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ENGLISH READER

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Title: ENGLISH READER


1
WELCOME
Intractive Section of English Reading Class 9th
Lets Come Study English In A New Way
2
A Project By-Jatinder Joshi Computer Faculty
G.H.S Cheema Jodhpur (Barnala) http//ghscheemajo
dhpur.tripod.com Email-webmaster_at_ghscheemajodhpur
.zzn.com ghscheemajodhpur.yahoo.com
3
This Project Manly Made In PowerPoint Software By
Using 32 Times New Romen Font Some of Slides Are
not In 32 Size To Show out we can customize this
Project According To Our Needs.We Can Put Sound
More Graphics In These Slides.In This Project
You Have Not To Do Any thing Like Press Enter one
after another, In this Project Just Run Set
Back After 5-8 Sec Slide Will Change
Automatically.HTML Copy of this Project is Also
Attached HereOur School Teachers Mrs.Daljeet
Kaur Helps Me a Lot In Completing The Project
Jatinder Joshi CF Govt.High
School. Cheema Jodhpur Barnala
4
About School
  • Our School Govt. High School Cheema Jodhpur is
    the First School In Punjab Whose Faculty Create
    Launch Website of School with Email Facility.
  • Log On The Site
  • http//ghscheemajodhpur.tripod.com
  • Send Us Suggestions.

5
Unit One Contain from P.S.E.B English Reader Up
to Slide No 45
Unit Two Contain from P.S.E.B English Book Poems
From Slide No 46 to 54
Unit Three Contain from P.S.E.B English
Suplimentry From Slide No 55-68
Unit Four Contain from P.S.E.B English Grammar
Part From Slide No 69-112
6
Unit -1

7
  • CHAPTERS
  • Journey by Night

8
Journey by Night
  • Brief introduction of the story
  • It is a story of rare courage shown by a
    12-year-old boy. His name was Sher Singh. His
    younger brother had fallen ill. His father was
    not at home. His mother was not in a position to
    leave home. The city hospital was many miles
    away. So, Sher Singh carried his little brother
    on his back and set out for the city. He had to
    pass through a hilly area that was full of many
    dangers.

9
A thick forest and two hilly rivers fell on the
way. But Sher Singh braved all these dangers with
great courage. The only thought in his mind was
to reach the city hospital as soon as possible .
At last, Sher Singh was able to reach the
hospital with his brother. Everybody was
surprised to hear the story of his great courage.
The doctor at once gave first aid to Sher Singhs
brother. The doctor said that the boy was out of
danger. Sher Singh was really a Sher, a lion. He
had saved the life of his brother at a great risk
of his own life.
10
Textual questions
  • Que.1 Who was Sher Singh Bahadur?
  • Ans. He was a famous hunter. He lived in Laldwani
    village. His name was Sher Singh. The worth
    Bahadur was added to him like a medal.
  • Que.2 Why there were no men in the village?
  • Ans. All men of the village had gone to the
    jungle with a hunting party. That was why there
    were no men in the village.
  • Que.3 What had happened to other children?
  • Ans. They all had died. It was cholera and
    influenza that had taken their lives.

11
  • Que.4 How did Sher Singh carry his brother?
  • Ans. Sher Singhs mother took one of her two
    saris. She made a sling with it. Sher Singh put
    it round his forehead and down his back. It was
    in this sling that he carried his brother.
  • Que. 5 Explain the circumstances in which Kunwar
    was carried to the hospital.
  • Ans. Kunwar had severe pain in his stomach. The
    pain was getting worse and worse. So the boy had
    to be taken to hospital. Sher Singhs father was
    not at home. There was no other man also in the
    village. His mother, too, could not leave home.
    Thus there was none but Sher Singh to carry
    Kunwar to the hospital. And he did it like a
    hero.

12
Passage 1
  • Sher Singh himself was only 12 years old, small
    and cheerful, a child of the jungle, and his
    brother was several years younger. There had been
    other children of course, but they were dead,
    carried off by cholera and influenza.
  • I will wring out rags in boiling water and lay
    them on his stomach. said Mother. She did not
    weep. She had lived through everything.

13
  • Questions
  • How old was Sher Singh?
  • Did he remain sad or cheerful?
  • What do you mean by a child of the jungle?
  • Did Sher Singh have any brother or sister?
  • 5.What had happened to the other Children?
  • 6. What did his mother want to do with rags?
  • 7. Why did she not weep?
  • 8. Give the opposites of
  • small ,old, dead, everything.

14
  • Answers
  • He was 12 years old.
  • He remained cheerful.
  • It means a child who has been born and brought up
    in a jungle.
  • He had a younger brother.
  • They had all died.
  • She wanted to wring them out in boiling water and
    lay them on the stomach of her ailing son.
  • She had lived through many such misfortunes.
  • Small -gt big old -gt young dead -gt alive
    everything -gt nothing.

15
Passage 2
  • Sher Singh gathered grass and, plaiting it into a
    rope, tied it round his brother and himself so
    they would keep together. Then he entered the
    water just above the bridge. The river seized
    them and flattened them against the wreck. Unable
    to move at first, he edged forward into the
    maelstrom, feeling for the split of bamboo.

16
  • Questions
  • What did Sher Singh gather?
  • Why did he do with it?
  • Why did he do that?
  • What place did he enter the river?
  • What happened then?
  • What wreck has been referred to here?
  • What did he do while going forward?
  • Find in the passage a word that means a very
    strong spinning current of water.

17
  • Answers
  • He gathered some grass.
  • He plaited it into a rope.
  • He wanted it to tie his brother to himself.
  • He entered just above the bridge.
  • The river seized the two and threw them against
    the wreck.
  • It refers to the broken bridge.
  • He felt for the split ends of the bamboo.
  • Maelstrom a very strong spinning current of
    water.

18
Use of textual Words/Phrases
  • 1.Several - There are several places of worship
    on the banks of the Holy Ganges.
  • 2. Resort - Gandhi ji took fasting as a last
    resort.
  • 3. Scar - Even the scar on her face did not spoil
    her beauty.
  • 4 Mauled- The mountain bear mauled her face.
  • 5. Cliff We went on a picnic by the side of a
    cliff.
  • 6. Poach- Poaching of animals is banned in this
    state.
  • 7. Plod the old man plodded along the hilly
    path.

