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PLANTS: Anatomy, Growth and Function


UNIT V PLANTS: Anatomy, Growth and Function Kingdom Plantae Multicellular, non-motile, cell wall with cellulose, mostly autotrophic Plant life cycles Plant Structures ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PLANTS: Anatomy, Growth and Function

  • PLANTS Anatomy, Growth and Function

Kingdom Plantae
  • Multicellular, non-motile, cell wall
  • with cellulose, mostly autotrophic
  • Plant life cycles
  • Plant Structures relate to plant needs
  • Sunlight, water and minerals, gas exchange,
  • Reproduce without water to transmit male gamete
    (in Angiosperms)
  • Vascular tissue, roots,
  • stems, leaves, seeds,
  • flowers

Vascular and Non-vascular plants (13.1)
  • Plants consist of 3 main parts
  • Roots anchor plant to soil, helps obtain water
  • Leaves surface area for photosynthesis
  • Stems rigidity and support for leaves
  • In order to supply each of these parts with
    water, energy and nutrients, plants contain
    vascular tissue ? made up of cells that conduct
    solutions throughout the plant, linking the tips
    of the roots to the highest leaves
  • Transports water, dissolved minerals and sugars
    to all parts of the plant
  • Non-vascular plants mosses, liverworts, and
    hornworts ? no or poorly developed roots, leaves
    and stems

Reproductive Strategies
  • Algae release unprotected gametes into water
  • Pollen (male gametes) carried to female plants by
    wind, insects or other animals
  • Zygote develops inside a seed
  • Seed embryo, stored food and a tough waterproof

Major Groups of Plants
  • Three traditional groupings
  • Bryophytesnonvascular plants
  • Pteridophytes vascular, seedless plants
  • Seed plants
  • Gymnosperms
  • Angiosperms

Ginkgo biloba Ginkgos are often very long-lived.
Some specimens are thought to be more than 3,500
years old.
Classification of Plants (13.2)
Evolutionary tree for major plant groups
Non-vascular Plants
  • Do not posses vascular system
  • Require moist environment for reproduction and
    the transfer of water and food by osmosis and
  • They have no roots or poorly developed roots
    (rhizoids), stems and leaves
  • 3 divisions mosses (bryophytes, hornworts
    (Anthocerophytes), and Liverworts (Hepatophytes)
  • Grow in mats of low tangled vegetation that can
    hold water
  • Life cycle is dominated by gametophyte phase
  • Gametophytes are the green plants commonly found
    in moist shady areas
  • Moisture is required for the sperm to swim to the
    egg during fertilization
  • After fertilization the zygote remains on the
    female plant to develop into a sporophyte

Life Cycle of a Moss
Sexual Reproduction in Plants
  • Seeds are the product of sexual reproduction in
    most plants.
  • A seed can remain dormant and therefore will live
    through rough times while adult plants may die
    off. This ensures the survival of the species.
  • Flowering Plants are more successful than
    conifers because they produce a protective
    coating around their seeds which increases the
    chance of the embryo surviving in rough times.
  • Seed-bearing plants can be classified into two
  • angiosperms and
  • gymnosperms.

Gymnosperms (14.1)
  • Have seeds without a seed coat
  • They are attached to the scales of cones
  • They thrive in environments with long cold
    winters and low amount of nutrients in the soil
  • They provide fibres for making paper and wood for
    building materials
  • Pollination in gymnosperms the pollen from the
    male cones are carried by the wind to the female
    cones to make seeds in a process similar to
  • The seeds are protected by a structure like a
    maple key and fall to the ground to germinate and
    grow into new trees.

