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Cloning-Human Cloning

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Definition of cloning its types development applications risks and human cloning options – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cloning-Human Cloning


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Replication of certain type of cells or certain
part of the cell/ DNA from a "parent" cell  To
PROPAGATE a certain DESIRABLE genetic
trait.
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  • To Understand CLONING we have to Differentiate
    between its different types
  • DNA cloning
  • Therapeutic cloning
  • Reproductive cloning

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DNA CLONING Transferring  a fragment of DNA from
one organism to a self-replicating genetic
element (bacterial plasmid ) DNA of interest can
then be PROPAGATED in foreign host cells.
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  • THERAPEUTIC CLONING (Embryo Cloning )
    -Production of human embryos for use in
    research, for example, extracting stem cells from
    these embryos for study for producing tissues
    to treat diseases.

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Reproductive cloningA technology used to
generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA
as another animal, so that every single gene is
exactly the same between the two in a process
called "Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer", or
(SCNT), and this type of cloning is our subject
to discuss.
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HISTORICAL VIEW 1952 Trial On a tadpole.
1997 - Dolly The Sheep by a Scottish scientist
at Rosaline Institute ( first cloning of a live
mammal)
Dolly The Sheep
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How Is Cloning Done?
How does one go about making an exact genetic
copy of an organism? It can be done by different
ways somatic cell nuclear transfer and
artificial embryo twinning. What is the
difference between these processes?
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Same Zygote Identical Genetics
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Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) - an exact
clone of an individual Dolly the sheep was
created by this method.
  • Isolation of a somatic cell from an adult
  • Nucleus( somatic cell) implantation to an egg
    cell after removing the egg nucleus
  • Fertilization zygote formation by chemical
    reactions and interventions
  • Embryo implantation into a surrogate mother to
    complete the term.

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The lamb, Dolly, was an exact genetic replica of
the adult female sheep who donated the somatic
cell nucleus to the enucleated egg, resulting in
the first mammal to be cloned from an adult
somatic cell
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Difference between Natural Fertilization and SCNT
Origin Of 2 Set Chromosome In Embryo
Natural Way
SCNT
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Inefficiency Lack of understanding Large
offspring syndrome Low survival rate Many
Unknowns
Potentially Dangerous And Ethically Irresponsible
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Reproductive Semi-Cloning Respecting Biparental
Embryo Origin
  • Gamete nucleus and a haploidized somatic cell
    nucleus
  • Replace either the male or the female gamete
  • Treatment of both male and female infertility
  • Alleviate some of the ethical concerns against
    conventional cloning in human assisted-reproductio
    n

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Learn More To Get World Class Infertility IVF
Gynecology and Obstetrics Facilities
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Dr Najeeb LayyousAmman, Jordan
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