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Praxis II Study Guide for Special Education


Praxis II Study Guide for Special Education 10352 Application of Core Principles Across Disabilities, 20353 Core Content Knowledge, 20371 Teaching Students with ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Praxis II Study Guide for Special Education

Praxis IIStudy Guide for Special Education
  • 10352 Application of Core Principles Across
  • 20353 Core Content Knowledge,20371 Teaching
    Students with Behavioral Disorders/Emotional
    Disturbances, and
  • 10542 Mild to Moderate Disabilities

In order for all hyperlinks to be active, you
must choose View Show under Slide Show (top
tool bar) and be connected to the internet. is an example of a hyperlink
Goals and Objectives
  • To review key information about special education
    in order to score a passing score on the Praxis.
  • To look at test taking approaches to assist with
    the successful completion of the Praxis.

What Do I need to Study?
  • To determine the Praxis assessments which are
    required for your certification go to the ETS
    website and find the corresponding test number.

Resources For Your Studies
  • Glossary of educational terms
  • Preview the strategies for taking a test
  • Test-Taking Presentation1.ppt

Step 1Choose the Praxis assessments which you
are preparing to take.
  • 10352 Application of Core Principles Across
  • 20353 Core Content Knowledge,
  • 20371 Teaching Students with Behavioral
    Disorders/Emotional Disturbances,
  • 10542 Mild to Moderate Disabilities and

  • Go to the ETS website and take the sample test in
    each test at a glance booklet to match the
    assessment you are taking.
  • Begin by taking the test and looking at the
    question format, the types of questions and the
    way the answers are explained.
  • Answer the questions and identify the areas that
    you need more study.
  • Send me an email and include the assessments you
    are taking, the date you are to take the Praxis,
    your concerns based on the sample tests and
    outline your study plan. Include an introduction
    of yourself.

What is included in each assessment?
  • The breakdown of the content in each of the
    assessments is included next. Any underlined
    information will provide additional information
    either located on the internet or included on the
    CD. Topics may overlap from one assessment to

Types of multiple choice questions on the test
  • Complete the statement
  • Which of the following
  • Roman Numeral choices
  • Not, least except
  • Interpretation of analysis of graph, table,
    reading passages

Complete the Statement
  • In this type of question, you are given an
    incomplete statement and must select the choice
    that makes the completed sentence correct.

Which of the following?
  • In this type of question you will be given a
    limited list of responses and must choose from
    the list. Many more answers may correctly
    complete the question.

Roman Numeral Choices
  • In this type of question, there can be more than
    one correct answer in the list. You must analyze
    all the statements headed by a Roman Numeral,
    determine which will answer the question
    correctly and then select the answer that
    includes them.
  • I
  • II
  • III
  • IV
  • A. I and IV
  • B. II and III
  • C. I and III
  • D. III and IV

  • In this type of question, the words NOT, LEAST,
    or EXCEPT are always capitalized, but they are
    easily and frequently overlooked. Read the
    questions carefully, you may be attracted to by
    answers that appear to be correct, but do not
    take into account the negative.

Interpretation or analysis of graph, table or
reading passage.
  • In this type of question, data or information
    must be interpreted or analyzed. This may
    include tables and charts, and reading passages.

To help prepare for the Praxis
  • Make sure you have practiced each type of
    multiple choice question and know how to respond
    to each.
  • Many people find that reading the questions and
    looking at the answer choices immediately is the
    best approach for most types of questions.
    However, with the Roman Numeral choice, you may
    want to generate your own answer, before trying
    to choose the response that matches your answer.

Assignment for Credit
  • Write one of each type of multiple choice
    questions about a topic in special education that
    you feel the least prepared to address on the
  • Email your questions and answers to me.

Special Education Applications of Core
Principles across Categories of Disability (10352)
  • The categories include
  • curriculum,
  • instruction,
  • assessment,
  • managing the learning environment
  • and professional roles/issues/literature.
  • This is a 50 items multiple choice test which
    allows 1 hour to complete.

