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Summary Chapter 3: The Structural Frame


Summary Chapter 3: The Structural Frame Wendell W. Brown, Sr. Structural Configuration for a Five Member Team One Boss Dual Authority creates a new level below ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Summary Chapter 3: The Structural Frame

Summary Chapter 3 The Structural Frame
  • Wendell W. Brown, Sr.

What is a Frame?
  • Coherent set of ideas that enable you to see and
    understand more clearly what goes on day to day.

The Structural Frame
  • Oldest and most widely used ways of thinking
    about organizations.

Core Premise of the Structural perspective
  • Clear, well-understood roles and relationships
    and adequate coordination are key to how well an
    organization performs.

  • USS Kennedy vs. Rescue efforts at The World Trade

Structural Assumptions
  • Organizations exist to achieve established goals
    and objectives.
  • Organizations increase efficiency and enhances
    performance through specialization and a clear
    division of labor.
  • Appropriate forms of coordination and control
    ensure that diverse efforts of individuals and
    units mesh.
  • Organizations work better when rationality
    prevails over personal preferences and extraneous
  • Structures must be designed to fit an
    organizations circumstances (including its
    goals, technology, workforce, and environment).
  • Problems and performance gaps arise from
    structural defiencies and can be remedied through
    analysis and restructuring.

Origins of The Structural Perspective
Intellectual Roots of The Structural View
  • The work of industrial analysts bent on designing
    organizations for maximum efficiency.

Main Theorist
  • Frederick W. Taylor (1911) father of time and
    motion studies he founded an approach that he
    labeled scientific management.
  • Henri Fayol (1919 1949), Lyndall Urwick (1937),
    Luther Gulick (Gulick and Urwick, 1937)
    principles focused on specialization, span of
    control, authority, and delegation of

Monocratic Bureaucracy
  • Fixed division of labor
  • Hierarchy of offices
  • Set of rules governing performance
  • Separation of personal from official property and
  • Technical qualifications ( not family ties or
    friendship) for selecting personnel
  • Employment as a primary occupation and long-term

Main Theorist
  • Max Weber (Sociologist who wrote around the
    beginning of the twentieth century.)
  • Blau and Scott (1962)
  • Perrow (1986)
  • Thompson (1967)
  • Hall (1963)

Structural Forms and Functions
  • Blueprint for formal expectations and exchanges
    among internal Players (executives, managers,
    employees) and external constituencies.
  • Enhances and constrains what an organization can

Moeller Study (1968)
  • Explored the effects of structure on teacher
    morale in two school systems.
  • One was structured loosely and encouraged wide
    participation in decision making
  • One was tightly controlled, with a centralized
    hierarchy and a clear chain of command.

Results of Moellers Study
  • Moeller found the opposite of what he expected.
  • Faculty morale was higher in the district with
    tighter structure.

Basic Structural Tensions The Heart of
Organizational Structure
  • How to allocate work (differentiation).
  • How to coordinate roles and units once
    responsibilities have been parceled out

How do you group people into working units, the
task integration
  • Functional Groups based on knowledge or skill
  • Units created on the basis of time, as by shift
    (day, swing, or graveyard)
  • Groups organized by products (detergent versus
    bar soap)
  • Groups established around customers or clients
    (hospitals, computer sales departments, or
  • Groupings around place or geography
  • Groupings by process

Vertical Coordination
  • Higher levels coordinate and control the work of
    subordinates through authority, rules and
    policies, and planning and control systems.

  • Authority a boss someone with formal
  • Rules and policies Standard Operating
  • Planning and Control Systems Performance
    Control imposes outcome objectives without
    specifying how the results are to be achieved
    (increase sales by 10 this year) and Action
    Planning specifies methods and time frames for
    decisions and actions (increase this months
    sales by using a company wide sales pitch).

Lateral Coordination Lateral Techniques
  • Formal and Informal Meetings
  • Task forces
  • Coordinating roles
  • Matrix structures
  • Network organizations

McDonalds and Harvard
  • Two highly successful organizations
  • Contrasting structures
  • Optimal blend of vertical and lateral strategies

McDonalds Managers and employees
  • Limited discretion about how to do their jobs
  • Work is controlled by technology
  • Parent company has powerful systems to ensure
    that food and service conform to standard
  • Big Mac taste the same around the world.

