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421-672 Management of Technological Enterprises

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Managing Knowledge in Technological Enterprises (II) Knowledge Engineering in the Organisation William P. (Bill) Hall (PhD) Evolutionary Biology of Species and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 421-672 Management of Technological Enterprises


1
421-672 Management of Technological Enterprises
  • Managing Knowledge in Technological Enterprises
    (II)
  • Knowledge Engineering in the Organisation
  • William P. (Bill) Hall (PhD)
  • Evolutionary Biology of Species and Organizations
  • http//www.orgs-evolution-knowledge.net
  • Ex Documentation and KM Systems AnalystHead
    OfficeTenix GroupWilliamstown, Vic. 3016
  • National FellowAustralian Centre for Science,
    Innovation and SocietyMelbourne UniversityUni
    Office ICT 3.67, 111 Barry St., CarltonPhone
    61 3 8344 1488 (Thurs-Fri)
  • Email bhall-u_at_dis.unimelb.edu.au
  • 1 April 2008

2
What are organisations?
  • A level of complexity in a hierarchically complex
    world
  • Emergent
  • properties
  • Synthesis cannot predict higher level properties
  • Behaviour isuncomputable
  • Boundary conditions constraints select
  • Analysis can explain

ORGANISATION People, Machines Living Cells,
Parts
  • Stanley Salthe (1993) Development and Evolution
    Complexity and Change in Biology

3
The organisation is a self-sustaining complex
system in the environment
Constraints and boundaries(laws of nature
determine what is possible)
The organisation's imperatives and goals
  • Processes (which may be complex subsystems in
    their own rights) are necessary responses to
    imperatives
  • Survival
  • Self-maintenance of the processes themselves

Hall, W.P. 2006 Emergence and growth of knowledge
and diversity in hierarchically complex living
systems.
4
Where can knowledge be found?
  • Popper's three worlds

Cybernetic self-regulation Cognition Consciousness
Heredity Recorded thought Expressed
language Computer memory Logical artifacts
Development/Recall
World 2 World of mental orpsychological states
and processes, subjective experiences Emerges
from world 1processes. Tacit organismic/personal
knowledge Polanyi's epistemology of personal
knowledge encompassed within Popper's World 2
Reproduction/Production
Test Observe
World 3 The world of explicit/ objective
knowledge Produced / evaluated by world
2 processes
Regulate/Control
Describe/Predict
Drive/Enable
Inferred logic
Energy Thermodynamics Physics Chemistry Biochemist
ry
Existence/Reality World 1
5
What kinds of knowledge exist in a complex
hierarchy?
  • Tacit knowledge ( Popper's dispositional
    knowledge)
  • Humans - Personal propensities or capabilities to
    behave or perform in certain ways that cannot
    readily be expressed in words experience,
    natural talent, unconscious knowledge, etc.
  • Organisations - structure of networks formed by
    members of the organization, electronic networks,
    computational apparatus, production lines,
    organisational routines, and the physical layout,
    capabilities and etc., (Nelson and Winter 1982).
  • Implicit knowledge
  • Humans - personal knowledge that can be expressed
    linguistically
  • Organisations - Some undocumented personal
    knowledge held by individuals relates to
    organisational roles rather than to the person's
    life and activities independent from the
    organisation.

6
What kinds of knowledge exist in a complex
hierarchy?
  • Explicit knowledge
  • Humans - linguistically articulated knowledge
    preserved and disseminated for intersubjective
    understanding and criticism in the form of
    discussions, books, papers, on-line articles etc.
  • Organisations
  • Explicit knowledge produced by individual humans
    for organizations they belong to that conveys
    meaning that is important to the functioning of
    the organizational entity, but has little or no
    relevance to the individual person in isolation
  • Explicit forms of knowledge stored in computer
    memories and disseminated electronically to
    effect actions (e.g., regulatory instructions in
    a continuous flow chemical plant, instructions
    for numerically controlled tools in a robotically
    controlled assembly line, etc.). May be
    automatically produced without human involvement

7
Individual knowledge in the organization
  • Important difference
  • individual knowledge (in any form), known only by
    a person
  • organizational knowledge is (socially) available
    and accessible to those who can apply it for
    organizational needs
  • Even where explicit knowledge exists, individual
    knowledge may be required to access it within a
    useful response time.
  • Individual knowledge addresses questions like
  • who has the tacit capabilities and experience to
    perform a task
  • what knowledge is needed
  • where explicit knowledge may be found
  • why the knowledge is important or why it was
    created
  • when the knowledge was or may be needed
  • how to apply the knowledge.
  • To improve organizational OODA performance a way
    is needed to rapidly find and coordinate people
    who have appropriate individual knowledge but
    don't know the problem exists.

