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Structuring, Governing and Managing the System for Equity


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Title: Structuring, Governing and Managing the System for Equity

Structuring, Governing and Managing the System
for Equity
Professor Bob Lingard, The University of
Queensland, Australian College of Educators 2011
National Conference, 14-15 July, Sydney Equity in
Education Connecting for Change
CRICOS Code 00025B
Resources for Hope
  • the arc of the moral universe is long but
    bends toward justice. (Martin Luther King)

Structure of Keynote
  • Introductory remarks the struggles for social
    justice in schooling ongoing, but the arc of the
    moral universe bends toward justice.
  • Conceptualising social justice.
  • Australian policy construction of social justice
    in schooling. (the global as well)
  • Social inequality and equity in schooling.
  • Funding regimes.
  • Accountabilities and social Justice in schooling
    Opportunity to Learn Standards.
  • Informed prescription and informed
    professionalism a model for system/school and
    school/teacher relationships,
  • Policy.
  • Teachers performance pay centrality to the
    social justice project in schooling how can
    system policy frames support and enable rather
    than control and work as surveillance? Teacher
    student relationships at the centre.
  • In/conclusion

Conceptual Frame for Thinking about Social
Justice in Education
  • Nancy Fraser (1997) Justice Interruptus and
    (2009) Scales of Justice.
  • Fraser sees justice as working in three
    analytically distinct dimensions socio-economic
    (redistributive), cultural (recognitive) and
    political (representative).
  • Amartya Sen (1992) capability to function,
    capabilities approach Sen (2009) work against
  • Purposes of schooling economic, citizenship,
    cultural, other capabilities, opportunity BUT
    schooling a positional good and mechanism for
    social selection.
  • Neo-liberal present self-capitalizing
    individuals individual vs collective well being
    market vs state choice vs regulation etc.
  • Rudd (2009) the great neo-liberal experiment of
    the last thirty years has failed (p.25) With
    the demise of neo-liberalism, the role of the
    state has been once more been recognised as
    fundamental (p.25).
  • The need for a new social imaginary (Rizvi
    Lingard, 2010).

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Articulation of Social Justice in Contemporary
Australian Schooling
  • PISA quality and equity comparative performance
    and extent of gap between top and low performing
    students and effects of socio-economic background
    on performance on the test.
  • NAPLAN My School Mark 1 and Mark 2 Like/Similar
    School measures equity improved performance on
    Similar Schools measures (ICSEA) takes attention
    away from structural inequalities -fatalism
    towards inequality Power Frandji (2010)
    ICSEA ecological fallacy of first SES measure
    on ICSEA (use of postcodes and censual
  • Closing the Gap for Indigenous students failure
    of recognition of difference, Indigenous
    knowledges and epistemologies. Gloria
    Ladson-Billings (2006) education debt.
  • Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for
    Young Australians (MCEETYA, December, 2008) Goal
    1 Australian schooling promotes equity and
    excellence. (p.7)
  • Achieving these educational goals is the
    collective responsibility of governments, school
    sectors and individual schools as well as parents
    and carers, young Australians, families, other
    education and training providers, business and
    the broader community (p.7).
  • Need statement perhaps a rearticulation through
    a national conversation, taking account of the

Closing the Gap in Indigenous Education Policy
  • I have argued that, at a broad level, the
    pragmatic politics of equality is
    over-determining Indigenous affairs public policy
    in contemporary Australia, while the more subtle
    and complex politics of difference and diversity
    is being excessively subordinated. Hiding behind
    the term Closing the Gap and its statistical
    orientation is the enormous complexity of
    diverse, Indigenous, culturally-distinct ways of
    being (Altman, 2009, p.13).
  • Nancy Fraser redistribution, recognition,

Factors contributing to differential and unequal
student learning outcomes
  • Student background, especially social class or
    socio-economic background, links between
    material/economic capital and cultural capital.
  • Teacher classroom practices (pedagogies and
    assessment practices).

Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett (2009) The
Spirit Level
  • .
  • Sub-title of book Why Equality is better for
    Everyone. Basic position rich nations have
    reached a level of affluence that no longer
    ensures gains in health, happiness or wellbeing
    (cf poor nations).
  • The way forward for rich nations reducing the
    gap between rich and poor, reducing the amount of
    income inequality, poverty has effects but the
    extent of income inequality in a nation also has
    a strong and independent effect The evidence
    shows that reducing inequality is the best way of
    improving the quality of the social environment,
    and so the real quality of life, for all of us
  • Re schooling if a nation wants higher levels of
    achievement amongst all students it must
    address the underlying inequality which creates a
    steeper social gradient in educational
    achievement (p.30). (macro policy settings of
    more redistributive policies or more equal wage
    structure or combination). Policy implications?