19
Textual Vocabulary Grammar
  • Q-1 Identify and match the sounds made by the
    animals under column A to the sounds in column B
  • Ans- dogs - bark
  • donkeys - bray
  • frogs - croak
  • horses - neigh
  • lions - roar
  • bees - buzz
  • birds - chirp
  • cats - mew
  • cocks - crow
  • cows - low or moo

20
  • Q-2 Add the correct suffixes to the words given
    in the brackets choosing from the list given
    below
  • - dom -ness -hood.
  • We salute the (wise) and (martyr) of those who
    fought for the (free) of our country.
  • His journey from (child) to (man) was full of
    struggle.
  • (good) and (sweet) of behavior are of no avail
    if one lacks in (bold) of character.
  • (Parent) brings responsibilities.
  • He lost his (king) to the enemy.
  • (happy) is a state if mind.

21
Ans-1. wisdom, martyrdom, freedom 2.
childhood, manhood 3. goodness, sweetness,
boldness 4. Parenthood 5. kingdom 6. Happiness.
22
  • Q-3.Correct the following sentences
  • The football match ended to a draw.
  • Our Principal is a honest lady.
  • He is senior than me.
  • She is M.A., B.Ed.
  • Mr. Sham is a Honorable man.
  • He is an European.
  • He is an one-eyed man.
  • I read Tribune every day.
  • This is an useful article.
  • A lion is the king of forest.

23
  • Answers
  • The football match ended in a draw.
  • Our Principal is an honest lady.
  • He is senior to me.
  • She is an M.A., B.Ed.
  • Mr. Sham is an honorable man.
  • He is a European.
  • He is a one-eyed man.
  • I read The Tribune every day.
  • This is a useful article.
  • A lion is the king of the forest.

24
  • The Bishops candlesticks-1 11

25
  • Q-1. What did the convict want?
  • Ans- The convict said that he had eaten nothing
    for three days. He was starving. He asked the
    Bishop to give him food to eat.
  • Q-2.Why did the convict become a thief ?
  • Ans- The convict was out of job. His wife was
    ill. She was dying. He had no food to give her.
    So he had to steal to buy food for his wife.

26
Q-3. Write a short note on Bishop. Ans- The
Bishop is a very kind-hearted person. He goes out
in the cold night to attend on the sick mother of
his maid. He sells his silver salt-cellars to pay
the rent for a poor old woman. The Bishop is also
very forgiving. The convict runs away with his
candlesticks. Even then the Bishop saves him from
the sergeant. Q-4. Who had given the
candlesticks to the Bishop? Ans- The Bishops
mother had given him the candlesticks as a gift.
27
  • Q-5. Write a short note on Persomes behavior.
  • Ans- Persome is the Bishops sister. From her
    conversation with Marie she appears to be a
    short-tempered, selfish and abusive woman. She
    loves her brother very deeply. All her wrongs are
    born out of her love for the Bishop . Nowhere in
    the play does Persome show that she is selfish
    for her own sake.
  • .

28
Q-6 write a short note on the changing of the
convict from a wild beast to a man. Ans- The
convict threatens to kill the Bishop. But the
Bishop gives him food to eat and a comfortable
bed to sleep on. The convict slips away with
Bishops candlesticks. A police sergeant catches
him and brings him to the Bishop. But the Bishop
says that he himself has given him the
candlesticks. This kindness of the Bishop touches
the convicts heart. He is now changed completely
29
The Bishops candlesticks-1 11
  • Passage 1
  • Persome Marie, is nt the soup boiling yet?
  • Marie Not yet, madam.
  • Persome Well, it ought to be.
  • Marie But madam, you yourself made the fire up.
  • Persome Dont answer me back like that. It is
    rude.
  • Marie yes, madam.
  • Persome Then dont let me have to rebuke you
    again.
  • Marie No, madam.
  • Persome I wonder where my brother can be.
    (Looking at the clock) . It is after Eleven o
    Clock and no sign of him. Marie!

30
  • Questions
  • Name the play and the writer.
  • What was Persome to the bishop?
  • Who had made the fire up?
  • What was Persome worried about?
  • Answers
  • The name of the play is The Bishops
    Candlesticks. The name of the writer is Norman
    Mckinnel.
  • Persome was the Bishops sister.
  • It was Persome who had made the fire up.
  • The Bishop had not returned home so far. It was
    already 11oclock in the night. This worried
    Persome.

31
  • Passage 2
  • Persome Brother , I have no patience with you.
    There , sit down and take your soup, it has been
    waiting ever so long. And if it is spoilt, it
    serves you right.
  • Bishop it smells delicious.
  • Persome Im sure Maries mother is not so ill
    that you7 need have stayed out on such a night as
    this. I believe those people pretend to be ill
    just to have the Bishop call on them. They have
    no thought of the Bishop.
  • Questions
  • Why is Persome angry with her brother?
  • How does the Bishop try to please Persome?
  • What is Persomes grudge against the people?
  • What is Persomes Suspicion about Maries mother?
  • Answers
  • She is angry with her brother because he is late
    in coming back home.
  • The Bishop tries to please her by praising the
    soup.
  • Persome feels that people have no thought of the
    Bishops health.
  • Her suspicion is that Maries mother is not so
    ill.

