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The Characteristics of Seed Plants

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The Characteristics of Seed Plants Gymnosperms Angiosperms Plant Responses and Growth Feeding the World How Seeds Become New Plants A seed has three main parts an ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Characteristics of Seed Plants


1
Table of Contents
  • The Characteristics of Seed Plants
  • Gymnosperms
  • Angiosperms
  • Plant Responses and Growth
  • Feeding the World

2
How Seeds Become New Plants
- The Characteristics of Seed Plants
  • A seed has three main partsan embryo, stored
    food, and a seed coat. If a seed lands in an area
    where conditions are favorable, the plant sprouts
    out of the seed and begins to grow.

3
Root Structure
- The Characteristics of Seed Plants
  • A roots structure is adapted for absorbing water
    and minerals from the soil.

4
Stems
- The Characteristics of Seed Plants
  • Trees have woody stems. A typical woody stem is
    made up of many layers. The layers of xylem form
    annual rings that can reveal the age of the tree
    and the growing conditions it has experienced.

5
Leaves
- The Characteristics of Seed Plants
  • Leaves capture and use the suns energy to make
    food. The structure of a leaf is well-adapted for
    photosynthesis.

6
Outlining
- The Characteristics of Seed Plants
The Characteristics of Seed Plants
  • As you read, make an outline about seed plants
    that you can use for review. Use the red headings
    for the main ideas and the blue headings for the
    supporting ideas.
  • What Is a Seed Plant?
  • Vascular Tissue
  • Seeds
  • How Seeds Become New Plants
  • Seed Structure
  • Seed Dispersal
  • Germination
  • Roots
  • Types of Roots
  • The Structure of a Root
  • Stems
  • The Structure of a Stem
  • Annual Rings
  • Leaves
  • The Structure of a Leaf
  • The Leaf and Photosynthesis
  • Controlling Water Loss

7
More on Leaves
- The Characteristics of Seed Plants
  • Click the PHSchool.com button for an activity
    about leaves.

8
End of Section The Characteristics of Seed Plants
9
Reproduction in Gymnosperms
- Gymnosperms
  • First, pollen falls from a male cone onto a
    female cone. In time, a sperm cell and an egg
    cell join together in an ovule on the female
    cone. After fertilization occurs, the seed
    develops on the scale of the female cone.

10
Previewing Visuals
- Gymnosperms
  • Preview the diagram showing the life cycle of a
    gymnosperm. Then write two questions that you
    have about the diagram in a graphic organizer
    like the one below. As you read, answer your
    questions.

The Life Cycle of a Gymnosperm
Q. How does gymnosperm pollination occur?
A. Pollen is transferred from a male reproductive
structure to a female reproductive structure
wind often carries pollen from male to female
cones.
Q. How does gymnosperm fertilization occur?
A. Pollen collects in a sticky substance produced
by ovules. Female scales close to seal in pollen
and fertilization occurs.
11
Links on Gymnosperms
- Gymnosperms
  • Click the SciLinks button for links on
    gymnosperms.

12
End of Section Gymnosperms
13
The Structure of Flowers
- Angiosperms
  • Flowers come in all sorts of shapes, sizes, and
    colors. But, despite their differences, all
    flowers have the same functionreproduction.

14
Reproduction in Angiosperms
- Angiosperms
  • First, pollen falls on a flowers stigma. In
    time, the sperm cell and egg cell join together
    in the flowers ovule. The zygote develops into
    the embryo part of the seed.

15
Types of Angiosperms
- Angiosperms
  • Angiosperms are divided into two major groups
    monocots and dicots.

16
Multiples
- Angiosperms
  • Is a flower with 6 petals a monocot? To answer
    this question you need to determine if 6 is a
    multiple of 3. A number is a multiple of 3 if
    there is a nonzero whole number that, when
    multiplied by 3, gives you that number. In this
    case, 6 is a multiple of 3 because you can
    multiply 2 (a nonzero whole number) by 3 to get
    6.
  • 2 X 3 6
  • Therefore, a flower with 6 petals is a monocot.
    Other multiples of 3 include 9 and 12.