Tutorial 30.1 Life Cycle of a Conifer
Angiosperms flowering plants
  • Their number is far greater than gymnosperm
  • They are also more diverse
  • They are important as a source of food for many
    organisms, including humans
  • Flowers are the angiosperms reproductive organs
    which mature into seed containing fruit
  • E.g. trees, grasses, vegetables, wildflowers and
  • They two angiosperm classes are monocots (have
    one cotyledon) and dicots (two cotyledons)

  • Pollination in angiosperms pollen is spread from
    the anther to the stigma of another plant
    (cross-pollination) or the same plant
    (self-pollination) by bees, insects, wind, etc.
  • a pollen tube grows down the style into the ovary
  • a sperm travels down the tube to fertilize one
    egg resulting in the development of a seed
    Pollination in angiosperms pollen is spread from
    the anther to the stigma of another plant
    (cross-pollination) or the same plant
    (self-pollination) by bees, insects, wind, etc.
  • a pollen tube grows down the style into the ovary
  • a sperm travels down the tube to fertilize one
    egg resulting in the development of a seed

Life Cycle of an Angiosperm
  • About 10 of all monocots are woody (tough and
    rigid) stems
  • E.g. palm and bamboos, other are dates, coconuts,
    bananas, palm oil and sugar (found in warm
  • Most monocots are non-woody or herbaceous
    (soft/fleshy stems) ? orchids, lilies, tulips,
    onions and grasses (wheat, corn and rice)

  • Most Canadas native tree species are dicots
  • Most native wildflowers are also dicots
  • E.g. lettuce, tomatoes, radishes and sunflower
  • The staples foods of many cultures are dicots
    e.g. yam, potatoes, cabbage (rich in starch),
    bean (rich in protein)

The Differences Between Monocot and Dicot Plants
  • One cotyledon (2 Seed Leaves)
  • Leaves of 4 or 5 petals
  • Network Veins
  • Vascular Bundles in RINGS

True dicots vs monocots
Structure of a Seed
  • Epicotyl cells at the tip of the embryo that
    form the leaves and upper stem of the plant
  • Hypocotyl middle part of the embryo that
    becomes the lower part of the stem
  • Radicle cells on the other end of the embryo
    that develop into the roots system of the young
  • Cotyledon a source of energy and nutrients for
    the embryo
  • Seed coat protects the seed and also controls
    germination by restricting water and oxygen to
    the embryo

Life cycle of a lily
Tutorial 39.1 Double Fertilization
Plant Tissue
Morphology of a tomato plant
  • There are Four Main types of plant Tissue
  • 1. Protective epidermis and cuticle
  • prevents disease and foreign invaders
  • 2. Fundamental cortex and parenchyma
  • provides support
  • 3. Meristemic the area of the plant where growth
    occurs (due to hormones)
  • a. Apical
  • found in tips of roots and leaves makes roots,
    leaves and flowers
  • b. Lateral
  • found in the sides of stems
  • makes xylem and phloem (vascular cambium)
  • makes bark (cork cambium)
  • 4. Conductive xylem and phloem
  • carries water, nutrients and minerals
  • arranged in bundles
  • The tissues of a plant are organized into three
    tissue systems the dermal tissue system, the
    ground tissue system, and the vascular tissue

Body plan for a tomato plant
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14.2 Vascular Systems
  • Plants with Vascular Tissue are so successful
  • vascular Tissue is well adapted to carry water
  • vascular Tissue is very strong and provides
  • The vascular bundles in a stem arc continuous,
    tube-like strands connecting the vascular tissue
    of the root to the vascular tissue in the
    leaves. The transportation of water and
    dissolved minerals is carried out by specialized
    tissue called xylem in the vascular bundles.
    The transportation of dissolved food is carried
    out by specialized tissue called phloem in the
    vascular bundles.

  • Xylem is the principal water conducting tissue of
    vascular plants.
  • It consists of tracheids and vessel
  • Vessel Elements
  • Larger in diameter than tracheids
  • They are dead at maturity and contain no
  • They are arranged end to end just like barrels
    piled on top of each other
  • Tracheids
  • Long thick wall cells with tapering ends
  • They are dead at maturity and are hollow
  • They ends of the tracheids overlap, allowing
    water to pass from one cell to the next

Transpiration Cohesion Theory
  • Water enters the roots by osmosis. This causes
    root pressure which pushes the water into the
  • Water molecules climb the sides of the xylem
    vessels by clinging to the narrow vessel walls
    (molecular adhesion)
  • Each water molecule clings to the next one
    forming a continuous column from the roots to the
    leaves (molecular cohesion)
  • Transpiration causes water to move through the
    leaf by osmosis, pulling water out of the xylem