32
Textual Vocabulary Grammar
  • Q-1. Match the phrases in column A with their
    meanings in column B
  • Ans 1. to make up to reconcile
  • 2. to go without to manage without
    something
  • 3. play one false to deceive
  • 4. at beck and call ready to take orders
  • 5. dare out have no courage
  • 6. to call on to go to visit some one
  • 7. to look after take care of
  • 8. to call out shout for help
  • 9. to hunt for search for

33
  • Q-2 . Match the words in column A with their
    meanings in column B
  • Ans 1. gratitude thankfulness
  • 2. witch a wicked woman
  • 3. mon dieu my God
  • 4. estate property
  • 5. audacity boldness
  • 6. rouse awaken
  • 7. vines creepers
  • 8. vermin worms
  • 9. queer strange
  • 10.vermin worms

34
  • Q-3. Supply the necessary nouns or verbs in the
    blanks given below
  • Ans Verb Noun
  • 1. enter entrance
  • 2. hate hatred
  • 3. obey obedience
  • 4. trace trace
  • 5 imprison prison
  • 6. do deed
  • 7. dine dinner
  • 8. advise advice
  • 9. terrify terror
  • 10.perform performance

35
God sees the truth, But waits-1 11
  • Brief introduction to the story
  • This story brings out the idea that God is just
    and we should have faith in Him. When something
    goes wrong, we should look up to God for comfort.
    Only to God should be pray for mercy.
  • Aksenov was a young and carefree merchant. He
    was unjustly convicted of murdering a fellow
    merchant. He was sentenced to life-imprisonment.
    He was whipped on his back. He bore untold
    sufferings. There was no joy left in his life. He
    lost his youth and was now an old man. When he
    came tom know that it was Maker Semenich who was
    the real murdered, he was filled with deep pain
    and anger. He thought of having his revenge
    thought he might have to die for it. Soon he got
    an opportunity when could have his revenge on
    Makar Semenich. The first thought that came to
    his mind was that he should have no mercy for the
    man who had ruined his life. But then noble
    thoughts got the better of him. He did not tell
    the jail Authorities that it was Makar.

36
God sees thea truth , but waits
37
  • Who had dug a hole under the prison-wall in in
    order to escape from there. Aksenovs goodness
    moved makers heart. He confessed to Aksenov that
    it was who he had murdered the merchant and had
    than hidden the knife in Aksenovs bag. He began
    to sob bitterly and begged Aksenov to forgive
    him. He also confessed to the jail Authorities
    all his crime. Thus at last Aksenovs a innocence
    was proved. But when the orders for his release
    came, he had already breathed his last.

38
Textual Question
  • Qus.1. How did Makars heart change?
  • Ans. Makar had ruined Aksenovs life. Even
    then Aksenov returns him god for evil. He does
    not tell the jail authorities that it was Makar
    who was digging the hole under the prison wall.
    It touched Makars heart. His conscience curses
    him. He admits his crime. He begs Aksenov to
    forgive him.
  • Qus.2. Did Aksenov recognize Makar Semenich ?
  • Ans. No. He did not recognise him. He had
    never seen him before. From Makars Story, he
    could only guess that this very man had murdered
    the merchant.
  • Qus. 3.What was the dream of Aksenovs wife ? How
    did Aksnov react to it?
  • Ans. Aksenovs wife dreamt that when her husband
    returned home from the fair and took off cap, his
    hair had turned grey. Aksenov gave no importance
    to it and laughed it away.

39
  • Qus.4.Why didnt Aksenovs desire to leave the
    prison?
  • Ans. Aksenovs wife was already dead. His
    children had forgotten him. Now he had Nowhere to
    go to. That was why he had no desire to leave the
    prison
  • Qus. 5.What was Aksenov charged with?
  • Ans. He was charged with murdering a merchant
    and robbing him of twenty thousand rubles.

40
Passage 1
  • The police officer ordered the soldiers to bind
    Aksenov and to put him in the cart. As they tied
    his feet together and flung him into the cart,
    Aksenov crossed himself and wept. His money and
    goods were taken from him and he was sent to the
    nearest town, and imprisoned there. Then the
    trail came on He was charged with the murdering
    a marchant and robbing him to twenty thousand
    rubles.
  • Questions
  • 1. What was the police officers order ?
  • 2 Was Aksenov found guilty? What was the charged
    on him?
  • 3. Imprisoned has im as prefix added to the
    word poisoned .Suggest two more words with im
    as prefix.
  • 4. Change the voice His money and goods were
    taken from him and was sent to the nearest town.

41
  • Answer-
  • The police officers ordered the soldiers to bind
    Aksenov and put him an the cart.
  • Yes, Aksenov was found guilty. The charges on him
    were that he had murdered a fellow merchant and
    robbed him to twenty thousand rubles.
  • A) Immoral B) Impatient
  • They took his money and goods and sent him to the
    nearest town.

42
PASSAGE 2
  • The police officer ordered the soliders to bind
    Aksenov and to put him in the cart. As they tied
    his feet together and flung him into the cart,
    Aksenov crossed himself and wept. His money and
    goods were taken from him and he was sent to the
    nearest town, and imprisoned there . Then the
    trail came on he was charged with murdering a
    merchant and robbing him of twenty thousand
    rubles.
  • Question
  • What was the police officers order?
  • Was Aksenov found guilty? What were the charges
    on him?
  • imprisoned has im as prefix added to the word
    prisoned. Suggest two more words with im as
    prefix.
  • Change the voice His money and goods were taken
    from him and he was sent to the nearest town.

43
Answers
  • The police officer ordered the soldiers to bind
    Aksenov and to put him in the cart.
  • Yes, Aksenov was found guilty. The charges on him
    were that he had murdered a fellow merchant and
    had robbed him of twenty thousand rubbles.
  • Immoralimpatient.
  • They took his money and goods from him and sent
    him to the nearest town.

44
Textual Vocabulary Grammar
  • Q-1 There are some adverbs joined by and in the
    box A. Pick out their meaning from the box B.
  • Ans. 1. again and again repeatedly
  • 2. off and on frequently
  • 3. out and out completely
  • 4. through and through decidedly
  • 5. over and above in addition to
  • 6. far and near in all directions

45
  • Q-2. Fill in the blanks with the following
    compound prepositions/phrases
  • .. emergency, call the police.
  • Pack your books.. Your clothes.
  • The secretary made the speech . The chief
    guest.
  • The students went to see the movie .going to
    the college.
  • A responsible citizen is he who acts .the
    rules and laws of the land.
  • ..his sincere efforts, he failed.
  • He lost his job .his laziness.
  • Ans. 1. In case of 2. along with 3. on behalf
    of 4. instead of 5. according to 6. In
    spite of 7. because of

46
  • Q-3 Join each pair of sentences by means of a
    suitable conjunction. You can make the necessary
    changes
  • Lata can sing well. Asha can sing well.
  • You must start at once. You will be late.
  • Sunita works hard. Her brother works harder.
  • Our landlord is not polite. we seldom talk to
    him.
  • The man is poor. He is happy.
  • Ans.
  • Both Lata and Asha can sing well.
  • You must start at once or you will be late.
  • Sunita brother works harder than she does.
  • We seldom talk to our landlord because he is not
    polite.
  • The man is poor yet he is happy.