Understanding Exceptionalities
  • Understanding of human development
  • Social and emotional
  • Language
  • Cognition
  • Physical
  • Sensory
  • Definitions of specific disabilities
  • Incidence and prevalence of various types of
  • Causes and prevention of disabilities
  • The nature of behaviors to include frequency,
    duration, intensity and degree of severity

Basic Concepts in Special Education
  • Federal laws and legal issues related to Special
  • Public Law 94-142
  • Public Law 101-476 (IDEA)
  • Public Law 105-17 (IDEA 97)
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
  • Important legal issues
  • Rowley
  • Tatro
  • Honig
  • Oberti

Historical Movements and Trends in Special
  • Institutions and the deinstitutionalization
  • Mainstreaming and Inclusion
  • Transition
  • Advocacy organizations
  • ARC
  • CEC
  • LDA

  • How to modify and adapt the regular curriculum
  • How to use specialized programs and materials
  • Ways to address diversity in the classroom
  • Ways to use technology

Sample Information
  • Modification and adaptation of curriculum is
    usually necessary for students with special
    needs. Modifying instructional materials,
    creating study guides and helping students to
    find effective alternative methods of learning
    are just a few examples of modifying curriculum.
  • Assistive technology consists of any tool or
    accommodation that enables children with special
    learning needs to be included in educational
    opportunities. In essence, assistive technology
    is a strategy that expands a students access to
    the curriculum.

  • Computer assisted instruction is a method of
    instruction that is effective for many children
    with disabilities. The graphics and sound in a
    computer program can help to maintain a students
    attention and increase their motivation toward
    learning. Many computer assisted learning
    programs provide immediate feedback and
    repetition which can enhance the learning
    experience for a student with disabilities.
  • An applied and integrated curriculum connects
    academic and vocational learning.
  • Applied Behavior Analysis is a practice of
    learning theory that involves understanding what
    leads to new skills. This approach is often
    effective for children who have autism

  • How to implement the IEP
  • IEP Implementation
  • How to select and use the appropriate strategies
    and methods
  • Direct Instruction
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Task Analysis
  • Applied Behavior analysis
  • Learning styles
  • Ways to select and implement the format and
    components of instruction
  • Individualized instruction
  • Small Group Instruction
  • Large Group Instruction
  • Instructional modeling
  • Demonstrating
  • Questioning
  • Drill and Practice

  • How to implement instruction in specific areas
  • Academics
  • Social skills
  • Vocational skills
  • Self care and daily living skills
  • Study and organizational skills
  • Learning strategies

  • Effective Instructional Practices Programs
  • Instructional Practice and Student Behavior
  • Instructional Practices of WRSD
  • Doing What Works - Proven Methods - No Child Left
    Behind -
  • Kansas Learning Strategies
  • What is Quality Teaching?

  • How to modify, construct, or select and conduct
    nondiscriminatory and appropriate formal and
    informal assessment procedures
  • Teachers guide to special education assessment
  • How to interpret standardized and specialized
    assessment results
  • How to use evaluation results for various
    purposes, including monitoring IEP/ITP
  • How to prepare written reports and communicate
    findings to others

  • If a fourth grade student has a grade equivalent
    score of 3.0 on a reading test, he correctly
    answered as many questions on the test as the
    average beginning third grader.
  • Critical Issue Integrating Assessment and
    Instruction in Ways That Support Learning
  • The standard deviation is the variability from
    the mean. To calculate the standard deviation,
    you find the difference of each score from the
    mean, square each difference, average the squares
    and then take the square root this produces the
    standard deviation.
  • In testing or assessments, validity refers to the
    ability of the measurement to measure what it
    claims to measure. The term reliability is used
    to when referring to the repeatability and
    accuracy of a measurement.

