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The Mongols & The Mongol Empire

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... (Mongolia and China) Khanate of Chagatai (Central Asia) The Ilkhanate (Persia) Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia) CHALLENGE QUESTION! IV. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Mongols & The Mongol Empire


1
The Mongols The Mongol Empire
2
I. Beginnings
  • Mongol people roamed eastern steppe (vast stretch
    of dry grassland across Eurasia) in loosely
    organized clans
  • Nomadic, pastoralist (herd domesticated animals)
  • Horseback riding an essential part of life
  • 1200 Temujin, a young clan leader, sought to
    unite Mongols under one leadership
  • Fought and defeated rival clans
  • 1206 at kuriltai (meeting of all clan
    chieftains), elected khagan (supreme ruler)
  • accepted title Chinggis (or Ghengis) Khan,
    meaning universal leader

3
II. Early Conquests
  • First went after northern China in 1211
  • Forced ruler of Tangut kingdom in NW China to pay
    tribute
  • Fought and weakened Jin Empire
  • Soon turned attention to Central Asia
  • Angered by the murder of Mongol traders and
    ambassador
  • Gained control over region by 1225
  • Why so successful?
  • Highly organized and trained
  • Fighting units, called tumens, consisted of
    10,000 soldiers, most on horseback
  • Gifted strategist would often trick/surprise
    enemy
  • Cruelty as a weapon believed in terrifying
    enemies into surrendering
  • If city fought back, would be destroyed, people
    killed/sold into slavery

4
III. Mongol Empire
  • Chinggis established capital at Karakorum on
    steppes north of China
  • Summoned scholars from all corners of empire
  • Created government framework based on both Muslim
    and Chinese ideas/traditions
  • Creation of written Mongol language for
    recordkeeping and standardization of laws
  • Mongol rule helped to stabilize some areas
    production and trade flourished between East and
    West
  • Period from mid-13th to mid-14th century called
    Pax Mongolica (Mongol Peace)
  • Chinggis died in 1227
  • Third son, Ogedei, elected grand khan expanded
    empire to include Russia, much of the Islamic
    world, and China

5
III. Continued
  • Divide and conquered
  • Mongol empire divided into four regions, or
    Khanates, each ruled by a descendant of Chinggis
  • Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia and China)
  • Khanate of Chagatai (Central Asia)
  • The Ilkhanate (Persia)
  • Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia)

CHALLENGE QUESTION!
6
IV. Russia Under the Mongols
  • 13th century Russia divided into many warring
    kingdoms
  • Refused to unite to fight Mongols easily
    defeated individually
  • Mongols called Tatars (or tartars), meaning
    people from hell
  • Russian nobility became vassals of the khan of
    Golden Horde
  • Russian people began centuries of feudal bondage
  • Feudalism in Russia lasts longer, more severe
    than in West
  • The good and bad of Mongol rule
  • Trade with Asia increases and economy grows
  • Mongol rule led to isolation from West and the
    Renaissance
  • Distinct culture mix of Asian and Western
    beliefs/traditions

7
V. The Islamic Heartlands
  • Captured and destroyed Baghdad in 1258
  • Murdered last Abbasid caliph, along with 800,000
    more people (supposedly)
  • Left Muslim empire without a central authority
  • Will eventually lead to 3-way split Ottomans,
    Mughals, Safavids
  • Mamluks (led by Baibars) in Egypt led rebellion
    against Mongols
  • Cooperated with Christian crusaders in Palestine
  • Mongols forced to retreat, but remained in
    control of a vast territory
  • From edges of Byzantium to Oxus River in central
    Asia

8
VI. Kublai Khan and China
  • 1260 grandson of Chinggis accepts title of
    Great Khan
  • Succeeded in conquering all of China
    in 1279
  • Founded the Yuan Dynasty, lasted less than 100
    years
  • Reunited all of China (including western and
    northern regions)
  • Opened China up to more trade/foreign contact
  • Tolerated Chinese culture, made few changes to
    government
  • But, kept Chinese out of higher offices
  • Believed outsiders were more trustworthy, because
    no local loyalties

9
VI. Continued
  • Changes in Chinese society
  • Mongol women refused to adopt policies and
    practices of Chinese women
  • Ended bureaucratic examination system (but it
    will return)
  • Merchants and artisans experienced increase in
    status
  • Reduced peasant taxes, restored granary (food
    storage) system

10
VII. End of Mongol Rule
  • Yuan dynasty in China declines
  • After death of Kublai Khan (1294), Mongols never
    had as strong of leader
  • Suffered many defeats in Southeast Asia in later
    years
  • Overtaxed population
  • Rebellions broke out across China, succeeded in
    overthrowing Yuan in 1368
  • Led by secret societies, such as White Lotus
    Society
  • Most of Mongol Empire fell apart throughout
    Eurasia in late 1300s, 1400s for similar reasons
  • Golden Horde would remain the longest, have
    greatest impact

11
CHALLENGE QUESTION 1
  • Evaluate these two statements from Chinggis Khan
  • "A man's greatest work is to break his enemies,
    to drive them before him, to take from them all
    the things that have been theirs, to hear the
    weeping of those who cherished them.
  • "I will rule them by fixed laws so that rest
    and happiness shall prevail in the world.
  • What do these two statements tell us about
    Chinggis Khan?
  • 3-4 sentences

BACK
12
Exit Ticket!
  • Describe at least one effect/consequence of
    Mongol conquest in each of the following regions
    Russia/Eastern Europe, Middle East, China/East
    Asia.
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