47
Unit IIPoems
48
POEMS
  • OPEN THY EYES ANS SEE THY GOD
  • NO MEN ARE FOREGIN

49
OPEN THY EYES ANS SEE THY GOD(Rabindernath
Tagore)
  • Brief Introduction To The Poem
  • In this poem,Tagore says that the worship
    of idols is useless.He says that God can never be
    found in places of worship. He can be found where
    the tillers are tilling land. He can be found
    where the workers are sweating in the sun. anyone
    who wants to find God, should go and work with
    the tillers And pathmakers. Moksha cannot be
    achieved through empty rituals.In fact, the very
    desire for deliverance is unholy. Even God has
    not given Himself deliverance. He always remains
    busy in the task of creation. A true devotee of
    God should also work tirelessly.He should work
    for the poor and the downtrodden.

50
STANZA FOR COMPREEHENSION
  • Leave this chanting and
  • singing and telling of beads!
  • Whom dost thou worship in this
  • lonely dark corner of a temple
  • with doors all shut? Open thine
  • eyes and see thy God is not
  • before thee!
  • Questions
  • 1.What does the poet want us to leave?Why?
  • 2.The poet in this stanza asks a question.What is
    the question?
  • 3. Our eyes are open. Why does the poet say open
    thine eyes ?
  • 4. Who are these lines addressed to?
  • 5. What does the poet want the worshipper of God
    to do?

51
  • Answers
  • The poet wants us to leave chanting and telling
    beads in temples. He says that God doesnt live
    in temples. We cant find him tere by the singing
    hymns and telling beads.
  • The poet asks whom we are worshipping in the
    lonely dark corner of the temple with doors all
    shut
  • Our physical eyes are open but our eyes of mind
    are closed. That is why the poet asks us to open
    our eyes.
  • The poet imagines someone singing hymns and
    telling beads in a dark corner of a temple. He
    addresses these lines to such a worshipper of
    God.
  • He wants the worshipper to open his eyes and see
    that God whom he is worshiping is not there
    before him.

52
TEXTUAL QUESTIONS
  • Q. 1 Write the central idea of the poem.
  • Ans. Tagore says that we cant find God in
    temples. He can be found where the tillers are
    tilling land. He can be found where the workers
    are sweating in the sun. So we should go and work
    with the poor if we want to find God.
  • Q. 2. Why does the poet say that we should leave
    chanting,singing And telling of beads?
  • Ans. The poet wants us to leave chanting and
    telling beads in temples. He says that God
    doesnt live in temples. We cant find him tere
    by the singing hymns and telling beads.
  • Q. 3. Where can God be found?
  • Ans. He can be found where the tillers are
    tilling land. He can be found where the workers
    are sweating in the sun.In other words, God lives
    among the poor hardworking people.

53
NO MEN ARE FOREIGN(James Kirkup)
  • Brief Introduction To The Poem
  • This poem contains a very noble idea. It
    advocates the unity of mankind. No men are
    strange, and no countries are foregin. All men
    live on the same earth and breath the same air.
    If we hate others,it is like hating ourselves
    because there is no difference between and
    others. Love is the best weapon to win others. By
    talking up arms against one another, we defile
    the human earth itself. So we should always
    remember that no men are foregin and no countries
    are strange.

54
STANZA FOR COMPREEHENSION
  • Remember , no men are strange, no countries
    foregin
  • Beneath all uniforms, a single body breathes
  • Like ours the land our brothers walk upon
  • Is earth like this, in which we all shall lie.
  • Question
  • Name the poem and the poet.
  • What should we remember?
  • What are all men to us?
  • Where do weall walk upon?
  • Where shall we all liein the end ?

55
  • ANSWERS
  • The name of the poem is No Men Are Foregin. The
    name of the poet is James Kirkup.
  • We should remember that no men are foregin and no
    countries are foregin.
  • All men are brothers to us.
  • We all walk upon the same earth.
  • We shall all lie in the same land.
  • TEXTUAL QUESTIONS
  • Q. 1 Write the central idea of the poem.
  • Ans. All men are same. They have the same kind of
    body. They breath in the same way..thus no men
    are strange or foregin. We should never hate
    others. They are all our brothers. By hating
    others we lose their love. Thus the poet gives
    the message of love and brotherhood

56
  • Q. 2 What impression do we derive from this poem
    ?
  • Ans. The poet inspires us to look upon the people
    of all countries as our brothers. No men are
    foregin. No countries are foregin. Everywhere
    there are men who live and die in the same
    manner. Therfore,we should love all and hate
    none.
  • Q. 3 This poem is an attempt to create
    brotherhood amongst people.Discuss.
  • Ans. This poem tries to create a feeling of
    brotherhood among all people. It says that no men
    or countries are foregin. All men have same kind
    of body. They breathe in the same way. They
    eat,sleep and wake up in the same manner. After
    their death, they lie under the same earth. Thus
    all men are brothers.

57
UNIT-IIISUPPLEMENTARY READER
58
CHAPTERS
  • I BECAME A GREAT FRIEND OF ANIMALS AND BIRDS
  • A LETTER TO GOD
  • THE LAST LEAF

59
I BECAME A GREAT FRIEND OF ANIMALS AND
BIRDS(Georgi Ovlov)
  • Brief Introduction To The Chapter
  • In this chapter, the writer tells how he became
    a great friend of birds and animals. One day he
    caught some grouse. Some of them got injured
    while they were being chased. The writer was
    proud that he had caught them without using a
    gun. But just then he saw a hawk pouncing upon a
    starling. The hawk caught the starling in its
    sharp paws and flew away with it. Its mate
    followed the hawk and tried to save the partener,
    but all in vain. This sight brought a complete
    change in the writer. Now his pride was changed
    into shame. He felt that he himself was no better
    than a hawk. He at

60
  • once went back home with the grouse. He and his
    wife nursed them for some days. When they were
    all right he took them to the forest He left them
    on the trees from where he had caught them. This
    one good deed led tomany others. Now ,
    whereever he found a bird or animal in trouble,
    he would feel great joy in giving it all help. In
    this story, he tells in detail how he saved some
    ducklings from a kite. Another time he treated a
    hodgehog that had been bitten badly by a sanke.
    He also saved a bear cub that was hanging
    dangerously from a crecked pine. The writer
    concludes by saying, One has only to start doing
    a good thing, and it at once leads to another
    good one.