  • Aptitude is the undeveloped potential or ability.
  • A discrepancy formula is used to establish a
    discrepancy between a students measured IQ and
    academic achievement and is used to document a
    SLD (Specific Learning Disability).
  • Curriculum based assessment is a method of
    increasing the importance in special education by
    measuring a students progress in the curriculum
    at frequent levels.

Managing the Learning Environment
  • Classroom organization/management, including
    providing appropriate physical-social environment
    for learning
  • Classroom management and organization
  • Expectations
  • Rules
  • Consequences
  • Consistency
  • Attitudes
  • Lighting
  • Seating
  • Access and strategies for positive interactions
  • Behavior management, including behavior analysis-
    identification and definition of antecedents,
    target behavior,
  • ABC Analysis
  • and consequent events data gathering procedures
  • Anecdotal data
  • Frequency
  • Interval methods
  • And selecting and using behavioral interventions

  • Transitions between lessons and activities
    grouping of students and effective and efficient
  • Parent/teacher contacts
  • Legal records

  • A self-contained classroom is a special class for
    specific types of disabled students who spend the
    majority of the school day away from non-disabled
  • Structure is the consistent use of rules, limits
    and routines that reassures a student with
    learning disabilities that the environment is
    stable and predictable. Behavior Home

  • IDEA requires school districts to provide related
    services that a child needs in order to benefit
    from the special education program, with the
    exception of medical care which is not for
    diagnostic purposes. Related services may
    include speech and language pathology, audiology
    services, psychological services, recreation,
    physical and occupational therapy, early
    identification and assessment, counseling,
    rehabilitation counseling, school health
    services, orientation and mobility services,
    social work services, and/or parent counseling
    and training.

  • Positive reinforcement is a behavior management
    technique in which the addition of a stimulus
    after a response that makes that response more
    likely to recur. On the other hand, negative
    reinforcement is the removal of a stimulus after
    a response which also makes that response more
    likely to recur.
  • Response cost is a behavior management technique
    that consists of stating the cost for a specific
    misbehavior before it occurs, implementing the
    penalty every time the misbehavior occurs and
    combining this with a reward or praising plan to
    tech or strengthen desired behaviors.
  • One form of differential reinforcement is to
    decrease inappropriate behavior by ignoring it
    and providing reinforcement for positive
  • Approaches to Learning and Teaching.doc

Professional Roles, Issues, and Literature
  • The teachers role as a multidisciplinary team
  • Ways to consult/collaborate with others, in
    school and outside
  • Ways to work with teaching assistants in the
  • Ways to participate in transition planning
  • How to use professional literature and research

  • The regular education teachers role as a member
    of a multi-disciplinary team is to present
    subject matter and instruction in the classroom
    to help develop, review and revise the students
    IEP to determine appropriate positive behavioral
    interventions and strategies to help determine
    supplementary aids, services and program
    modifications to identify supports needed to
    help the student progress and generally to
    maintain communication between the school and the
    students home.

  • Transition planning is part of the IEP for
    students after they reach the age of 16 (or
    earlier if deemed appropriate). Both
    parents/guardians and the student are included in
    the transition planning process. The IEP team
    may consist of the special education teacher, the
    regular classroom teacher and other support
    personnel and/or consultants. The superintendent
    would not normally be party to this process.
  • Section 300.506 states Each public agency shall
    ensure that procedures are established and
    implemented to allow parties to disputes
    involving any matter described in Sec. 300.503
    (a) (1) to resolve the disputes through a
    mediation process that, at a minimum, must be
    available whenever a hearing is requested under
    Secs. 300.507 or 300.520-300.528. Specific
    requirements of the procedures are outlined.
  • Get a Life Transition guide

