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Mexicans’ parenting practices and child outcomes: Comparison between parents residing in Mexico and the US

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Mexicans parenting practices and child outcomes: Comparison between parents residing in Mexico and the US Melanie M. Domenech Rodr guez & Jorge A. Villatoro ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mexicans’ parenting practices and child outcomes: Comparison between parents residing in Mexico and the US


1
Mexicans parenting practices and child outcomes
Comparison between parents residing in Mexico and
the US
  • Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez Jorge A.
    Villatoro Velázquez
  • Utah State University Instituto
    Nacional de Psiquiatría

2
Collaboration Building
  • Began in 1996
  • Fogarty International (Steve Lopez)
  • Perception of Social Insecurity article
  • Continued e-mail contact
  • October 2003, Visiting Faculty at INP
  • Parenting course for researchers

3
Research Study
  • This study combined data from a behavioral
    observation study of 50 Spanish-speaking Latino
    families in the U.S., and a survey effort in
    Mexico City of 100 families.
  • Parallel data on child outcomes and parenting
    practices was obtained
  • We analyzed the data to examine similarities and
    differences among Mexican-born parents living in
    México and in the U.S.

4
Importance
  • Currently a parenting intervention is being
    culturally adapted for use with Spanish-speaking
    Latinos in the US, the majority of whom are of
    Mexican origin.
  • Domenech Rodríguez, PI
  • If the data yields comparable information for
    Mexican parents living in México and in the US,
    potentially the intervention can be also tested
    in México after lessons learned in the
    application of the intervention with Mexican
    families living in the U.S.

5
Sample Parental Characteristics
  • US
  • 40 mothers and 40 fathers
  • Parents ranged in ages from 21 to 50 in the U.S.
    (M 33.4).
  • 78 of the sample had an 8th grade education or
    below 3.9 graduated from college
  • Mexico
  • 100 mothers and 100 fathers
  • Parents ranged in ages from 22 to 58 in Mexico (M
    36.9)
  • 30.5 of the sample had an 8th grade education or
    below 28 graduate from college

6
Sample Parental Characteristics
  • US
  • 42.1 of mothers worked full time
  • 97.4 of fathers worked full-time
  • Mexico
  • 15 of mothers worked full-time 24 worked
    part-time
  • 84 of fathers worked full time

7
Significant differences
  • Mexico sample had higher levels of education
  • A Mann-Whitney comparison reveals a statistically
    significant difference between samples (ZU
    -7.6, p lt .001).

8
Sample Child Characteristics
  • US
  • Children ages 4 to 9 (M 6.7)
  • Child gender was uneven (63.7, female)
  • Number of children in the home ranged between 2
    and 7
  • 87.3 of households had between 2 and 4 children
  • Mexico
  • Children ages 6 to 9 (M 7.6)
  • Child gender was almost evenly split (49, male)
  • Number of children in the home ranged between 1
    and 7
  • 88 of households had between 1 and 3 children

9
Sample Child Characteristics
  • US
  • Households had 1 to 6 adults in the home
  • The most common arrangement was to have two
    adults in the home (73.2)
  • The next most common was 4 adults in the home
    (10.1)
  • 8.9 reported 3 adults in the home.
  • Mexico
  • Households had 2 to 8 adults in the home
  • The most common arrangement was to have two
    adults in the home (67.5)
  • The next most common was 4 adults in the home
    (12)
  • 10.5 reported 3 adults in the home.

10
Measures
  • Parenting Practices
  • Alabama Parenting Scale
  • Developmental Expectations
  • Should-Should Not Scale
  • Both instruments were translated and
    back-translated. Discrepancies were resolved
    through a bilingual committee. G. Canino has a
    much better system.
  • Child Outcomes
  • Child Behavior Checklist

11
Parenting Practices
12
Points of Interest
  • Monitoring
  • Items were removed that had virtually no
    variability in Mexico or US samples. For example
  • your child stays out in the evening past the time
    he/she is supposed to be home.
  • Corporal Punishment
  • The trends were the same in Mexico and the US
    sample (use spanking most, slaps least) but there
    seemed to be response suppression in the US
    sample.

13
Developmental Expectations
  • Measurement artifact Less variability in
    responses to the more difficult (double negative)
    items. Again, Canino wouldve recommended items
    were positively worded.

14
Parenting Practices by Country
  • Analysis MANOVAs
  • Dependents Parenting Practices
  • Independents parent gender, child sex, and
    child age.
  • Results
  • Parents in the U.S. showed higher levels of
    monitoring and positive parenting
  • Specifically, mothers in Mexico showed higher
    involvement than fathers, whereas in the U.S.,
    father shower higher involvement than mothers.
  • Role of acculturation?

15
Parenting and Child Outcomes
  • Analysis Logistic regressions
  • Dependent Child outcomes (internalizing and
    externalizing)
  • Independent Parenting practices
  • Results
  • Inconsistent discipline was the most significant
    predictor of poor outcomes for children in both
    samples, with variations in odds ratios.
  • For children in Mexico the odds ratio was 2.5 and
    for children in the U.S. it was 4.5

16
Parenting and Child Outcomes
  • Results
  • Positive parenting was related to internalizing
    problems in Mexico City.
  • In the U.S., involvement was a strong predictor
    of internalizing problems.
  • For externalizing problems, inconsistent
    discipline was the significant predictor for both
    samples.

17
Conclusions / Implications
  • Most may not be able to afford Caninos approach
    to instrument adaptation, but do as much as
    possible.
  • Mexican families that come to US have issues that
    set the stage for different behaviors in
    parenting and family relationships than their
    Mexico counterparts.
  • Similarities are evident that suggest there can
    be an exchange of interventions with some
    adaptations.

18
Future Plans
  • Proposal submitted and under review at CONADIC
  • Villatoro (PI), Domenech Rodríguez (Co-PI)
  • Manual development underway for testing in US
    population
  • Intervention phase slated to begin in early 2005.
  • Possible test in Mexico 2005
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