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TEXTUAL QUESTIONS
  • Q. 1 Where was the writer going ?
  • Ans. He was going towards the Volga.
  • Q. 2 Why was the writer happy with his catch ?
  • Ans. He was happy because he had caught the
    grouse without using his gun.
  • Q. 3 Why did the writer free the grouse and how
    did he help them?
  • Ans. He realised how cruel it was to kill birds.
    So he freed the grouse. He tool the injuried
    grouse home. There he and his wife nursed their
    wounds. When they were all right, he left them in
    the woods. He left them in the same trees from
    where he had caught them.
  • Q. 4 Why did the writer go to the lake? What
    happened there?
  • Ans. He went there to fish. A duck came swimming
    with its ducklings. Suddenly, a hawk pounced on
    the duckling. The writer at once swung his
    fishing line. The hook caught the hawks wing.
    The hawk was very powerful. He flew away with the
    line. But the ducklings were saved.

62
  • Q. 5 How did the writer help the ducklings?
  • Ans. The writer swung his fishing line. The hook
    The hook caught the hawks wing. The hawk was
    very powerful. He flew away with the line. But
    the ducklings were saved.
  • Q. 6 how did the writer save the hedgehog ?
  • Ans. The writer cleaned the wounds on the
    hedgehogs stomach. Then he took a sharp pine and
    silky blade of grass. With these he sewed up the
    stomach of the hedgehog. He also gave him birch
    juice to drink.
  • Q. 7 How did the writer save the bear cub?
  • Ans. The bear cub was hanging from a cracked
    tree. It was in great danger. The writer split
    the tree to its root. The club fell to the
    ground. It started crying. The writer stroked its
    ears. After some time the cub stopped crying.

63
A LETTER TO GOD(G. L. Fuentes)
  • Brief Introduction To The Chapter
  • Lencho was a poor farmer. He was very
    hard-working. Once there was a hailstrom. It
    destroyed his crops completely. Lencho had great
    faith in God. He wrote a letter to God. He asked
    God to send him money. The postmaster saw this
    letter. He decided to help Lencho. He collected
    some money. He put it inside an envelope. Lencho
    came to trhe post officeto check his mail. The
    post office people gave him the envolpe.Lencho
    opened the envelope. He took out the money and
    counted it. He found that it was less than he had
    asked for. He wrote another letter to God. He
    asked Godto send hijm the rest of the money. But
    he wanted Him not to send the money through the
    mail. He said that the post office people were a
    bunch of crooks.

64
TEXTUAL QUESTIONS
  • Q. 1 Where was Lenchos house located? Did he
    gave any neighbours?
  • Ans. Lenchos house was on the top of a low hill.
    It was the only house in the vally. Thus Lencho
    had no neighbours.
  • Q. 2 When did it start raining?
  • Ans. It started raining when Lencho and his
    family were having dinner.
  • Q. 3 What was Lenchos family doing when it
    started raining?
  • Ans. His family were having dinner
  • Q. 4 Why did Lencho become unhappy after the
    strom? What did he say?
  • Ans. After the strom, the field was ll covered
    with hailstones. Not a leaf remained in the
    trees. The corn was totally destroyed . The
    flower s were gone from the plants. All this made
    Lencho very unhappy. He said that the hail had
    left nothing. They would have nmo corn that year.

65
  • Q. 5 Why did Lenchos sons run out? Were they
    happy? How do you know?
  • Ans. It had start hailing . The sons went out to
    collect hailstones. They were very happy. The
    hailstones seemed to them like frozen pearls. And
    they ran out to collect them.
  • Q. 6 What did Lencho think troughout the night?
  • Ans. Lencho thought only of the help from God.
    This was his only hope. He believed that God sees
    everything. He believed that God sees even what
    is deep in ones heart.
  • Q. 7 Who did Lencho write to for help? What did
    he write in his letter?
  • Ans. Lencho wrote to God for help. In his letter,
    he wrote, God, if you dont help me, my family
    and I will go hungry this year. I need a hundred
    pesos in order to sow my field again.

66
  • Q. 8 How did Lencho address the envelope? What
    did he do after that?
  • Ans. Lencho wrote on the envelope only two words
    To God. He put his letter inside the envelope
    and went to the town. There he got a stamp at the
    post office. He put the stamp on the envelope
    and dropped it into the mailbox.
  • Q. 9 Who took the letter to the postmaster ?
  • Ans. It was a postman who took the letter to the
    postmaster.
  • Q. 10 What did the postmaster do after reading
    Lenchos letter? Why did he do so?
  • Ans. The postmaster was struck by Lenchos faith
    in God. He thought of sending Gods reply to
    Lenchos letter. He collected money from his
    employees. He himself gave a part of his salary.
    Thus he collected seventy pesos. The money was
    handed to Lencho in the form of a letter.

67
THE LAST LEAF(O. Henry)
  • Brief Introduction To The Chapter
  • This story is based on the idea that our way of
    thinking has a deep effect on our life. If we
    have a postive approach towards life, we remain
    happy and enjoy good health. But if our way of
    thinking is negative, it always results in
    mistry, unhappiness and evev death. If a patient
    thinks positively and hopefully,it can help the
    doctor a great deal in curing him. Otherwise, he
    cant hope to get well in spite of best efforts
    on the part of the doctor.

68
TEXTUAL QUESTIONS
  • Q. 1 Who were Sue and Johnsy? What happened to
    Jhonsy?
  • Ans. Sue and Johnsy were two young artists.
    Jhonsy was seriously ill. She had pneumonia.
  • Q. 2 What did Johnsy feel about her illness?
  • Ans. She thought she was not going to get well.
    She thought she would die with the falling of the
    ivy leaf.
  • Q. 3 What did Sue do to make her feel happy?
  • Ans. She talk about clothes and fashions. She
    started whistling while working at her painting.
  • Q. 4 Who was Behrman?
  • Ans. He was an old painter . He was sixty years
    old. He had always desired to paint a
    masterpiece. But he could never begin it.