  • The Child Find component of IDEA requires states
    to identify, locate and evaluate all children
    with disabilities who are in need of early
    intervention or special education services
    between the ages of birth to 21.
  • A licensed school nurse is an important part of a
    special education evaluation team. They may
    assist in determining if a child meets the
    criteria for special education by providing
    health assessments as needed, reviewing health
    history and documentation of medical diagnosis
    and identifying mental or physical health
    conditions that may impact learning.
    Additionally, if a child is eligible for special
    education services, related services such as
    school health or nursing services may be provided
    as part of the IEP.
  • History of Special Education
  • Special Education Laws
  • CEC Code of Ethics

Education of Exceptional Students Core Content
Knowledge (0353)
  • Content Categories
  • Understanding Exceptionalities
  • Legal and Societal Issues
  • Delivery of Services to Students with
  • This is a 60 minute assessment with 60 multiple
    choice questions. This assessment is designed
    for examinees who plan to teach students with
    disabilities in preschool through grade 12.
    Questions may address any disability from mild to

Understanding Exceptionalities
  • Human development and behavior related to
    students with disabilities, including
  • Social and emotional development and behavior
  • Language development and behavior
  • Cognition
  • Physical development including motor and sensory

  • Characteristics of students with disabilities,
    including the influence of
  • Cognitive factors
  • Affective and social adaptive factors, including
    cultural, linguistic, gender, and socioeconomic
  • Genetic, medical, motor, sensory, and
    chronological age factors
  • developmental disorders

  • Basic Concepts in special education, including
  • Definitions of all major categories and specific
    disabilities, including attention
    deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as
    the incidence and prevalence of various types of
  • The causation and prevention of disability,
  • The nature of behaviors, including the frequency,
    duration, intensity, and degree of severity,
  • The classification of students with disabilities,
  • The influence of level of severity and presence
    of multiple exceptionalities on students with
  • The influence of (an) exceptional condition(s)
    throughout an individuals life span.

Legal and Societal Issues
  • Federal laws and legal issues related to special
    education including
  • Public Law 94-142
  • Public Law 105-17
  • Section 504
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
  • Important legal issues such as those raised by
    the following cases
  • Rowley re program appropriateness
  • Tatro re related services
  • Honing re discipline
  • Oberti re inclusion

  • The schools connections with the families,
    prospective and actual employers, and communities
    of students with disabilities, for example
  • Teacher advocacy for students and families,
    developing student self advocacy
  • Parent partnerships and roles
  • Public attitudes toward individuals with
  • Cultural and community influences toward
    individuals with disabilities
  • Interagency agreements
  • Cooperative nature of the transition planning

  • Historical movements/trends affecting the
    connections between special education and the
    larger society, for example
  • Deinstitutionalization and community based
  • Inclusion
  • Application of technology
  • Transition
  • Advocacy
  • Accountability and meeting educational standards

Delivery of Services to Students with Disabilities
  • Background knowledge including
  • Conceptual approaches underlying service delivery
    to students with disabilities, including
  • Cognitive
  • Constructivist
  • Psychodynamic
  • Behavioral
  • Sociological
  • Ecological
  • Therapeutic (speech/language, physical and
  • Medical approaches

  • Placement and program issues such as
  • early intervention
  • least restrictive environment
  • inclusion
  • role of individualized education programs (IEP)
  • due process guidelines
  • categorical, non-categorical and cross-
    categorical programs
  • continuum of educational and related services
  • related services and their integration into the
    classroom, including roles of other
  • accommodations, including access to assistive
  • transition of students into and within special
    education placements
  • community-based training
  • post-school transitions

  • Integrating best practices from multidisciplinary
    research and professional literature into the
    educational setting
  • Curriculum and instruction and their implication
    across the continuum of educational placements,
  • The individualized family service plan
    (IFSP)/individualized education program (IEP)
  • Instructional development and implementation, for
  • Instructional activities
  • Curricular materials and resources
  • Working with classroom and support personnel
  • Tutoring options

  • Teaching strategies and methods, for example
  • Modification of materials and equipment
  • Learning centers
  • Facilitated groups
  • Study skills
  • Groups
  • Self-management
  • Cooperative learning
  • Diagnostic-prescriptive method
  • Modeling
  • Skill drill
  • Guided practice
  • Concept generalization
  • Learning strategy instruction
  • Direct instruction

