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General Project Management Theory & Skills

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General Project Management Theory & Skills Advanced Project Management - CPH Module 1 - General PM Theory 9 Conflict Management Smoothing / Accommodating when – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: General Project Management Theory & Skills


1
General Project Management Theory Skills
2
Project Management Body of Knowledge
1
3
The Project Team
Stakeholders
ponsor Sr. Mgmt
Project Team Members
f Manager
Project Manager
Core Management Team
3
4
Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS)
ponsor Sr. Mgmt.
Project Manager
Manager
Team Member
Team Member
4
5
Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)
5
6
Organizational Influences and Structure
  • Project based organizations (2 categories)
  • Organizations that derive their revenue primarily
    from performing projects for others under
    contract
  • Organizations that have adopted management by
    projects

5
7
Organizational Influences and Structure
PMBOK Guide, 3rd Edition
6
8
Functional Organization
6
9
Projectized Organization
6
10
Strong Matrix Organization
6
11
Weak Matrix Organization
6
12
Balanced Matrix Organization
6
13
Organizational Influences and Structure
  • Project Coordinator
  • Less authority than a Project Manager
  • Does not make project or budget decisions
  • May assign resources
  • Functional and Weak Matrix

7
14
Organizational Influences and Structure
  • Project Expeditor
  • Least amount of authority
  • Staff member that ensures things arrive on time
  • Staff member that manages schedules
  • Functional Organization

7
15
General Management Theory Skill
  • Power
  • The ability to influence behavior in others
  • Organizational / Legitimate
  • Individual / Earned

7
16
General Management Theory Skill
  • Legitimate / Formal Power (Organizational /
    Formal power)
  • Power the Project Manager has due to the position
  • Formally in charge of project and support from
    agency/organization
  • Projectized Organization

7
17
General Management Theory Skill
  • Reward Power (Organizational / Formal power)
  • Ability to give rewards and recognize
    achievements
  • Examples pay raises, bonuses, etc.

7
18
General Management Theory Skill
  • Punishment Power (Organizational / Formal
    power)
  • Ability to punish employees if goals are not met
  • Also known as coercive power
  • Examples demotions, pay reduction, etc.

7
19
General Management Theory Skill
  • Expert Power (Individual / Earned power)
  • Exists when individual is an expert
  • People will respond and listen because of
    credibility
  • Subject Matter Experts (SMEs)

8
20
General Management Theory Skill
  • Referent Power (Individual / Earned power)
  • Respect / charismatic traits of the individual
  • or
  • Allies with more powerful individual and
    leverages the power of the ally

8
21
Conflict Management
Sources of Conflict
8
22
Conflict Management
  • Conflict Resolution Methods
  • Confronting / Problem Solving
  • Compromising
  • Forcing
  • Smoothing / Accommodating
  • Withdrawing / Avoiding

8
23
Conflict Management
  • Confronting / Problem Solving
  • Sometimes referred to as collaborating
  • Generally viewed as the best method for conflict
    resolution
  • Looks to solve the conflict at the source so it
    will not be an issue for the project

8
24
Conflict Management
  • Confronting / Problem-Solving when
  • When conflicting parties can get at least what
    they want and maybe more
  • To reduce cost
  • To create a common power base
  • To attack a common foe
  • When skills are complimentary

8
25
Conflict Management
  • Confronting / Problem-Solving when
  • When there is enough time
  • When there is trust
  • When you have confidence in the others ability
  • When the ultimate objective is to learn

8
26
Conflict Management
  • Compromising
  • To negotiate or bargain for a solution to give
    both parties some degree of satisfaction
  • Give and take or win-win
  • Neither party gets everything they want or need
    (lose-lose)

8
27
Conflict Management
  • Compromising when
  • When both parties need to be winners
  • When you cant win
  • When others are as strong as you are
  • When you havent time to win
  • To maintain the relationship

8
28
Conflict Management
  • Compromising when
  • When you are not sure you are right
  • When you get nothing if you dont
  • When stakes are moderate
  • To avoid giving the impression of fighting

8
29
Conflict Management
  • Forcing
  • When one party imposes the solution on the other
    party
  • win-lose situation, wins at the expense of the
    loser
  • Does not always address the underlying source of
    conflict and often reduces team morale

9
30
Conflict Management
  • Forcing when
  • When you are right
  • When a do-or-die situation exists
  • When stakes are high
  • When important principles are at stake
  • When you are stronger

9
31
Conflict Management
  • Forcing when
  • To gain status or power
  • In short term (one time) deals
  • When the relationship is unimportant
  • When a quick decision must be made

9
32
Conflict Management
  • Smoothing / Accommodating
  • Emphasize areas of agreement
  • Tends to downplay conflict instead of solving
    conflict
  • May make sacrifices to satisfy the needs of the
    other party