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Dennis Condron (2011) Egalitarianism and
Educational Excellence, Educational Researcher,
40 (2), pp.47-55.
  • Addresses explanations for USs comparatively
    poor performance on international comparisons
    such as PISA.
  • Challenges explanations offered solely in terms
    of cross-national differences in educational
  • Rather, while not denying that systemic policy
    settings and schools can make a difference,
    demonstrates close correlations between
    amount/extent of social inequality and
    performance on such educational performance
  • Explores question of am equality-achievement
    trade-off in schooling in affluent societies re
    comparative performance.
  • Uses 2006 PISA data and the Gini Coefficient as
    measure of social inequality (zero represents a
    perfectly equal distribution of income and 100 a
    perfectly uneven distribution).
  • Finding the more equal / egalitarian societies,
    in terms of correlations at least, have higher
    average educational achievement, a higher
    percentage of high performing students and a low
    percentage of very low-skilled students.
  • Sets argument and evidence against changing
    macro-policy settings US from Roosevelts New
    Deal until end of Cold War from egalitarian
    capitalism to market capitalism this period
    has seen income inequality increase as real
    wages have stagnated or declined for everyone
    except those at the top (p.52).
  • .

Dennis Condron (2011) contd.
  • The evidence reveals a negative association
    between economic inequality and average
    achievement among the affluent countries
    considered here. Less egalitarian societies have
    lower average achievement, lower percentages of
    very highly skilled students, and higher
    percentages of very low-skilled students. In
    direct contrast, egalitarian societies have
    higher average achievement, higher percentages of
    very highly skilled students and lower
    percentages of very low-skilled students. Rather
    than facing an equality-achievement trade-off in
    which redistributing resources comes at the cost
    of producing few very high achievers, egalitarian
    societies are achieving compatible goals by
    producing highly skilled students while
    maintaining relatively low levels of economic
    inequality (p.53).

Dennis Condron (2011) contd.
  • Schools are embedded within the economic systems
    of their societies, and where economic systems
    have high inequality, overcoming the impact of
    this inequality on students learning will be
    more difficult (p.54).
  • Schools and teachers can make a difference BUT
  • Take-up of John Hatties (2009)Visible Learning
    (London, Routledge) interesting sociology of
    knowledge issue in this context.
  • It is not a book about what cannot be influenced
    in schools thus critical discussions about
    class, poverty, resources in families, and
    nutrition are not included but this is NOT
    because they are unimportant, indeed they may be
    more important than many of the influences
    discussed in this book (pp. viii-ix).

Linda Darling-Hammond (2010)
  • The Flat World and Education How Americas
    Commitment to Equity will Determine our Future
    (New York, Teachers College Press).

Linda Darling-Hammond (2010)
  • Creating schools that enable all children to
    learn requires the development of systems that
    enable all educators and schools to learn. At
    heart, this is a capacity-building enterprise
    leveraged by clear, learning goals and
    intelligent, reciprocal accountability systems
    that guarantee skillful teaching in
    well-designed, adequately resourced schools for
    all learners. It is not only possible but
    imperative that America close the achievement gap
    among children by addressing the yawning
    opportunity gap that denies these fundamental
    rights. Given the critical importance of
    education for individual and societal success in
    the flat world we now inhabit, inequality in the
    provision of education is an antiquated tradition
    the United States can no longer afford (p.327).

Linda Darling-Hammond (2010)
  • As the fate of individuals and nations is
    increasingly interdependent, the quest for access
    to an equitable, empowering education for all
    people has become a critical issue for the
    American nation as a whole. As a country we can
    and must enter anew era. No society can thrive in
    a technological, knowledge-based economy by
    depriving large segments of its population of
    learning. The path to our mutual well-being is
    built on educational opportunity. Central to our
    collective future is the recognition that our
    capacity to survive and thrive ultimately depends
    on ensuring to all of our people what should be
    an unquestioned entitlement a rich and
    inalienable right to learn (p.328).