  • Instructional format and components, for example
  • Small and large group instruction
  • Facilitated group strategies
  • Functional academic with focus on special
  • ESL and limited English proficiency
  • Language and literacy acquisition
  • Self-care and daily living skills
  • Prevocational and vocational skills
  • Career development and transition issues as
    related to curriculum design and implementation
    for students with disabilities according to the
    criteria of ultimate functioning

  • Technology for teaching and learning in special
    education setting, for example
  • Integrating assistive technology into the
  • Computer-assisted instruction
  • Augmentative and alternative communication
  • Adaptive access for microcomputers
  • Positioning and power mobility for students with
    physical disabilities
  • Accessing and using information technology
  • Use of productivity tools
  • Technology for sensory disabilities
  • Voice activated, speech-recognition and word
    prediction software

  • Assessment, including
  • Use of assessment for screening, diagnosis,
    placement, and the making of instructional
    decisions, for example
  • How to select and conduct nondiscriminatory and
    appropriate assessments
  • How to interpret standardized and specialized
    assessment results
  • How to effectively use evaluation results in
    individualized family service plan
    (IFSP)/individualized education program (IEP)
  • How to prepare written reports and communicate
  • Procedures and test materials, both formal and
    informal typically used for pre-referral,
    screening, referral, classification, placement,
    and ongoing program monitoring
  • How to select, construct, conduct and modify
    nondiscriminatory, developmentally and
    chronologically age-appropriate informal
    assessment and alternatives to norm-referenced
    testing (including observations, anecdotal
    records, error analysis, miscue analysis,
    self-evaluation questionnaires and interviews,
    journal and learning logs, portfolio assessment)

  • Structuring and managing the learning
    environment, including
  • Structuring the learning environment, for
  • the physical social environment for learning
    (expectations, rules, consequences, consistency,
    attitudes, lighting, acoustics characteristics,
    seating, access, safety provisions and strategies
    for positive interactions)
  • transitions between lessons and activities
  • grouping of students integration of related
    services (occupational therapy, physical therapy,
    speech and language therapy)

  • Classroom management techniques, for example
  • Behavioral analysis (identification and
    definition of antecedents, target behaviors and
  • Behavioral interventions
  • Functional analysis
  • Data gathering procedures(such as anecdotal data,
    frequency methods, and interval methods)
  • Self management strategies and reinforcement
  • Cognitive behavioral interventions
  • Social skills training
  • Ethical considerations inherent in behavior

  • Professional roles, including
  • Specific roles and responsibilities of teachers,
    for example teacher as a collaborator with other
    teachers, teacher educators, parents, community
    groups, and outside agencies
  • Teacher as a multidisciplinary team member
  • Maintaining effective and efficient documentation
  • Selecting appropriate environments and services
    for students
  • Critical evaluation and use of professional
    literature and organizations
  • Reflecting on ones own teaching
  • Teachers role in a variety of settings
    (self-contained classroom, resource room,
    itinerant, co-teacher in inclusion setting, etc.)
  • Maintaining student confidentiality

  • Influences of teacher attitudes, values and
    behaviors on the learning of exceptional students
  • Communicating with parents, guardians and
    appropriate community collaboration, for example
  • Directing parents and guardians to
    parent-educators or to other groups and resources
  • Writing reports directly to parents
  • Meeting with parents to discuss student concerns,
    progress and IEPs encouraging parent
  • Reciprocal communication and training with other
    service providers

Special Education Teaching Students with
Behavioral/Emotional Disturbance (20371)
  • Six content areas are covered in the examination
  • general knowledge of exceptionalities
  • characteristics of students with emotional
  • assessment, evaluation and placement
  • instructional procedures and methods
  • classroom management and
  • legal/ethical considerations.
  • This is a 50 question multiple choice assessment
    that allows 60 minutes for completion.