9
33
Conflict Management
  • Smoothing / Accommodating when
  • To reach an overarching or higher goal
  • To create obligation for a trade-off at a later
    date
  • When the stakes are low
  • When liability is limited

9
34
Conflict Management
  • Smoothing / Accommodating when
  • To maintain harmony
  • When any solution will be adequate
  • To create goodwill
  • When you will lose anyway
  • To gain time

9
35
Conflict Management
  • Withdrawing / Avoiding
  • Temporary solution at best
  • Conflict and source of conflict will continue
    through project life
  • Some view as cowardice and unwillingness to
    address the conflict situation

9
36
Conflict Management
  • Withdrawing / Avoiding when
  • When you cant win
  • When stakes are low
  • When stakes are high, but you are not ready
  • To gain time

9
37
Conflict Management
  • Withdrawing / Avoiding when
  • To unnerve your opponent
  • To preserve neutrality or reputation
  • When you think the problem will go away
  • When you win by delay

9
38
Conflict Management
  • Conflict Door stuck shut
  • Throw shoulder into door and break it open
  • (Forcing)
  • Ignore it, hope another will fix the door
  • (Withdrawing/Avoiding)
  • Determine what is causing the door to be stuck
    and correct the problem
  • (Confronting / Problem solving)

9
39
Conflict Management
  • Preferred
  • Problem-solving
  • Compromising
  • Last Resort
  • Forcing
  • Avoid
  • Withdrawing / Avoiding

9
40
General Management Theory Skill
  • Team Roles
  • Constructive Team Roles
  • Destructive Team Roles
  • An effective Project Manager will look to
    diminish or eliminate the effects of destructive
    team roles and enhance and maximize the effects
    of constructive team roles

9
41
Constructive Team Roles
  • Initiators
  • Brings ideas and activities to the project
  • Proactive
  • Highly productive
  • Lets try this!

9
42
Constructive Team Roles
  • Information Seekers
  • Looks to gain as much project information and
    understanding as possible
  • Opens communication
  • Can we get this information?

9
43
Constructive Team Roles
  • Information Givers
  • Openly shares project information
  • Increases project knowledge
  • Opens communication
  • Studies have shown that

9
44
Constructive Team Roles
  • Encouragers
  • Maintains positive and realistic attitude within
    the project team
  • Keeps focus on what can be accomplished
  • Improves team morale
  • Your idea has a lot of merit.

10
45
Constructive Team Roles
  • Clarifiers
  • Ensures everyone has the same project knowledge
    and understanding
  • Improves communication
  • Let me restate what Im hearing from the team...

10
46
Constructive Team Roles
  • Harmonizers
  • Enhances project information to increase project
    knowledge and understanding
  • Improves communication
  • Your ideas are similar, lets build from
    there...

10
47
Constructive Team Roles
  • Summarizers
  • Restate and relate project information back to
    the project objectives
  • Improves project understanding
  • The details shared by the designers will improve
    the product and present a cost saving of...

10
48
Constructive Team Roles
  • Gate Keepers
  • Works to draw all project team members into the
    discussion
  • Also Determines whether a project will continue
    to the next phase
  • We havent heard from Jim, what are your
    thoughts?

10
49
Destructive Team Roles
  • Aggressors
  • Criticizes everybody and everything on project
    management
  • Acts aggressively
  • Deflates team morale

10
50
Destructive Team Roles
  • Blockers
  • Rejects others viewpoints
  • Likes to criticize
  • Cites unrelated examples

11
51
Destructive Team Roles
  • Withdrawers
  • Is afraid to be criticized
  • May withhold information
  • May be pouting
  • May be shy

11
52
Destructive Team Roles
  • Recognition Seekers
  • Only volunteers if status is recognized
  • Likes to hear themselves talk
  • Boasts, rather than provide meaningful
    information
  • Does not give merit to others ideas

11
53
Destructive Team Roles
  • Topic Jumpers
  • Brings up irrelevant points
  • Constantly changes topics
  • Tries to keep project management implementation
    as an action items forever

11
54
Destructive Team Roles
  • Dominator
  • Disrupt team participation by forcefully
    presenting ideas without considering others
  • Always tries to take over
  • Challenges those in leadership roles
  • Professes to know everything

11
55
Destructive Team Roles
  • Devils Advocate
  • Finds faults in all areas of project management
  • Argues not on merits, but for sake of arguing
  • More of a devil than an advocate

11
56
General Management Theory Skill
  • Module 1 Exercise
  • Work as a team to answer questions on page 13
    14.
  • Look to resolve conflicts in a productive way
  • Take note of the different team roles presented
    in discussion throughout the remainder of this 2
    day class

11
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