took over leadership of the
  • He was encouraged by FBI members posing as SNCC
    to become very radical and take shocking
  • Caused SNCC member to decline disbanded 1970s

New Changes and Gains
  • In spite of challenges, did achieve change
  • Civil Rights Act of 1968
  • Signed one week after MLK shot
  • Fair Housing Act
  • Banned discrimination in the sale and rental of
  • Busing and Political Change
  • Brown decision 1954, 1960s schools still
  • Due to de facto segregation, because of
    discrimination in housing in prior decades
  • Fair Housing Act helped
  • Take years to achieve fully integrated

  • To speed up school integration, courts ruled that
    schools must bus students from neighborhood
    schools to other parts of the city
  • Met with violence
  • Caused many whites to move out of cities to
  • Gave African Americans political power in cities
  • Many small cities elected AA mayors

  • Affirmative Action
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964 Banned discrimination
    in employment
  • Affirmative Action gave preferences to minorites
    and women in hiring and admissions
  • End past discrimination
  • Backlash over these programs gave Republicans
  • Lured 2 sets of voters their way white
    southerners and urban working-class workers

The New Black Power
  • Black power did not die, took new form
  • Voting rights and political office
  • Well represented in governmental positions
  • Thurgood Marshall (argued Brown) became first
    African American Supreme Court Judge
  • John Lewis active civil rights
  • Congressman from Atlanta, Georgia
  • Jesse Jackson Operation PUSH, international
    figured for his work on behalf of poor
  • Ran for President in 1980s

Starter 13, Thurs 2/24
  • 1 What civil rights gains were made in the
    1940s? (558)
  • 2 Why do you think the strategy of nonviolence
    was so effective? (565)
  • 3 How did the actions of the Mississippi
    Democratic Party affect the civil rights
    movement? (576)
  • 4 How were conditions for African Americans the
    same in the north and south? (581)
  • 5 Why did the SNCC collapse? (588)