Growing inequality in Australia
  • OECD (2011) Growing Income Inequality in OECD
    Countries What drives it and how can policy
    tackle it? Paris, OECD.
  • AB Atkinson and Andrew Leigh (2006) ANU
    Discussion paper, The Distribution of Top Incomes
    in Australia 1920 2002.
  • 1920s mid 1940s income share of top income
    group fell rose briefly after war and fell
    through until early 1980s 1980s and 1990s top
    income share rose rapidly and at the turn of the
    century top share highest for past 50 years
    share of top income group correlates with extent
    of overall social inequality.

Current Review of Funding for Schooling (Gonski
  • Relationship between social inequality and
    inequality of provision of schooling.
  • Reviews Emerging Issues Paper the place of
    explicit values differences in educational
    outcomes should not be a result of differences in
    wealth, income, power or possessions (p.18).
  • Basis for funding of government and
    non-government schools taking account of
    background differences of students in different
  • Choice versus Equity.

  • Accountability to give an account numbers and
  • Direction downward gaze test driven need
    bottom-up as well Opportunity to Learn
    Standards vertical, need horizontal as well
    temporal Indigenous Australians.
  • Accountable for what NAPLAN Scores My School
    Similar Schools measures Melbourne Declaration
    on Educational Goals for Young Australians,
    December, 2008.

Accountability systems to schools and communities
  • Opportunity to Learn Standards
  • A linchpin in these efforts to secure more
    equitable education is the creation of
    opportunity-to-learn (OTL) standards that attend
    to the opportunity gap as well as the achievement
    gap (Darling-Hammond, 2010, p.310).
  • OTL standards have been variously defined
    in proposals and legislation as the opportunity
    to learn the curriculum assessed in state
    standards, access to the resources needed for
    success in the curriculum such as teachers who
    are well qualified to teach the curriculum,
    appropriate curriculum materials, technology, and
    supportive services and access to other
    resources needed to succeed in school and life
    (Darling-Hammond, 2010, p.310).

  • Linda Darling-Hammond (2010, p.301)
  • In addition to standards of learning for
    students, which focus the systems efforts on
    meaningful goals, this will require standards of
    practice that can guide professional training,
    development, teaching, and management at the
    classroom, school, and system levels, and
    opportunity to learn standards that ensure
    appropriate resources to achieve the desired
  • Opportunity to Learn Standards systems and

  • Where is the wisdom we have lost in
  • Where is the knowledge we have lost in
  • (T.S. Eliot, The Rock, 1960)
  • Everything that can be counted does not
    necessarily count everything that counts cannot
    necessarily be counted. (Albert Einstein)
  • Numbers and Narratives.

High Stakes Testing
  • Globalized policy discourse in education A key
    purpose of assessment, particularly in education,
    has been to establish and raise standards of
    learning. This is now a virtually universal
    belief it is hard to find a country that is not
    using the rhetoric of needing assessment to raise
    standards in response to the challenges of
    globalization. (Stobart, 2008, p.24)
  • 2008 NAPLAN results in Queensland Masters
    Report, My School.

Context of Reductive, Performative
  • Lyotard (1994) death of meta-narratives
    emergence of performativity be operational
    (that is commensurable) or disappear (Lyotard,
    1984, p.xxiv) input-output equationand keeping
    the system operative.
  • Performativity is a technology, a culture and a
    mode of regulation that employs judgments,
    comparisons and displays as a means of incentive,
    control, attrition and change based on rewards
    and sanctions (both material and symbolic). The
    performances (of individual subjects or
    organisations) serve as a measure of productivity
    or output or displays of quality (Ball, 2006,
  • The issue of who controls the field of judgment
    is crucial. One key issue of the current
    educational reform movement may be seen as
    struggles over the control of the field of
    judgment and its values (Ball, 2006, p.144).

Purposes of schooling, school vision and
  • The Shape of the Australian Curriculum, Version
    2.0, December, 2010 10 General Capabilities and
    3 Cross-Curriculum Priorities.
  • Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for
    Young Australians, December 2008.

