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Urban School Physical Education Directors Perceptions of Physical Education

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Urban School Physical Education Directors Perceptions of Physical Education Howard Zeng1, Wenhao Liu2 & Michael Hipscher1 1Brooklyn College, CUNY, Brooklyn, NY. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Urban School Physical Education Directors Perceptions of Physical Education


1
Urban School Physical Education Directors
Perceptions of Physical Education
  • Howard Zeng1, Wenhao Liu2 Michael Hipscher1
  • 1Brooklyn College, CUNY, Brooklyn, NY.
  • 2Slippery Rock University, Slippery Rock, PA.

2
Introduction and Background
  • For over two decades, researchers have realized
    and emphasized that physical education (PE) plays
    a vital role in our school education (Sallis,
    McKenzie, 1991 Sallis, McKenzie, Alcaraz,
    1993 U.S. DHHS, 2004 Zoeller, 2007).

3
Introduction and Background (cont. 1)
  • Participation in regular physical activity (PA)
    effectively reduces the risk of premature
    mortality, coronary heart disease, hypertension,
    colon cancer, and diabetes (Coakley, 2004
    Warburton, Nicol, Bredin, 2006 Zoeller, 2007).

4
Introduction and Background (cont. 2)
  • Physical education plays such important role in
    our society as health costs are at all time high
    and people are living longer.
  • Recently research reveals that physical
    inactivity and obesity remain more stable than
    physical activity from childhood to adulthood
    (Anderssen, Wold, Torsheim, 2005 Janz, Burns,
    Levy, 2005 Matton et al., 2005 Raitakari,
    Juonala, Viikari, 2005 Yang et al., 2007).

5
Introduction and Background (cont. 3)
  • That is, compared with physically active
    lifestyles during childhood, sedentary lifestyles
    adopted early in life tend to track into
    adulthood at a higher rate.
  • The finding helps explain the well known facts
    that physical activity levels decline from
    childhood to adulthood and that more than half
    (54.1) of adults do not engage in physical
    activity at the minimum recommended level (Center
    for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, 2005).

6
Introduction and Background (cont. 4)
  • As a result, the goal of public health is to get
    physically active children remain physically
    active through adulthood and, more importantly,
    to get sedentary children untracked and become
    physically active (Corbin, 2001 Malina, 2001b).
  • In fact, the promotion of lifelong physical
    activity participation has been recognized as the
    ultimate goal of school physical education
    programs (Rink, 2006), and physical activity
    ranks top in the ten Leading Health Indicators
    (USDHHS, 2000).

7
Introduction and Background (cont. 5)
  • More ideas and suggestions have been made by the
    researchers such as
  • using interdisciplinary instructive approach
    incorporates literacy, math, geography and
    science into PE lessons,
  • developing a science-base curriculum
  • applying different technology to provide visual,
    kinesthetic and auditory stimuli in daily
    lessons and
  • using various teaching strategies to meet the
    needs of diverse learners (Graham, Holt/Hale,
    Parker, 2005 Pangrazi, 2007).

8
Introduction and Background (cont. 6)
  • However, no matter how the researchers, educators
    and media describe and discuss the issues and
    solutions about school PE, the bottom line is,
    the director of PE programs are the key figures
    to make decisions on how PE will be operated in
    their schools.
  • In school reform discussion, the role of director
    of PE programs have consistently identified as a
    critical contributing factor to school PE
    effectiveness and to reform implementation
    success (Fullan, 2001 Graham, Holt/Hale,
    Parker, 2008 Pangrazi, 2007 ).

9
Purpose
  • While many studies have been done to investigate
    Issues or problems and solutions regarding school
    PE programs, few studies, if any, have tried to
    understand urban school PE from the perspectives
    of PE program directors (PEPD).

10
Purpose (Cont.)
  • This study was intended to investigate PEPD's
    perceptions of urban school PE programs so that
    more comprehensive understanding of PE programs
    might be ascertained.