8
"Living knowledge source of organisational
knowledge
Vines, R., Hall, W.P., Naismith L. 2007.
Exploring the foundations of organisational
knowledge An emergent synthesis grounded in
thinking related to evolutionary biology. actKM
Conference, Australian National University,
Canberra, 23-24 October 2007.
9
The organization may know less than its members
  • Organizational knowledge is more than the sum of
    the knowledge of the organization's individual
    members, but people with their individual
    knowledge count
  • People have lives outside their local
    organizational circumstances ('boundaryless
    careers') Arthur 1994)
  • People know a lot the organization doesn't
  • Tacit (Polanyi 1958, 1966) skills and
    understandings that cannot readily be expressed
    in words
  • Implicit knowledge the person can articulate and
    which could readily be shared if anyone knew to
    ask for it (Snowden 2000, 2002)
  • Explicit documents and other tangible resources
    the individual may know about but that are not
    generally known about in the organization.
  • Social cooperation coordinates individual
    knowledge for organizational purposes
  • Explicit knowledge becomes common knowledge as
    awareness spreads
  • Common knowledge becomes formal knowledge when
    reviewed, approved and signed off

10
Cycling between W2 and W3 to build personal
knowledge
11
Building organisational knowledge
12
Building and maintaining an adaptive KM
architecture to meet organisational imperatives
ITERATION
ENACTED STRATEGY
OBSERVATION OF CONTEXT RESULTS
ORIENTATION DECISION
STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT
STRATEGIC REQUIREMENTS
DRIVERS
ENABLERS IMPEDIMENTS
PEOPLE PROCESS
  • Operational Excellence
  • Customer satisfaction
  • Stakeholder intimacy
  • Service delivery
  • Growth
  • Sustainability
  • Profitability
  • Risk mitigation
  • Internal / external communication
  • Taxonomies
  • Searching retrieval
  • Business process analysis reengineering
  • Tracking and monitoring
  • Intelligence gathering
  • QA / QC
  • In competition
  • Win more contracts
  • Perform better on contracts won
  • Minimise losses to risks and liabilities
  • Meet statutory and regulatory requirements
  • Knowledge audit
  • Knowledge mapping
  • Business disciplines
  • Technology systems
  • Information disciplines
  • Incentives disincentives
  • Etc.
  • Strategic management
  • Architectural role
  • Communities of Practice
  • Corporate communications
  • HR practices
  • Competitive intelligence
  • IT strategy
  • Etc.

13
Team Expertise Knowledge Mapping (TEAM)Susu
Nousala 2006 PhD RMIT Eng (submitted)
  • Nousala, S., Miles, A., Kilpatrick, B., Hall,
    W.P. 2005. Building knowledge sharing communities
    using team expertise access maps (TEAM).
    Proceedings, KMAP05 Knowledge Management in Asia
    Pacific Wellington, N.Z. 28-29 November 2005.
  • Nousala, S. 2005. PhD Thesis. RMIT University
  • Knowledge pertinent to organizational survival
    may exist in world 2 and world 3 in a variety of
    forms.
  • Knowledge held individually by people belonging
    to the organization
  • Tacit organizational routines belonging to
    internal communities (i.e., CoPs) that may be
    autopoietic in their own rights
  • Physical layout (Nelson and Winter 1982)
  • Corporate documentation
  • To respond rationally to imperatives and
    perturbations
  • Identify, access, assemble and use relevant
    knowledge
  • Organizational resources and time available to do
    it are limited
  • Effective organizational response is bounded by
    these limitations
  • TEAM study focuses on individual knowledge

14
Knowledge mapping
  • Codification of knowledge vs pointing to people
    who have knowledge
  • Snowden's paradoxes
  • know more than we can say
  • say more than we can write
  • knowledge will be volunteered but cannot be
    conscripted
  • Availability of the knowledge is more important
    than its form
  • Mind mapping was originally a brainstorming tool
    to help codify
  • Offers flexibility
  • Substantial textual annotation capabilities
  • Linking
  • Used to facilitate social coordination of
    individual knowledge
  • Socialization in the interview process
  • People happy to share career successes and war
    stories
  • Socialization in the search and retrieve process
  • Experts introduced as people with rich stores of
    experience