General Knowledge of Exceptionalities
  • Basic concepts, including characteristics of
    students with behavioral disorders/emotional
    disturbance, such as psychological
    characteristics (for example, neuroses,
    psychoses, anxiety, depression)
  • ADHD PowerPoint
  • Neuroses, Psychoses, anxiety and depression
  • Teaching Approaches
  • affective characteristics (for example,
    social-emotional development, interpersonal
  • Blooms Taxonomy Affective domain

  • adaptive/ maladaptive behavioral characteristics
    (for example, self-injurious behavior, eating
    disorders, substance abuse, aggression, social
    maladjustment, conduct disorders, delinquency)
  • the relationship between behavior
    disorders/emotional disturbance and
    distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity

  • causation and prevention (for example,
    environmental factors, cultural factors, genetic
    factors, neurological factors)
  • Definitions/terminology related to behavioral
    disorders/ emotional disturbance (for example,
    federal definition IDEA professional
    organizations definitions DSM CEC)

? Professional roles/issues/
  • literature, such as public attitudes toward
    individuals with behavioral disorders/emotional
  • the teachers role as promoter of advocacy (for
    example, helping parents become advocates for
    their children, developing student self-advocacy,
    advocating for students families and for
    educational change)
  • the teachers responsibility in cases of
    suspected abuse or neglect

  • the use of professional literature/ organizations
    and formal published research for improving
    classroom practice and reflecting on ones own
  • influences of teacher attitudes and expectations
    on student achievement and behavior and ways to
    work with health-related service and social
    service providers

Assessment, including how to
  • modify, construct, or select and conduct
    nondiscriminatory and appropriate informal and
    formal assessment procedures,
  • how to interpret standardized and specialized
    assessment results,
  • how to use evaluation results in IEP/ITP
    development, and how to prepare written reports
    and communicate findings to others

Placement and program issues,
  • including ways to apply a continuum of
    alternative placements and related services (for
    example, early intervention, support systems,
    least restrictive environment, REI,
    mainstreaming, integration, and inclusion)
  • how to participate in the IEP/ITP processes in a
    manner that is responsive to cultural and
    community influences
  • how to identify, develop, or adapt and use
    appropriate instructional materials
  • Lesson Planning

  • how to work with classroom personnel and external
  • how to display awareness of students abilities
    and aptitudes and use appropriate alternative
    methods for instruction, evaluation, and grading
    (for example, through peer-group tutoring and
    instructional techniques)

Curriculum and instruction,
  • including determining current levels of
    performance, determining instructional needs,
    identifying appropriate related services and
    modifications of standard educational practice,
    establishing effective data collection
  • preparing legally correct IEP/ITP instructional
    goals and objectives selecting chronologically
    and developmentally age-appropriate instructional
    activities and materials using appropriate
    planning and sequencing of instructional

  • using data-based decision-making to select from
    varied teaching strategies and methods, including
    direct instruction, cooperative learning, task
    analysis, diagnostic-prescriptive methods, and
    applied behavior analysis and
  • using varied instructional formats and
    components, including motivation, modeling, drill
    and practice, demonstration, corrective feedback,
    and reinforcement with individuals and with small
    and large groups, as appropriate

Instructional Procedures and Methods
  • How to manage the learning environment, including
    using behavior management, behavior analysis
    (such as identification and definition of
    antecedents, target behavior, consequent events)
    data-gathering procedures selecting and using
    behavioral interventions (for example, approaches
    to changing behaviors, such as behavioral,
    cognitive behavioral, and affective, degrees of
  • Classroom Management Strategies for Effective

Classroom Management
  • using classroom organization/management
    providing the appropriate physical-social
    environment for learning (such as expectations,
    rules, consequences, consistency, attitudes,
    lighting, seating, access, strategies for
    positive interactions)
  • Classroom management and organization
  • planning transitions between lessons and
    activities grouping students and maintaining
    effective and

Legal and Ethical Considerations
  • efficient documentation (such as parent/teacher
    contacts and legal records)
  • CEC link on IDEA

Education of Exceptional Students Mild to
Moderate Disabilities (0542)
  • Content Categories
  • Assessment
  • Curriculum and Instruction
  • Structure and Managing the Learning Environment
  • This is a one hour test made up of 5 constructed
    response questions. The questions access the
    ability to apply the principles of special
    education to situations that a teacher is likely
    to encounter in working with students with mild
    to moderate disabilities in Preschool through
    12th grade.