  • General Capabilities
  • The Shape of the Australian Curriculum 
    identifies ten general capabilities to be
    addressed in the Australian curriculum.
  • The general capabilities are literacy, numeracy,
    ICT, thinking skills, creativity, self
    management, teamwork, intercultural
    understanding, ethical behaviour and social
    competence. Particular attention has been given
    to the incorporation of literacy, numeracy, ICT,
    thinking skills and creativity into the draft
    Australian curriculum for English, mathematics,
    science and history.
  • This work has been undertaken by writing teams,
    supported by expert advisers. The incorporation
    of the ten general capabilities into the
    curriculum is described in the Organisation of
    the learning area section for each learning
  • Implications for accountability at system
    school levels (organisational, curricula and

  • Cross-Curriculum Priorities
  • The Australian Curriculum must be both relevant
    to the lives of students and address the
    contemporary issues they face. With this and the
    education goals of the Melbourne Declaration in
    mind, the curriculum gives special attention to
    three priorities
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories
    and cultures will allow all young Australians the
    opportunity to gain a deeper understanding and
    appreciation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
    Islander histories and cultures, their
    significance for Australia and the impact these
    have had, and continue to have, on our world.
  • Asia and Australias engagement with Asia will
    allow all young Australians to develop a better
    understanding of the countries and cultures of
    the Asia region. Students will develop an
    appreciation of the economic, political and
    cultural interconnections that Australia has with
    the region.
  • Sustainability will allow all young Australians
    to develop an appreciation of the need for more
    sustainable patterns of living, and to build the
    capacities for thinking and acting that are
    necessary to create a more sustainable future.
  • The cross-curriculum priorities are embedded in
    all learning areas as appropriate. When planning
    teaching and learning programs for the Australian
    curriculum, teachers will notice that the three
    cross-curriculum priorities have a strong but
    varying presence depending on their relevance to
    the learning area.
  • Implications for accountability?

Preamble to Melbourne Declaration
  • As a nation Australia values the central role of
    education in building a democratic, equitable and
    just society that is prosperous, cohesive and
    culturally diverse, and that values Indigenous
    cultures as key part of the nations history,
    present and future. (p.4)
  • Schools play a vital role in promoting the
    intellectual, physical, social, emotional, moral,
    spiritual and aesthetic development and wellbeing
    of young Australians, and in ensuring the
    nations ongoing economic prosperity and social
    cohesion. (p.4)
  • Major changes in the world with implications for
    schooling (pp.4-5).

Melbourne Declaration (2008, p7)
  • Improving educational outcomes for all young
    Australians is central to the nations social and
    economic prosperity and will position young
    people to live fulfilling lives.
  • Young Australians are therefore placed at the
    centre of the Melbourne Declaration and
    Educational Goals
  • These goals are
  • Goal 1
  • Australian schooling promotes equity and
  • Goal 2
  • All young Australians become successful
    learners, confident and creative individuals,
    active and informed citizens.

Successful Learners
  • Develop capacity to learn
  • Have essential skills in literacy ands numeracy
    are creative and productive users of technology
  • Are able to think deeply and logically, obtain
    and evaluate evidence
  • Are creative, innovative and resourceful, able
    to solve problems
  • Are able to plan activities independently,
    collaborate, work in teams, and communicate
  • Are able to make sense of their world
  • Are on pathways to continual success
  • Are motivated to reach their full potential.

Confident and creative individuals
  • Have sense of self-worth, self-awareness and
    personal identity...
  • Have a sense of optimism about their lives and
  • Are enterprising, show initiative and use their
    creative abilities
  • Develop personal values and attributes...
  • Have the knowledge, skills, understanding and
    values to establish and maintain healthy,
    satisfying lives
  • Have the confidence ... To pursue university or
    post-secondary vocational qualifications...
  • Relate well to others... maintain healthy
  • Are ...prepared for their potential ...roles as
    family, community and workforce members.
  • Embrace opportunities...accept responsibility for
    their own actions.

Active and informed citizens
  • . Act with moral and ethical integrity
  • . Appreciate Australias social, cultural,
    linguistic and religious diversity, and have an
    understanding of Australias system of
    government, history and culture.
  • . Understand and acknowledge the value of
    Indigenous cultures
  • . Are committed to national values of democracy,
    equity and justice
  • . Are able to relate and communicate across
    culturesparticipate in civic life
  • . Work for the common good, in particular
    sustaining and improving natural and social
  • . Are responsible global and local citizens.