15
L. Greiner 1998. Evolution and revolution as
organizations grow. Harvard Business Review
May-June 1998
collaboration
Large
coordination
delegation
-???-
SIZE OF ORGANISATION
red tape
direction
control
creativity
autonomy
leadership
Small
AGE OF ORGANISATION
Young
Old
16
Organisational knowledge in world 3 managing
engineering content
  • Persistent objects of corporate knowledge
  • Articles of incorporation employment agreements
  • Contracts
  • E-mails correspondence
  • Graphics and drawings
  • Plans, records, process procedure documents
  • Enacted workflow systems
  • Written history
  • Links captured contexts
  • Databases
  • AV recordings
  • World 3 comprises the bulk of organizational
    memory or heredity "content"

17
Configuration and knowledge management
architecture goals for a large project
à
RFT
  • Product and textual data are structured and are
    managed as content (SGML/XML)
  • Production mgmt data is transactional and is
    managed as records and fields
  • Goal is to manage all project data within a
    single configuration management umbrella

Capability requirements
Documentation requirements
Link element to component
Manage elements
Manage documentation activities
Manage design activities
18
Managing contractual knowledge
20 - 50 year lifecycle

19
Streamline bidding documentation funnel
  • Huge task
  • Uses production resources
  • Dont reinvent knowledge
  • Conflicting views of time
  • Supplier crushing deadline
  • Client inordinate delay
  • Word processing friction
  • multiplies task magnitude
  • wastes resources time
  • major source of delay
  • Delay generates crisis
  • disorientation
  • panic
  • error

20
Prime contractor production/mgmt issues
  • Effective contract management critical to
    business
  • Prime contractor multiplies all process
    inefficiencies many times over!
  • Customer presents wants, supplier must offer
    solutions
  • Tender won must pay for all lost tenders (? 5 to
    10)
  • Contract flows down to many subcontracts (? 10 to
    100)
  • Comparatively unskilled authors (? 2)
  • Client pays for all suppliers inefficiencies!

21
Exari Pty Ltd
  • Independent software developer, Queen St.,
    Melbourne
  • http//www.exari.com
  • Significant relationships
  • Oasis eContracts WG
  • CCH Australia/Wolters Kluwer Pacific
  • SmartPrecedent
  • XML based precedent management and intelligent
    authoring system
  • Round trip between XML and RTF
  • Based on a DTD for the structural hierarchy of
    contractual documents

22
Document Assembly - defined
Document assembly is the process by which an
instance document is produced from a template
document.
TEMPLATEDOCUMENT
INSTANCEDOCUMENT
A template document is a document which may
contain certain blanks and pieces of optional
text. It captures what is common, and what may
differ, between a set of similar instance
documents.
An instance document is a document created to
meet a particular need in some transaction.
Input from a person or database is required in
order to fill in the blanks and choose between
the optional texts.
Exari Software
23
issues and frustrations keeping things
up-to-date
the maintenance monster
  • clauses copied across hundreds of documents
  • dependent on technical support for updating
  • hard to get end user feedback

LOTS OF COPIES TO UPDATE
ONE CLAUSE
Exari Software
24
Strategies and solutions easier maintenance
  • LESS DEPENDENCE ON TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND CODING
    SKILLS
  • IMPROVED CAPTURE OF FEEDBACK SUGGESTIONS FOR
    IMPROVEMENT

shared clause libraries
CONTRACT
CONTRACT
CONTRACT
update boilerplate other common clauses in one
place
CLAUSE
CLAUSE
CLAUSE
COMMON
CLAUSE
CLAUSE
CLAUSE
CLAUSE
CLAUSE
BOILERPLATE
Exari Software
25
CONCLUSIONS
  • Electronic content management is revolutionary
    technology that is reinventing the nature of
    humanity (to say nothing of organizations).
  • (Barring differences in the language of
    expression) one person can access the persistent
    memory our our entire species for specific
    knowledge
  • I use Google many times every day when I want to
    know something
  • Google can do it in milliseconds!
  • ISI's Web of Science is better for more specific
    and detailed knowledge - searches may take
    minutes and you may still have to resort to paper
    (economic issues not technical ones)
  • An increasing number of cognitive processes are
    already automated and many more are in the
    process
  • Indexing
  • Semantic retrieval
  • Alerts
  • The revolution may be essentially complete within
    my own lifetime. It will affect everything we do
    and are as humans.