Six Types of Constructed Response Questions
  • The six kinds of stimulus material for the
    questions are
  • Charts graphs and tables
  • Illustrations, cartoons, maps and other visuals
  • Passages taken from relevant content area primary
    source materials
  • Statements of theory and research findings
  • Mathematical or scientific problems
  • Examples of students work

Strategies for Success
  • Answer all parts of the question. Use your
    pencil to mark all requirements in the test
  • Answer the question only to the degree requested.
  • Look first at the question and then at the
    stimulus materials.

Power Verbs for Testing
  • Make sure you are familiar with questions which
    include the following verbs
  • List
  • Define
  • Identify
  • Compare
  • Contrast
  • Cite
  • Explain
  • Defend
  • Describe
  • Discuss
  • Analyze
  • Evaluate
  • Use examples
  • Give reasons
  • Be specific

  • Demonstrate knowledge of specialized policies
  • Screening
  • Pre-referral strategies
  • Referral
  • Placement procedures for individuals with mild to
    moderate disabilities

  • Demonstrate knowledge of assessment for
  • Instruments and methods both formal and informal
    (e.g. ecological inventories, portfolio,
    functional, and assistive technology assessments)
    used to determine eligibility for special
    education services, with consideration given to
  • Modality preferences
  • Level of support and/or independence
  • Accommodations for test taking situations
  • Cultural and linguistic diversity

  • Demonstrates knowledge of assessment for
  • How to design and adapt assessments, both formal
    and informal, to use in developing instruction
    for individuals with mild to moderate
    disabilities, with consideration given to
  • Modality preferences
  • Level of support and/or independence
  • Accommodations for test taking situations
  • Cultural and linguistic diversity

  • How to utilize assessment information in
    developing instruction for mild to moderate
    disabilities in both specialized and general
    education settings in both
  • Academic domains (e.g. mathematics, reading,
    writing, social studies, science, art, music,
    vocational and
  • Behavioral domains (e.g. social skills, listening
    skills, communication skills, self-management
    skills, prevocational skills)

Curriculum and Instruction
  • Demonstrate knowledge of how to evaluate, select,
    and develop curriculum materials appropriate for
    individuals with mild to moderate disabilities,
    with sensitivity to cultural and linguistic
    diversity and adaptations and accommodations for
    individuals with mild to moderate disabilities

  • Demonstrate knowledge of how to use local,
    community, and state resources to assist in
    developing programs for individuals who are
    likely to make progress in the general
  • Demonstrate knowledge of how to write appropriate
    IEP goals and objectives for students with mild
    to moderate disabilities in
  • Academic domains (including vocational)
  • Behavioral domains

Structuring and Managing the Learning Environment
  • Demonstrate knowledge of behavior management
  • How to implement systematic behavior management
    plans using
  • Observation
  • Recording
  • Charting
  • Establishment of timelines
  • Hierarchies of interventions
  • Schedules of reinforcement
  • How to select target behaviors to be changed and
    identify the critical variables affecting the
    target behavior.

  • Demonstrates knowledge of problem solving and
    conflict resolution
  • Demonstrates knowledge of how to integrate
    related services into the instructional setting
    of students with mild to moderate disabilities
  • Demonstrates knowledge of how to collaborate with
    others (including both personnel and families) in
    planning and providing instruction for students
    with mild to moderate disabilities