69
  • Q. 5 What happened to Behrman and why?
  • Ans. In order to save Johnsy, Behrman painted an
    ivy leaf on the wall. He worked in the night. It
    was a cold and windy night. It was raining also.
    Behrman got pneumonia. He died after two days.
  • Q. 6 What was Behrmans masterpiece?
  • Ans. It was ivy leaf he had painted on the wall.
    It looked so real that Johnsy could not know it.
    She regained her will to live. Thus the painting
    proved Behrmans masterpiece.
  • Q. 7 Do you think Behrman was right in
    sacrificing his life? Why?
  • Ans. Behrman painted an ivy leaf on the wall. It
    looked so real that Johnsy could not know it. She
    regained her will to live. Behrman got pneumonia
    and died. His sacrifice was not in vain. He had
    painted a masterpiece and also saved a life.

70
  • Unit IV
  • GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY

71
Conjunctions Study the following
sentences 1 I went home and took my
food. 2 Give her a pen or a
pencil. 3 I could not contact him
because he was ill. 4 He is so weak
that he can not walk. In all these
sentences the underlined words join words
or sentences. The are linking words and
are, therefore called conjunctions or
connectors
72
Conjunctions Definition- A conjunction is
a part of speech that connects words
clauses or sentences or shows relations
between sentences.
73
Kinds of conjunctions Conjunctions can be
classified into three types. 1
Co-ordinative conjunctions 2
Subordinative conjunctions 3
Correlative conjunctions
74
A Co-ordinative Conjunctions
Study the following sentences 1 A He
has seen this house. B He has
decided to buy it. C He has seen
this house and has decided to buy it. 2
A He can not write . b He cannot
read. c He cannot write or
read. 3 a Go where you like. b
Do not disturb me. c Go where
you like, only do not disturb me.
In each of the
above three sets of sentences, sentences
under A and B are independent of each
other. They are joined in sentences under
C by a conjunction underlined . Such
conjunctions are called Co-ordinative
conjunctions.
75
A Co-ordinative Conjunctions
Co-ordinative conjunctions are those
conjunctions the join words, phrase or
clauses of equal rank here are some more
examples. 1 Sonu is a cowarel but
his brother is very brave. 2
He is sick yet he is always
cheerful. 3 You will succeed for you are
handworking.
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(B) Subordinative Conjunctions
Study the following sentences 1 (a) The thief
was caught red handed. (b) He was stealing
a jewellery box. (c) The thief was caught
red-handed while he was stealing a jewellery box.
(time) 2.(a)The students work hard . (b)They
want to pass . (c)The students work hard so
that they should pass. (Effect) In above
two sets of sentences ,sentences under . (b)
depend upon or are subordinate to the sentences
under (a)They have been joined under (c) with the
help of some conjunctions (under lined) such
conjunctions are called subordinative
conjunctions.
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(B) Subordinative Conjunctions
Subordinative conjunctions are those conjunctions
that join the subordinate clause/clauses to the
principal clause. Here are some more examples
- 1 He made a promise that he should be
have better in future. 2 He is
taking exercise regularly in order that he may
improve his health. 3 The news is true
as for as I know it.
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(c) Correlative conjunctions
  • Study the following sentences.
  • No sooner did he reach the station than the
    train
  • steamed off.
  • 2 She is not only beautiful but intelligent
    also.
  • In the above two sentences Conjunctions are
    seen to occur in pairs such as no
    sooner -----than, Not
    only------but also. Such conjunctions are called
    Correlative conjunctions.

79
(C) Correlative conjunctions
Here are some examples to illustrate the use of
some Correlative Conjunctions - 1
Neither-------nor Ramesh can neither see nor
hear. 2 Though-------yet Though he is rich,
yet he is not mean. 3 So --------that He
worked so hard that he won a scholar ship.
80
Simple and complex sentences
  • Types of sentences .
  • Sentences are of three types
  • Simple sentences
  • 2. Compound sentences
  • 3.Complex sentences

81
Simplex sentence
A sentence which has only one subject and
one predicate is known as a simple
sentence. For example- My sister
works very hard. (Subject)
(predicate)
82
Compound sentence
A compound sentence is composed of two on
more co-ordinate clauses. For
example Gurpreet loves Mathematics but
simran hates it. (Co-ordinate
clause) (co-ordinate clause)
In this compound sentence ,two co-ordinate
clauses Gurpreet loves Mathematics and
simran hates it are joined by the
co-ordinate Conjunction
83
Complex sentence
A complex sentence is composed of two on
more clauses One of the clauses in a
complex sentence is more important than
the other/others the more important clause
is called the Main clause or the Principal
clause the less important clause /clause
is /are called the Subordinate or Dependent
clause/Clauses . for example
I know a man who lives in Canada
. (Principal clause)
(subordinate clause)
84
Types of Subordinate Clauses
  • Subordinate clauses can be divided
    into three types.
  • Noun clauses .
  • Adjective clauses .
  • 3. Adverb clauses .