The Cohesion Tension Theory
  • The phloem is made up of a companion cell,
    sieve-tube elements and sieve plates. These
    cells remain alive, unlike the xylem cells.
    Although sieve-tube elements lack a nucleus at
    maturity, because they have a cytoplasm and all
    of the other organelles it is still able to
    function. The cytoplasm of the sieve-tube cell
    is connected by pores to a nucleated companion
    cell next to it. It appears that the companion
    cell directs the activity of the sieve-tube
    cell. The sieve-tube elements are arranged
    end-to-end with sieve plates separating them.
    Because of the large pores in the sieve plates,
    the cytoplasm of extends from one sieve-tube cell
    to the next

Animation - Phloem Loading
The Bulk Flow Theory
  • Sources and Sinks
  • Source the places where sugars are made. Since
    photosynthesis occurs in the leaves, this will be
    the place where sugars are loaded into the phloem
  • Sink The plant parts that require
    carbohydrates. These are the places where the
    sugars are unloaded from the phloem

  • The conducting tissue of the phloem connects the
    sources with the sinks.
  • Active transport moves solute into phloem
  • Sieve tube solution is now concentrated,
    therefore water moves in from neighbouring cells
  • Hydrostatic pressure is created and the solution
    inside the sieve tube cells moves from source to
    sink by bulk flow
  • Active transport moves solute out into sink cells
  • Solution in sieve cells is now less concentrated
    and water moves out

Tutorial 36.1 The Pressure Flow Model
Sugar Transport in Plants
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Vascular tissues
14.3 Structure and Function
  • Leaf Cross Section

The Leaf
  • Epidermis protects the inside tissue of a leaf
    from injury and from drying out
  • Cuticle waxy substance secreted by the epidermal
  • Palisade layer long narrow parenchyma cells
    where photosynthesis takes place
  • Spongy layer smaller more loosely packed
    parenchyma cells where photosynthesis takes place
  • Stomata allow movement of gases and water vapour
    into and out of the leaf
  • Guard cell these cells change shape and by doing
    so, open and close the stomata. These cells also
    contain chloroplasts unlike other epidermal cells
  • Vascular bundle (xylem and phloem) transport
    water and food

Leaf structure
Gas Exchange in Leaves
  • The guard cells are the only cell in the
    epidermis that contain chloroplasts. They must
    therefore perform photosynthesis. It is the
    occurrence of photosynthesis that causes a stoma
    to open in the morning and close at night.
  • An Open Stoma
  • In daylight, the guard cells produce glucose via
  • The presence of sugar inside the guard cells
    causes water to enter by osmosis from
    neighbouring epidermal cells
  • The increase in turgor pressure causes the guard
    cells to swell opening the stoma between them
  • The open stoma allow O2 and CO2 to leave and
    enter the leaf

Gas Exchange in Leaves
  • A Closed Stoma
  • When the sun sets, photosynthesis stops and the
    guard cells stop producing glucose.
  • Water no longer enters the cells by osmosis and
    the turgor pressure decreases
  • The stoma then close

The Root
  • All roots are responsible for
  • anchoring the plant to the ground
  • extracting water and minerals from the soil
  • Some plant roots also store food energy (as
  • There are three main types
  • of roots
  • tap root
  • fibrous root
  • adventitious

Root Structures
15.2 Importance of Plants to Humans
  • Food source Wheat, grains, fruits, vegetables
  • Medicine Aspirin, cancer treatments, stimulants
  • Industry Agriculture, wood products, cotton

How Plants Help the Atmosphere
  • Removal of Carbon
  • Carbon can be stored in organic tissue ? carbon
  • Trees and vegetation can store excess carbon in
    their tissues for as long as they are alive.
  • Carbon sink an area where there is a lot of
    carbon stored in organic tissue
  • Production of Oxygen
  • Give up oxygen during the process of

16.2 The Process of Succession
  • Primary Succession sequence of change in a
    community that starts with bare rock and ends
    with a stable ecosystem

  • Secondary succession sequence of change in a
    community that begins with a previously existing
    but disturbed community

Tutorial 55.1 Primary Succession on a Glacial
  • Primary Succession Secondary Succession

Climax Community
  • Final stage of succession? rocks broken down and
    converted to fresh soil
  • Canadas Biomes temperate forest, boreal,

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