Harvard University Professors and Instructors
  • Small Administrative group at the top
  • More geographically concentrated
  • All activities happen within a few miles of
    Cambridge, Mass.
  • Employees in one of several schools
  • Each school has a dean
  • Each school has its on endowment
  • Professors have choice of classes they teach
  • Each school has its own calender

Structural Imperatives Table 3.1 Pg 59
  • Size and age Complexity and formalization
    increase with size and age
  • Core process Core processes or technologies
    must align with structure
  • Environment Stable environment rewards simpler
    structures uncertain, turbulent environment
    requires more complex, adaptable structure
  • Strategy and goals Variation in clarity and
    consistency of goals requires appropriate
    structural adaptations.
  • Information technology Information technology
    permits flatter, more flexible, and more
    decentralized structure.
  • Nature of the workforce Most educated and
    professional workers need and want greater
    autonomy and discretion

Summary of Chapter 4 Structure and Restructuring
  • Wendell W. Brown, Sr.

Structural Dilemmas
  • Differentiation versus Integration
  • Gap versus Overlap
  • Underused versus Overload
  • Lack of Clarity Versus Lack of Creativity
  • Excessive Autonomy versus Excessive
  • Too Loose versus Too tight
  • Goalless versus Goalbound
  • Irresponsible versus Unresponsive

Structural Configurations Mintzbergs Fives
  • Base operating core the core is made up of
    workers who produce or provide products or
    services to customers or clients.
  • Directly above the base -Administrative Component
    managers who supervise, control, and provide
    resources for the operators.
  • At the top Senior managers- in the strategic
    apex focus on the outside environment, determine
    the mission, and shape the grand design.
  • Alongside the administrative component
    technostructure houses specialist and analyst
    who standardized, measure, and inspect outputs
    and processes.
  • Alongside the administrative component Support
    staff performs tasks that support or facilitate
    the work of others

Five Structural Configuration
  • Simple structure two levels the strategic apex
    and an operating level.(Mom and Pop operations)
  • Machine Bureaucracy Important decisions are
    made by the strategic apex day-to-day operations
    are handled by managers and standardized
    procedures. Large support staffs and a sizeable
    technostructure with many levels between apex and
    operating levels.
  • Professional Bureaucracy operating core is
    large relative to its other structural parts.
    Few managerial levels exist between apex and
    operating level
  • Divisionalized Form the bulk of the work is
    done in quasi-autonomous units
  • Adhocracy loose, flexible, self, renewing
    organic form tied mostly through lateral means.

Helgesens Web of Inclusion
  • Architectural form more circular than
  • The web builds from the center out.
  • Action in one place ripples across others.
  • The webs center and periphery are interconnected

Why Restructure?
  • The environment shifts
  • Technology changes
  • Organizations grow
  • Leadership changes

Miller and Friesen (1984) Troubled firms
typically fell because
  • The Impulsive Firm
  • The Stagnant Bureaucracy
  • The Headless Giant

Examples of How Restructuring works
  • Citibanks Back Room
  • Kodaks Black and White Division
  • Beth Israel Hospital

Several Basic Principles of Successful Structural
  • The change architects developed a new conception
    of the organizations goals and strategies.
  • They carefully studied the existing structure and
    process so they understood how things worked.
    Many efforts at structural change fail because
    they start from an incomplete picture of current
  • They designed the new structure in light of
    changes in goals, technology, and environment.

Summary Chapter 5 Organizing Groups and Teams
  • Wendell W. Brown, Sr.

Structural Configuration for a Five Member Team
  • One Boss
  • Dual Authority creates a new level below the
    boss two individuals are given authority over
    specific areas of the groups work.
  • Simple Hierarchy Middle manager answers to the
    boss then in turns supervises the workers or
  • Circle Network where information flows
    sequentially from one group member to another.
    Each can add or modify whatever comes around.
  • All Channel Network Creates multiple
    connections so everyone can talk to one another.
    Information flows freely.

Determinants of Successful Teamwork
  • What is the nature and degree of task-related
    interactions among individuals?
  • What is the geographic distribution of unit
  • Given a groups objectives and constraints, where
    does autonomy reside?
  • How is coordination achieved?
  • Which word best describes the required structure
    conglomerate, mechanistic, or organic?
  • What sports expression metaphorically captures
    the task management filling out the line-up
    card, preparing the game plan, or influencing the
    games flow?

Team Structure and Performance Katzenbach and
Smith (1993)
  • Wrote a book called The Wisdom of Teams
  • Interviewed hundreds of peopl on different teams
  • They drew a clear distinction between
    undifferiented groups and sharply focused teams

Katzenbach and Smith (1993) Research Highlights
  • High-performing teams shape purpose in response
    to a demand or an opportunity placed in their
    path, usually by higher management.
  • High-performing teams translate common purpose
    into specific, measurable performance goals.
  • High-performing teams are of manageable size
  • High-performing teams develop the right mix of
  • High-performing teams develop a common commitment
    to working relationships.
  • Members of high performing teams hold themselves
    collectively responsible.