85
Noun Clause
A Noun clause functions as a noun in a
Complen Sentence . It generally occupies
the place of the subject or the object as
illustrated in the following sentence . a
subject That simran is honest
is a fact
(Subject) b Object I understood that
he needs money very badly
(Object )
86
Adjective Clause
  • An Adjective clause functions as an
    Adjective . therefore qualifies a noun or
    pronoun in Some other clause. Adjective
    clauses are introduced in Two ways
  • By relative pronoun like who , whose,
    whom, wich, that etc.
  • By relative adverbs like when , how etc.
  • she is the girl who came first
  • (Principal clause)
    (Subordinate adjective clause)

87
Adverb Clause
An adverb clause functions as an
adverb. It functions to modify a verl, an
adjective or an Adverb. An adverb clause
may express one of the following
1 Cause of Reason 2. Time 3. Purpose
4. Condition 5. Place 6. Manner or
exlent 7. Contrast
8. Comparison 9 .Effect or Result 10.
proportion a My dog will follow me
where ever I go Principal
clause subrdinate adverb clause
88
Voice
The verb in english occurs in two
special forms in relation to the 'deer'
of the action, the is the active form
and the second the passive form. It is
easy to identify a passive verb as it
contains be v3 ( past participle)structure.
The sentence using the active form of
the verb is said to be in Active Voice
while the one using the passive form of
the verb is said to be in passive voice.
It is as follows how sentences in the
active form are changed into the passive
form Active Subject
Verb
Object Passive (new ) Subject
New form ( verb ) (new ) object
89
Passive Verb
be v3 ( past participle ) Present and past
indefinite Continuous Tenses
Perfect Tenses is, am, are / was,
were is, am, are was were
has, have, had

(being)
(been) to - infinitive
Modals
(to be)
(be) for example Active
Passive She
writes a letter. -
A letter is written by her. I had
learnt my lesson. _
My lesson had been learnt by
90
Rules
Active
passive 1. present Simple
1st form of the verb s\es
is,am,are-third form
do,does(not)_ 1st form
is,am,are-not-3rd form 2. Past
Simple 2nd form of verb
was,were- 3rd form
did (not)-
1st form was,
were - not- 3rd form 3. Present Continuous
is, am, are(not) - 1st form ing is,
am, are (not) being 3rd form 4. Past
Continuous was, were (not)- 1st form
ing was, were (not) being -3rd
form 5. Present Perfect has, have
(not) -3rd has,
have (not) been -3rd form 6.Past Perfect
had( not) 3rd form
had(not) been -3rd form
7. Infinitive to- 1st form
to
be -3rd form 8. Future Perfect will,
shall (not ) have 3rd form will, shall
(not) have been -3rd form
91
Main uses of the passive voice
1 When the person doing the action (the
agent) is not known or when it is
unnecessary to mention the agent e.g.
My pen has been stolen 2. To
emphasire the action or event rather than the
agent e.g. Letters are
collected from the boxes, taken to the
sorting office, sorted and then
sent to the given addresses 3. To avoid
using 'you' or 'one' when making an
impersonal statement e.g. 1.
Taking photographs in the museum is
forbidden. 2. Children are not
allowed in the bar.
92
Writing Part
  • Note-Making
  • Telegram
  • E-Mail
  • Formal-Letters
  • Informal-Letters
  • Paragraphs

93
Note-Making
  • Sometimes ideas are recorded/writing by using
    phrases or very short sentences. Both brevity and
    clarity are required in short pieces of writing.
  • While making notes ,students must have the
    power to know what points they should include and
    how much they shouts leave out. They should read
    the beginning at the end of the passage carefully
    to know what is it about. This is called
    skimming.
  • They Should follow the hints given below-
  • 1. Write down the title if there is any.
  • 2. Note down the main points and the sub-points
    if the passage is long.
  • 3. Use letters and numbers to write the main
    points and sub points for long passage
  • 4. Avoid writing full sentences.
  • 5. Abbreviations commonly understood can also be
    used.

94
  • Example-
  • If the young students in schools and colleges
    do not learn discipline they will never be able
    to extract obedience from others in society. In
    fact, Society will never accept them as persons
    fit for any responsible position in life A school
    or college without discipline can never impart
    suitable education to students. Such a school or
    college is no better than a factory that turns
    out imperfect men and women, Sense of discipline
    plays a very important part in the playground and
    battlefield. A disciplined team is likely to win
    the match in spite of its weakness but a very
    good team may not fare well for want discipline
  • The role of Discipline equally applies to
    soldiers in the battlefield .
  • Notes
  • Need for discipline in schools and collages for
    good education.
  • Undisciplined Students fail to win any respect
    or position later on in their life.
  • Importance of discipline .for players on the
    playground.
  • Importance of discipline, for soldiers in the
    battlefield.

95
Telegram
  • A telegram is widely used medium to send
    urgent message.
  • Example
  • R. Saxena died 6 January. Funeral Tuesday 10
    January
  • Message-
  • Mr. R. Saxena died on 6th January 2006. His
    funeral wile take place on Tuesday,10 January
    2006.

96
E-Mail
  • E-Mail Stands on Electronic Mail. E-Mail is the
    fastest means of communication these days it is
    being used by people Who have access to the
    Internet. The Internet web Mail is a service that
    allows people to send and receive message from
    across the world .
  • Steps to Send E-mail-
  • 1. Type your E-mail Address in the from slot.
  • Exp webmaster_at_yahoo.com
  • 2.Type the E-mail address of the person whom
    you are sending the E-mail message in the To
    slot.
  • Exp joshibnl_at_yahoo.co.in
  • 3. Type the subject of the message in the
    subject slot.
  • Exp Hello
  • 4. Type the message in the message slot.
  • Exp Hi! How r u
  • 5. Click on the send button to send the
    message.

97
Formal-Letters
  • Formal-letters are also called business
    letters. They include letters to editors of
    newspapers and magazines, applications for
    Jobs/leave and other official letters.
  • Exp- Applying for a Job.
  • Hari Singh
  • 438,phase-2
  • Mohali
  • 8 January 06
  • Dear Sir ,
  • Subject Application for the job of an
    Office Assistant.
  • I saw your advertisement in the Indian
    Express of 7 January 2006 for the post of an
    Office Assistant. I wish to apply for the job.
    The Bio-Data sheet with the lists of my
    qualifications and details of my experience is
    enclosed.
  • I shall be happy to present myself for an
    interview.
  • Yours faithfully
  • Hari Singh
  • Encls a) Bio-Data
  • b) Testimonials.

98
Informal-letters
  • One writes letters to friends and relations such
    letters are called informal or personal letters .
  • Exp-
  • Advice to take interest in studies
  • 46,Model Town,
  • Jalandhar City.
  • 6 June, 200__ .
  • My Dear Vijay,
  • I received your result-card
    yesterday. Your result is very poor. You are
    failed in all the subjects. It is a matter of
    shame for us.
  • Vijay, you are neglecting your studies. This is
    very bad. Final examinations are drawing near.
    You should work very hard. Engage some tutor.
    Leave bad company. If you do not take interest in
    your studies now. you will have to repent later
    on.
  • I hope you will act upon my advise.
  • Yours affectionately,
  • Gurnam Singh

99
Narration
  • 1. (Rule) If the reporting verb is in the present
    or in future tense then the tense of the
    reporting speech doesnt change at all.
  • 2 (Rule) If the reporting verb is in the past
    tense then the tense of the reporting speech will
    be changed as given below.