11
Methods
  • Participants in this study were 17 PEPD from a
    large city in the US (5 from elementary schools,
    12 from secondary schools) with a minimum of
    two-year experience in the PEPD position.

12
Methods (Cont. 1)
  • The Elite interview (Hertz Imber, 1995) was
    used with semi structured questions regarding
    concerns, problems, and solutions for urban PE
    programs.

13
Methods (Cont. 2)
  • All interviews were audiotape and transcribed and
    a detailed audit trail was used for establishing
    trustworthiness. Constant comparison technique
    (Patton, 2002) was used for data analysis.

14
Analysis/Results
  • Three major themes were revealed.
  • First, the importance of PE programs in urban
    school districts was confirmed. The PE programs
    played an important role in providing a big
    portion of daily physical activity amount for
    urban kids and in developing healthy, whole
    persons, and was an integral part of the urban
    education system.

15
Analysis/Results (cont. 1)
  • Second, the major problems with the urban school
    PE programs were the lack of administrative
    support, shortage of facilities and equipment,
    apathetic and unqualified PE teachers, oversize
    classes, and lack of students motivation.

16
Analysis/Results (cont. 2)
  • In addition, a higher prevalence of obesity among
    urban school kids than those in rural and
    suburban areas is a serious concern.

17
Analysis/Results (cont. 3)
  • Third, the urban school PEPD recommend the
    following solutions to solving the problems
    writing grants and raising funds for updating PE
    equipment and facilities using community
    resources to implement PE programs

18
Analysis/Results (cont. 4)
  • seeking parental involvement and political
    support building new schools requiring more PE
    days/weeks increasing the salaries of PE
    teachers raising the bar for accreditation, and
    hiring of new certified PE teachers.

19
Conclusions
  • Perceptions of the PEPD on urban school PE
    reflect problems that urban school PE faces.
    Whereas the problems are comprehensive, the urban
    PEPD recognize the important roles that PE plays
    and are clear regarding the ways to solve those
    problems.

20
Conclusions (cont.)
  • However, to reform the quality of urban school PE
    is beyond the current capabilities of PEPD. Given
    the higher prevalence of obesity among urban
    school districts, decision makers at higher
    levels should take steps to solve problems that
    urban PE programs face.

21
Selected References
  • Blair, S. N. Church, T. S. (2004). The Fitness,
    Obesity, and Health Equation Is Physical
    Activity the Common Denominator? The Journal of
    the American Medical Association, Circulation,
    292, 1232-1234.
  • Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (2004). School
    Health Index A Self-Assessment and Planning
    Guide. Middle school/high school version.
    Atlanta, Georgia U.S. Department of Health and
    Human Services, CDC, 2004.
  • Coakley, J. (2004). Sports in society Issues and
    controversies (8th ed.). McGraw Hill New York.
  • Graham, G., Holt/Hale, S. A. and Parker, M.
    (2008). Children moving A reflective approach to
    teaching physical education (8th Ed.). Mountain
    View, CA Mayfield.
  • Olafson, L. (2002). "I hate phys. ed."
    Adolescent girls talk about physical education.
    The Physical Educator, Spring, 67-74.
  • Pangrazi, R. P. (2007). Dynamic physical
    education for elementary school children (15th
    ed.). San Francisco, CA Benjamin Cummings.
  • Sallis, J., McKenzie, T. L. (1991). Physical
    education's role in public health. Research
    Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 62, 124-137.
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
    (U.S. DHHS, 2000). Physical activity and health
    A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA
    U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
    National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention
    and Health Promotion.
  • Warburton, D.E., Nicol, C., Bredin, S.S.
    (2006). Health benefits of physical activity the
    evidence. Canadian Medical Association Journal
    (CMAJ), 174, 801-9.
  • Zoeller, R. F. (2007). Physical Activity and
    Obesity Their Interaction and Implications for
    Disease Risk and the Role of Physical Activity in
    Healthy Weight Management. The Journal of the
    American Medical Association, 1, 437-446.
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