17
Multiples
- Angiosperms
  • Practice Problem
  • Which of these numbers are multiples of 4?
  • 6, 10, 12, 16
  • 12 and 16

18
Building Vocabulary
- Angiosperms
  • Using a word in a sentence helps you think about
    how best to explain the word. After you read the
    section, reread the paragraphs that contain
    definitions of Key Terms. Use all the information
    you have learned to write a meaningful sentence
    using each Key Term.

Key Terms
Examples
angiosperm
Refflesia belongs to the group of seed plants
known as angiosperms.
Monocots are angiosperms that have only one seed
leaf.
The stamens are the male reproductive parts.
The female parts, or pistils, are found in the
center of most flowers.
Dicots produce seeds with two seed leaves.
flower
A flower is the reproductive structure of an
angiosperm.
This hollow structure is the ovary, which
protects the seeds as they develop.
sepal
When a flower is still a bud, it is enclosed by
leaflike structures called sepals.
As the seed develops after fertilization, the
ovary changes into a fruita ripened ovary and
other structures that enclose one or more seeds.
petal
When the sepals fold back, they reveal the
flowers colorful, leaflike petals.
19
End of Section Angiosperms
20
Seasonal Changes
- Plant Responses and Growth
  • The amount of darkness a plant receives
    determines the time of flowering in many plants.

21
Germination and Temperature
- Plant Responses and Growth
  • One hundred radish seeds were planted in each of
    two identical trays of soil. One tray was kept at
    10ºC, and one tray was kept at 20ºC. The trays
    received equal amounts of water and sunlight. The
    graph shows how many seeds germinated over time
    at each temperature.

22
Germination and Temperature
- Plant Responses and Growth
  • Reading Graphs
  • What variable is plotted on the horizontal axis?
    What variable is plotted on the vertical axis?
  • Horizontal axisdays vertical axistotal number
    of germinated seeds

23
Germination and Temperature
- Plant Responses and Growth
  • Interpreting Data
  • How did the number of seeds that germinated
    change between day 20 and day 25 at 10ºC? At 20ºC?
  • The numbers did not change.

24
Germination and Temperature
- Plant Responses and Growth
  • Drawing Conclusions
  • According to the graph, at which temperature did
    more seeds eventually germinate? What can you
    conclude about the relationship between
    temperature and germination?
  • 20ºC the number of germinating seeds increases
    as the temperature increases.

25
Germination and Temperature
- Plant Responses and Growth
  • Predicting
  • Predict what the graph would look like for a tray
    of radish seeds kept at 5ºC. Give a reason for
    your prediction.
  • The slope would be less steep because fewer seeds
    would germinate.

26
Relating Cause and Effect
- Plant Responses and Growth
  • A cause makes something happen. An effect is what
    happens. As you read through the paragraphs under
    the heading Hormones and Tropisms," identify
    four effects of plant hormones. Write the
    information in a graphic organizer like the one
    below.

Effects
Tropisms
Germination
Cause
Forming flowers, stems, leaves
Plant hormones
Shredding leaves
Development and ripening of fruit
27
Links on Plant Responses
- Plant Responses and Growth
  • Click the SciLinks button for links on plant
    responses.

28
End of Section Plant Responses and Growth
29
Identifying Main Ideas
- Feeding the World
  • As you read, write the main idea in a graphic
    organizer like the one below. Then write three
    supporting details that give examples of the main
    idea.

Main Idea
Technologies that may help produce more food
include
Detail
Detail
Detail
Precision farming uses satellite images and
computer to determine the amount of water and
fertilizer needed.
Hydroponics plants are grown in solutions of
nutrients instead of soil.
Genetic engineering genetic material is altered
to produce plants with useful qualities.
30
Links on Plants as Food
- Feeding the World
  • Click the SciLinks button for links on plants as
    food.

31
End of Section Feeding the World
32
Graphic Organizer
Seed plants
have
Roots
Stems
Leaves
capture
provide
absorb
are needed for
Water and minerals
Transport
Anchorage
Support
Sunlight
used in
Photo-synthesis
33
End of Section Graphic Organizer
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