Rich, intelligent accountabilities as opposed to
reductive and performative ones
  • Recognise the responsibilities of all actors
    governments, systems, schools, students,
    communities and parents
  • Acknowledge the broad purposes of schooling
    numbers and narratives
  • Challenge view that improved test results on
    NAPLAN are necessarily indicative of improved and
    more socially just schooling (perverse effects
    when numbers become targets)
  • Reject the top-down, one-way gaze on teachers as
    a sole source of and solution to all schooling
    problems gaze in multiple directions
    (opportunity to learn standards) BUT also
    recognise the centrality of teachers
    teacher-student relationship central.
  • Recognise the centrality of informed teacher
    judgment and quality of pedagogies to achieving
    better learning outcomes for all
  • Value teachers principals, their professional
    knowledges and have them inform accountability
    policy and practices
  • Systemically recognise the need to address
    poverty and challenge social inequality.

Accountability and Non-Academic Outcomes and
Goals of Schooling
  • Do we need outcome measure on the broad aspects
    of the Social Justice, including democratic
    citizenship goals of schooling? What is counted
    is what counts.
  • James Ladwig (2010) Beyond Academic Outcomes,
    Review of Research in Education, 34.
  • But as Max Weber and Jurgen Habermas have long
    warned, the imposition of the means-end
    rationality required in schooling, and in
    research that attempts to trace causal chains, is
    a double-edged sword. That is, whenever the more
    we attempt to gain a better grasp and
    instrumental control over forms of human life
    that currently escape the controls of our
    institutions, our bureaucracies, the more we
    colonize most of our life world within a
    restrictive logic of system input-output
    prediction. Understanding the call for
    nonacademic outcomes and the need to know more
    about the calls for schooling to promote
    nonacademic outcomes within this
    sociophilosophical view allows us to query which
    programs have what effect for whom. From this
    view we can also reflectively question just how
    much measurement we want, of what (Ladwig, 2010,

System/School Relationships
  • Andreas Schleicher (2008) high performing
    schooling systems informed prescription
    combined with informed professionalism.
  • Ultimately, therefore, the challenge for modern
    education systems is to create a knowledge-rich
    profession in which those responsible for
    delivering educational services in the frontline
    have both the authority to act and the necessary
    information to do so intelligently, with access
    to effective support systems to assist them in
    serving an increasingly diverse client base of
    students and parents (Schleicher, 2008, p.85).

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Policy and Teachers
  • National Partnership Low SES Schools hugely
    redistributive, but framed by strategic increases
    in NAPLAN scores as main outcome accountability
    measure and by a form of performance pay for
    teachers. Context of growing inequality.
  • Contrast with the Disadvantaged Schools Program
    (1974-1996) three broad goals 1. to ensure all
    young people gained the fundamental skills
    necessary to participate fully and equally in
    society and have the opportunity to share in its
    culture 2. to ensure that schooling was
    enjoyable and fruitful in itself, not only in
    relation to later life 3. the aspiration for
    schools through successful interaction with
    their communities to become less alienated from
    their communities than is now generally the case
    in disadvantaged areas (Schools Commission,
    1973, pp.93-94). Context of attempts to
    ameliorate social inequality.
  • National Partnership Teacher Quality teaching
    quality Performance pay for teachers in context
    of teaching as a mass profession AITSL teacher
    standards and competencies, lead teachers.

Performance Pay for Teachers
  • Merit pay that singles out individual teachers
    for annual bonuses has been especially
    problematic It creates temporary rewards that do
    little for long-term salaries or retention, and
    has been found to be demotivating for most
    teachers both to those who fail to receive it
    and to those who receive it one year and not the
    next. Many teachers report feeling insulted by
    the idea that they would only work hard for
    children in the face of what they see as a bribe.
    By encouraging competition rather than
    collaboration, individual merit pay bonuses do
    little to improve teachers collective knowledge
    and skills, even potentially reducing learning by
    discouraging sharing of ideas, lessons, and
    materials (Darling-Hammond, 2010, pp.318-319).
  • These findings mirror what researchers who look
    at private industry have found Pay is generally
    less important for motivating employees than are
    well-run collegial settings, opportunities to
    learn, and the intrinsic rewards of becoming
    efficacious at ones work (Darling-Hammond,
    2010, p. 319).
  • Andy Hargreaves (2010) Presentism,
    Individualism, and Conservatism The Legacy of
    Dan Lorties Schoolteacher A Sociological
    Study, Curriculum Inquiry, 40 (1), pp.143-154.