100
  • Present Indefinite changes into past indefinite.
  • Present continuous changes into past Continuous.
  • Present perfect changes into Past Perfect
  • Present Perfect Continuous changes into Past P.
    Cont.
  • Past Indefinite changes into Past Perfect.
  • Past Continuous changes into Past perfect
    Continuous.
  • Can changes into Could
  • May changes into Might
  • Shall changes into Should
  • Will changes into Would
  • Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Tenses Do
    no Change

101
  • Now Changes into then
  • This Changes into that
  • These Changes into those
  • Today Changes into that day
  • Tonight Changes into That night
  • Tomorrow Changes into The next day
  • Yesterday Changes into The previous day
  • Ago Changes into Before
  • Here Changes into There
  • Pronouns of the First person in the reported
    speech changes according to the subject.

102
  • Exercise- Change the following
  • Mother says, Tea is ready.
  • Ram will say, I have done my work.
  • She said to me, He is wasting his time.
  • Ram said, I can not help you now.
  • The master said to the servant, Bring a new
    flower today.
  • I said to him, When you are coming?
  • She said, What a beautiful flower!
  • I said to him, Will you return tomorrow?
  • He said," May you live long!
  • He said, Alas! I have been ruined!

103
  • Correct the errors in the following sentences
  • The man asked ma that what I want.
  • She was telling that she would not eat rice.
  • Ram suggested that let us go for a picnic.
  • My sister asked when I have arrived.
  • She said that she lives in Ludhiana.

104
  • Non-Finites
  • There are three kinds of non-Finites-
  • Infinitive
  • Participle
  • Gerund
  • Infinitive to I Form
  • Examples It s time to ring the bell.
  • Participle A Participle is a verbal form used
    as an adjective and sometimes as an adverb.
  • Example He gave me a broken slate.
  • Gerund A Greund ends in ing ( Ist Form of
    verb ing). It has the force of a noun and a
    verb.
  • Example Dancing is an art.

105
  • Exercise for Practice
  • I have no time
  • I have new plan
  • is a very good exercise.
  • No.. In this compartment.
  • It was a .. Sight.
  • It was a . Play.

106
  • Tense (Concord and Sequences)
  • Exercise Correct the Tense in the following
  • They have come yesterday.
  • I have bought this house last year.
  • She is working in the office for two years.
  • I had gone to the club last night.
  • Take care that you will not be cleared.

107
  • Put the Correct Verb in the blanks
  • Slow and steady .. The race ( Win, Wins)
  • You as well as he, .. Innocent. (Is, are)
  • None but the brave the fair (deserve,
    deserves)
  • The news of the flood . Caused grant
    anxiety ( has, have)
  • Time and tide for none ( wait , waits)
  • The jury divided on the issue. (was,
    were)
  • Neither my brother nor I .. Ever been to
    Mumbai (Has, have)
  • Oil and water mix. (does not, do not)
  • The crow did best to save the ship. (its,
    there)
  • Neither you nor . Lucky. (am, are)

Find Some Fun Here By Click on Downloaded file
108
Paragraph
  • Describe People
  • Describe Places
  • Describe Incidents
  • Describe Procedure

109
How to Make a Candle
  • It is very easy to make a candle. First wax is
    broken into small pieces. Then water is boiled in
    a double boiler. Now the wax is put in the Top
    container of the double boiler to melt. It is
    made to boil to 21F. Care is taken not to over
    boil it because if heated more it starts smoking.
    If one wants colored candles, color is added at
    this stage. A wick is inserted inside a mould
    which is lubricated from inside. It is made sure
    that wick does not fall inside the mould by
    placing a rod across on its top. The wick is tied
    to it. Now the Melted wax is poured into it. The
    filled mould is put into a bucket containing cold
    water. The weight is removed and the wax is left
    to harden over night. Next Day the candle is
    gently pulled out. The candle is ready.

110
My Best Friend
  • I Have many friends. But Ram is my best friend.
    He is 14 Years old. Her father is a Doctor. Her
    mother is a teacher. He belongs to a good family.
  • He gets up early in the Morning. He goes
    out for walk daily. He is an Intelligent student.
    He is a good player. He helps the poor.
  • Ram is also a good player. He is a captain
    of the Tennis team of our School. All teachers
    love him. He always Speaks the truth. He is an
    Honest and Sincere. He respect his Elders. He is
    true friend in the real sense. Everybody wants to
    be friendly with him. May he live long!

111
A visit to Zoo
  • There is a zoo in our city. I visit it last
    Sunday. I went with my parents. We bought tickets
    and went in. First of all we saw birds. There
    were many beautiful and rare kinds of birds. We
    saw parrots,Swallows,peacocks,ducks, herons,
    gulls and geese. Then we saw some wild beasts. A
    lioness and her cub were basking in the sun. We
    saw also Wolvs,tigers, elephants and rhinos. When
    we were coming back we saw a muddy Pond. There
    were many big snakes in it. I saw fearful to look
    at them. We stayed in the zoo for about three
    hours. Then we came back home.

112
A House on Fire
  • It was Sunday. I was sitting in my room with my
    friends. Suddenly, we saw clouds of smoke rising
    in the sky. There was a big fire in the next
    street. People were running to the site of fire.
    Children were shouted for help. People brought
    buckets of water. We also joined them. We Threw
    sand and water on the flames. The fire was put
    out after half an hour. It was the house of
    carpenter. The poor man suffered a big loss. All
    his wood, grain and money were gone. The house
    was reduced to ashes. He was very sad at his
    loss. People felt sorry for him. They give him
    food, clothes and some money. The poor carpenter
    thanked them with folded hands.

113
Thanking You
G.H.S Cheema Jodhpur (BARNALA)
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