26
Tenix/Navy architecture developed in Melbourne
for managing ANZAC Ship support knowledge
change task
DOCO CONTENT
DOCUMENT
shared systems?
MANAGEMENT
AUTHORING
doco change
doco
released
change
doco
change
order
Navy Systems
DESIGN / ENG
PRODUCT DATA
PRODUCT
CONFIG
MRP
MANAGEMENT
MANAGEMENT
change request
ECO
SYSTEM
Product Model
Product Model



Plan
config
change

CAD / Drawing

Drawing Mgmt
Fabricate

Mgmt
Config
Mgmt

change effected

Assemble
doco change

Config
Mgmt

Change Request
Eng Change
Workflow



data change

Workflow

Process
Process
Control
Control

Doco Revision
Doco Revision
Release
Release

config
changes
Release
UPDATE MAINT DATA / PROCEDURE
UPDATE CONFIG
EC /
doco
change
request
LSAR
DATABASE
MAINTENANCE
MANAGEMENT

Schedule

Resource
Reqs

Procedures

Completion
doco

Downtime
maintenance
server
RECORDING
history
LOGISTIC

Resource Usage
Analysis
REPORTING
optimisation
ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS
TOOLS
TOOLS
orders
receipts
(prime)
(prime)
SUPPLY SYSTEM
27
Some of our vehicle jobs
M113A1 "Upgrade
  • The Australian Army M113A1s were originally
    brought into service during the early 1960s.
  • The purpose of the M113 Upgrade Contract is to
    improve protection, mobility, communications and
    firepower.
  • Tenix is turning 350 "well used" hulls into new
    state-of-the-art vehicles with totally new
    technical data packs for a contract value of A
    391 M.

(Another country in the region recently procured
around 100 new LAVs for approx. 600 M)
28
The M113 challange
  • Coherently manage all data and documents required
    to support the M113 fleet through life
  • Engineering data (well known solutions for this)
  • Technical data and publication content

7 variants
25 builds
350 vehicles
29
This is what the revolution looks like now!
MRP Mfg. Resource Planning CAD Computer
Aided Design LORA Level of Repair Analysis RAM
Reliability Maintainability LSA Logistic
Support Analysis
30
CMIS was conceived as an "umbrella" system
  • Single user interface
  • Data normalization applies to all project data
    and document components from the start
  • Common workflow management environment
  • Single point
  • electronic signoff
  • engineering change management and tracking
  • cost and schedule control
  • The umbrella covers everything!

31
CMIS Overview
  • CMIS provides primary user interface
  • Two major modules
  • PDM product data manager Matrix10
  • Configuration management
  • Workflow process
  • Object management
  • Content Manager RMIT developed TeraText
  • Authoring activities delegated from Matrix10
  • Configuration management of elements within
    documents
  • Paragraph management
  • Authoring in S1000D - deliver any required
    structured/ unstructured format

32
Content Management in the M113 Upgrade
Users Manual This is section 1 of the document
Storage and Dis/assembly Rules
Document
Fragment
This is the
Chapter
Section
PDF
Save
Graphic
WEB Protocol
Fragment
Work File System
Edit
33
The cost/benefit equation for content management
vs DMS
Traditional DMS
Implementation
Initial document set
Proliferation of configurations
In-service maintenance
Cost
Time
Note CMIS cost is for first project only.
34
Knowledge Based Improvement of Business
ProcessesDalmaris - PhD 2006 UTS
  • Developed in a framework of Popperian
    epistemology
  • three worlds
  • evolutionary theory of knowledge
  • An "organizational learning" method

Improvement methodology
components
Auditing and analysis tools facilitate
process improvement tasks
A guide to the improvement process
Explicit specification of the concept
of Business Process
Fundamental assumptions about
knowledge
Dalmaris, P., Tsui, E., Hall, W.P., Smith, B.
2007. A Framework for the improvement of
knowledge-intensive business processes. Business
Process Management Journal. 13(2)
279-305 Dalmaris, P. 2005. PhD Thesis. University
of Technology Sydney
35
Evolutionary improvement of the methodology
Case
1
Problem
Tentative Theory
Re
-
Formulation
Re
-
formulation
Case
2
Tentative
Literature
Theory
Problem
Review
Case
3
Formulation
Formulation
(
Framework
)
Error reduction
  • Evolutionary improvement of the methodology
  • Problem formulation
  • Reaching the solution

36
The current state of the methodology
  • Observe
  • Establish business ontology
  • 'As is'audit
  • Orient
  • Map, analyze, synthesize
  • Decide
  • Present 'as could'
  • Implement
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