Andy Hargreaves
  • Teachers work has been manipulated by top-down
    reformers of all political persuasions. Reformers
    have been prepared to alter teacher individualism
    and play with presentism, but the one variable
    they have refused to change is their own social
    and political conservatism and its insistence on
    top-down accountability connected to narrowly
    tested system outcomes in relation to restricted
    conceptions of curriculum and learning
    (Hargreaves, 2010, p.151).

  • Three Overarching Principles, framed by
    considerations of redistribution, recognition,
    representation and care
  • 1. Place productive teacher/student
    relationships and the learning of both at the
    centre (backward map from there).
  • 2. Articulate Equity and Social Justice
    Goals and then create Opportunity to Learn
    Standards so goals can be achieved for all
  • 3. Articulate capabilities to be achieved
    by all students

  • Contribute to a conversation about
    conceptualising social justice in schooling a
    national policy frame? Work against injustice.
  • Social Inequality and equity in schooling
    schools cannot compensate for society, but can
    make a difference.
  • Equity as the driving principle for funding of
    all schools.
  • Reconceptualise richer, more intelligent forms of
    accountability work towards Opportunity to
    Learn Standards what required to achieve
    Melbourne Declaration, Goal 1?
  • Accountabilities beyond test results Australian
    curriculum general capabilities,
    cross-curricular priorities Melbourne
  • Conceptualising a system structured around
    informed prescription and informed
  • Policy and teachers

  • Politics of this
  • Wilkinson and Pickett argument more equality
    better for all of us.
  • Darling-Hammond individual and national fates
    symbiotically linked.
  • What the best and wisest parent wants for his
    (sic) own child, that must the community want for
    all of its children. Any other ideal for our
    schools is narrow and unlovely acted upon it
    destroys our democracy (John Dewey, 1900, p.3)
    and socially unjust.

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  • Altman, J. (2009) Beyond Closing the Gap Valuing
    Diversity in Indigenous Australia, ANU, CAEPR
    Working Paper, No 54.
  • A. B. Atkinson A Leigh (2006), The Distribution
    of Top Incomes in Australia 1920 2002,
    Canberra, ANU Discussion paper.
  • Ball, S. J. (2006) Education Policy and Social
    Class, London, Routledge.
  • Dennis Condron (2011) Egalitarianism and
    Educational Excellence, Educational Researcher,
    40 (2), pp.47-55.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (2010) The Flat World and
    Education How Americas Commitment to Equity will
    determine our Future, New York, Teachers College
  • Dewey, J. (1900) School and Society, Chicago,
    University of Chicago Press.
  • Fraser, N. (1997) Justice Interruptus, New York,

References contd.
  • Fraser, N. (2009 Scales of Justice, New York,
    Columbia University Press.
  • Hargreaves, A. (2010) Presentism, Individualism,
    and Conservatism The Legacy of Dan Lorties
    Schoolteacher A Sociological Study, Curriculum
    Inquiry, 40 (1), pp.143-154.
  • Hattie, J. (2009) Visible Learning, London,
    Routledge. Ladwig, J. (2010)
  • Lyotard, F. (1984) The Postmodern Condition,
    Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press.
  • Power, S. and Frandji, D. (2010) Education
    markets, the new politics of recognition and the
    increasing fatalism towards inequality, Journal
    of Education Policy, 25, 3, pp.385-396.
  • Rizvi, F. and Lingard, B. (2010) Globalizing
    Education Policy, London, Routledge.
  • Rudd, K. (2009) The global financial crisis,
    The Monthly, February, pp.20-29.
  • Sahlberg, P. (2007) Education policies for
    raising student learning the Finnish approach,
    Journal of Education Policy, 22 (2), pp.147-171

References contd.
  • Schleicher, A. (2008) Seeing school systems
    through the prism of PISA in A.Luke, K.Weir and
    A.Woods (eds) Development of a Set of Principles
    to guide a P-12 Syllabus Framework, Brisbane,
    Queensland Studies Authority..
  • Sen, A. (1992) Inequality Reexamined, Oxford,
    Oxford University Press.
  • Sen, A. (2009) The Idea of Justice, London,
  • Stobart, G. (2008) Testing Times The uses and
    abuses of assessment, London, Routledge.
  • Townsend, T. (2001) Satan or Saviour? An
    analysis of two decades of school effectiveness
    research, School Effectiveness and School
    Improvement, 12 (1), pp.115-129.

References contd.
  • Wilkinson, R. and Pickett, K. (2009) Spirit Level
    Why Equality is Better for Everyone, London,
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